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The word philosophy according to (WeCahn) was originally derived from the Greek word (philosophia) which means to love wisdom. Many ancient scholars concerned about the issues affecting the world came up with theories to solve problems in the society. Problems were either in connection with existence, values, beliefs, reason, knowledge, and language.
Historical philosophers contributed in various fields like Economics, sociology, mathematics, science, language, history, Religion, Art, music, Anthropology and Business. The contributions for example in the field of mathematics came with new formulas for handling mathematical problems. Formulas like the Area of a Trapezium, Area of a circle, and Area of cuboids have helped in creation of new schools offering mathematical subjects and this institutions produce graduates to solve mathematical problems in the sectors of education, Engineering, Economy, Art, Building and Construction etc. As a result of this many people have been employed as teachers, instructors and lecturers to teach in various institutions. The problem of unemployment has been solved due to the introduction of these subjects by scholars using the philosopher's contributions as guides (Boulder &WeCahn 56).
Philosophers of sociology came up with different definitions of various social institutions. Sociology made people to be organized into groups, clans, societies and brought up a sense of belonging to members of the society. Social institutions also create employment and provide services to members of the society. Educational institutions offering social ethics have been introduced and graduates teach the society how to observe codes of conduct either in school, church, market or in the office (Boulder &WeCahn 45).
Religion and theology emerged due to philosophers of religion who viewed God by different perspectives. These perspectives have given rise to different religious denominations and made people to make their own choices. Holy bible was translated into different languages by philosopher's .These made people understand bible in their own language and possibilities of religious brain washing minimized. In conclusion all the other philosophers who contributed to areas not discussed above arrived to similar points.
Philosophers like Socrates 469-369BC, John Locke, Aristotle 384-322BC and Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi (1746-1827) are examples who contributed to the field of educational theory (Boulder &WeCahn 103).
Socrates used to ask his learners questions and in return provide him with answers. He always taught his learners that he knew nothing even though being their teacher. Children learned through understanding generated by one. Socrates was open and a person whose style of living was non-dogmatic and he usually wanted people to express their ideas and thought .This resulted into of institutions of learning one of them being the platonic philosophy. This idea can be compared with the classrooms in different school s we have today for teaching children new knowledge. Although Socrates did not encourage people to pursue knowledge this doesn't mean he wasn't an educator. He educated, challenged, and debated those who considered themselves knowledgeable in order to promote intelligence and morality (Thomas & Nicholas 89).
Socrates theory has also been applicable in teaching and learning today. By asking his students questions this guided them to discovery. Learning according to Socrates is defined as seeking truth in some matters and should first occur after asking questions and interpreting the answers. To examine students was crucial and through this there level of knowledge was measured. Socrates believed in what today still remains the method of learning.
In parent and community involvement, Socrates Athenian society provided the best to the students. A good person was required to obey the laws of the city, honor parents and his ancestors and obey their ancient gods. In the current education system this has been integrated in that discipline is the key to success and to obey the laws in school, at home and devote oneself in prayer a child should succeed in school. According to Socrates, truth and goodness, codes of ethics and good morals are placed in the soul by the creator. It was a person's initiatives to acquire good morals seek virtues such as sympathy, honesty and self control. Socrates believed that desire for wisdom is attained by realizing ones mistakes and correct in advance. This is applicable in schools today where by a student has to acquire good or bad morals from his peers or contaminate peers with filthy behavior. Student's behavior depends on whether he respects or does not respect his consciousness (Thomas & Nicholas 76).
.Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi (1746-1827) philosophy explained that children should learn through activities and things. He argued that they should be let free to pursue own interests and come up with conclusions. He believed that in order for children to learn well they should not be provided with answers but should search answers themselves. In order to achieve they were to use powers of seeing, reasoning and judging. Today children are given research papers and provide the teacher with answers. It encourages self activity among them. Johann said that people learn by actions and the demand for actions brought up perfection. The significance to informal learners of today is that, it is wise to commit and work with the poor in the society. The school should integrate work with education so that children should pay for their own education.
Institutions of today offer study scholarships in order to help children finish their studies. Colleges offer work programs to students so as to pay school fees. Johann was a peasant and remembered how his mother cared for him .He believed that at home there were elements of human education (Boulder &WeCahn 63).
He established schools and concluded that parents should care for their children during pre-school years. In schools of today students are cared by their mothers before they go to school. In social and emotional support Johann believed that each individual possesses inner dignity and personalities of people are sacred. He argues that when one is young potentiality is inside him so it was the role of educators to make sure no external influence affect the Childs success. In schools of today students are protected and loved by their educators do not flog their students. Johann abolished flogging and kindness was dominant in his schools. Today bullying and caning of students is not allowed and through this children are free to learn without tension.
John Locke is another philosopher who believed that children at birth there mind is blank where experience is inserted. According to Locke, ideas come from experience and they are materials of knowledge (WeCahn). When comparing how Lockes philosophy is integrated in the class room today we find that as a child goes to school the mind is blank unless the teacher teaches the child different subjects. Locke argues that experience comes from sensation and reflection. Reflection reveals mental processes while sensation informs us about external world processes. In teaching and learning therefore a student uses his past experiences to analyze facts concerning a certain topic. A child when born the parents and community impact his mind with knowledge and through his personal experiences he is able to follow the values, beliefs and norms of the society where he lives.
Through interactions with the world a student learns the morals and how he should conduct himself. In conclusion Locke suggested that a pupil in any institution acquires all what is taught because is born without any idea or knowledge.
Aristotle (384-322BC) is a philosopher who recognized the balancing of both theory and practice of the subjects taught in school. His mission on education was to see the youth being educated in order to succeed in the governance of the polis (Boulder &WeCahn 120).
Aristotle developed the eight factor theory of education which is applicable today in our schools and colleges. Aristotle believed that the state was supposed to educate its citizens to attain victual's state was to establish classrooms and schools to teach the citizens and prepare them for some activities.
Aristotle argued that the state was a teacher and the same time a pupil .He believed that education should have content .According to totle teaching act, a teacher instructs students about some discipline, object, and topic. Today institutions are supported by the government and syllabuses provided to teach students.
Aristotle's society had the ruling and ruled class and government let people free and pursue the right things. Aristotle believed that in social and moral support human beings are rational the soul informs him of what is happening. Therefore emotions are controlled by the soul and socialism is achieved through interaction (Boulder &WeCahn 69).
Socrates and Johann Heinrich are two philosophers whose theories of education seemed to have a correspondence. Socrates theory of education is very practical today in that many colleges of today students are given topics to research and come up with answers. In this case they aren't taught about the particular area by their teacher and this encourages them to be self driven learners. The researches are done in school or outside the school using reference materials like books and the interne .Socrates theory is very significant today because colleges and universities have introduced libraries and equipped them with books for reference. It is through this that students tackle their questions given in school. Library catalogues were introduced as a result of Socrates belief in assigning questions (Thomas & Nicholas 56).
Cyber cafes for research have been established to facilitate quick and access to information. Through Socrates belief of asking questions instead of first informing colleges have introduced distance learning programs and students pursue their studies without traveling to schools. These us helped reduce congestion in colleges and the available facilities utilized properly. Students who wish to study at home can do that because they are provided with materials for self study and evaluation. Socrates theory of education has helped students to apply the concept self understanding to solve problems outside the class and in the place of work.
Socrates act of teaching relieve teachers their duties and produce students who can read and understand on their own .Socrates theory aligns with my beliefs and philosophy in that we used modules to study in our university .Research for the questions given has helped me understand the library catalogue and how to search books using the internet search.
Johann argues that students by using the powers of seeing and reasoning can start their own activities like playing. Activities especially the extra co curriculum helps children discover non class talents. Games and sports act as education supplement .Students specialize either in football and many football academies have been opened to teach football. World greatest footballers have succeeded in live due to the introduction of non class activities.
Johann believe is very applicable in our schools today and many sports and activities have been established. Johan's view for students to be provided with work while carrying on their studies has been very helpful today because study scholarships are offered by various institutions of learning in the world to support needy clever students. Governments also offer loans to students which may be payable or non payable. Education has been made easy and parents relieved from the burden of paying school fees for their children. Work study programs have been introduced in many colleges and universities and students earn money for upkeep while studying (Boulder &WeCahn 25).
There is a similarity belief of Socrates and Johann Heinrich in that; institutions should provide students with school fees and bursaries to enable them carry out their studies. Students should be encouraged to read on their own so as to avoid over reliance on their teacher. In conclusion these theories are applicable in our institutions today.