International Trends In Inclusive Education Education Essay

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Ferguson, states that inclusive education has been on-going since the early 1980s. She is a reliable author because she is a special education professor at the University of Oregon. Her expertise consists of concerns and techniques for inclusive education in educational institutions for learners with disabilities. On top of her teaching abilities, she is also a well-known experienced researcher. In this book, Ferguson (2008) assesses the attempts created to deal with these inclusive education concerns. She compares what is presently occurring in education today to early developments back in 1980s. The author verifies that significant improvements have been created in offering learners with disabilities with accessibility to standard education. Additionally, she took into account the main areas of inclusive education and the strategies developed to accomplish inclusion in common education. She discovered that nations around the globe are implementing inclusion to different levels and educational institutions are being pushed to create plans and methods to fulfil the needs of all learners regardless of capabilities. The author concludes that worldwide achievements in inclusive education are unbalanced, and education institutions and systems continue to lack when it comes to obtaining quality education as well as inclusion for all. The final results propose that educational institutions ought to evaluate the efficacy of their inclusion techniques for special needs learners. I found this book interesting and shall use it on my research because it tackles what is presently going on in today's institutions and inclusion as well as the history of inclusion. Presently, educational institutions are experiencing many difficulties other than inclusion such as global economy, new technology and politics. However, the most pressing challenge that remains and what educational institutions face is how to make education available everywhere and to everyone.

Forlin, C. (2010). Teacher education for inclusion: changing paradigms and innovative approaches. London, Routledge.

The main objective of this book is to educate and help prepare teachers on how arrange their classrooms to promote inclusion. The author provides some recommendations on how teachers can prepare their lessons and how they can offer learners support. The book consists of other professional contributors and concentrates on three main parts as well as providing suggestions and strategies on how to help teachers with inclusion in the classroom and schools. The book begins by talking about the social and political concerning teacher education; then moves on to talk about the innovative strategies in pre service teacher preparation and lastly talks about engaging professional learning for practising teachers. The author has published a number of books and is very knowledgeable on this particular subject. The author has a wide level of experience in inclusive and special education and she has a doctorate degree in education. The main audience for this book are teachers as it offers useful guidelines and strategies to support and help teachers. The author was not biased at all because she gives emphasis on the importance of the Education for All initiative that educational institutions must uphold in order to provide equal education to all learners.

Kalymon, K. et al. (2010) Middle school boys' perspectives on social relationships with peers with disabilities .Remedial & Special Education , 31 (4), p.300-316.

The authors of this article have come together and combined their specialities to look into the interactions between teenage boys with impairments and 'regular' adolescent boys. In their study, they carried out interviews on students without disabilities; they consisted of questions that merely concentrated on the peer relationships between them and the students in their classrooms with learning impairments. Interestingly enough, the researchers found that 'normal' adolescent boys thought that adults did not have high expectations for learners with impairments leading to hostility between the boys. In addition to this, the adolescent boys presumed that by becoming friends with those who have impairments would result in them getting taunted and them being gossiped about. I found this article fascinating as the results found will provide support for both in favour of and against inclusion argument for my research. It did however made me question my original opinion on inclusive education because young people being marginalised by their peers can lead to them developing other problems such as self-esteem issues. Also, all the other journals I looked at talked about how good inclusion is and its positive aspects, this journal however looks at the negative aspects there is to inclusion.

Kemple, K (2004). Let's be friends: Peer competence and social inclusion in early childhood programs. NY

Kemple (2004) speaks about social competence between learners with special educational needs and 'normal' students through inclusion; as well as explaining the importance and significance of social inclusion and competence. The main purpose of this book is to indicate how essential social inclusion is by promoting positive interactions between peers and learners with special educational needs. This book is mainly aimed at teachers who need help in creating strategies and managing inclusion. This is a reliable source because the author has a PhD and is a professor at University of Florida. In addition, she has published numerous books regarding Special Education; her researches mainly concentrate on how to prevent violence, peer relationships and assisting the growth of public and psychological competence at early years. I found it really helpful because it provides examples of learners who have experienced poor interactions with their classmates; and after that it offers suggestions to teachers on how to provide positive and beneficial experience for all learners. I didn't find this resource biased in anyway because it promotes positive relationships between classmates and offers ideas on how a teacher can stop or decrease negativity in classrooms. I also found this source really good because we both share the same viewpoint when it comes to inclusive education and promoting positivity in classrooms. In addition to this, she supports her theory by providing examples of real life situations.

Lindsay, G. (2007) Educational psychology and the effectiveness of inclusive education/mainstreaming. British Journal of Educational Psychology., 77 p.1-24.

Geoff Lindsay is head professor of Educational Psychology and SEN as well director of CEDAR University. He states that inclusive education is a crucial policy in numerous countries in order to enhance educational opportunities for children with disability and special educational needs. The main purpose for this paper was to review the benefits and effectiveness of inclusive education. Lindsay (2007) conducted this research by examining a range of SEN children from beginning to end of compulsory education. The study used a wide range of literature samples consisting of; qualitative and comparative studies, studies of teacher, attitudes, processes and models. All things considered, the evidence derived from this research does not provide clear validation on the benefits of inclusive education. Though 1300 studies took place, only 1% of these studies were published as only these were found 'valuable' (comparing the findings of learners with SEN in special schools and mainstream). Furthermore, evidence showed that it was marginally in favour of inclusion. Nonetheless, the author himself admits that variables such as evaluative and methodological glitches should be considered. The paper also talked about the importance of interaction and the effects it has on the pupils which was really interesting and touching. With this being said, I don't think I will be using it in my research because there were many difficulties that the writer faced and its results aren't very precise. In addition the evidence showed that it was biased and it was slightly supporting inclusion making it unreliable. Similarly, one thing that the researcher did not consider was the fact that children with SEN tend to sometimes have additional problems.

Runswick-Cole, K. (2008). Between a rock and a hard place: parents' attitudes to the inclusion of children with special educational needs in mainstream and special schools. British Journal of Special Education

The primary purpose of this article is to analyse the perspectives of parents on the inclusion of their children in mainstream education who have special educational needs and whether or not it is best for them to remain in mainstream. The author is a researcher at the Reasearch Instituon for Health and Social Change at Manchester Metropolitan University, concluding that this reliable source. She starts off by giving an outline of the Government Policy of SEN inclusion and the effects it has on parents, teachers and the general public towards education. As part of her research for her PhD Runswick-Cole (2008) conducted a study in which three volunteer groups contacted 24 parents who had children that had were special needs and got them to talk about their views on inclusion in addition, seven professionals from SENDisT were also interviewed. She concluded that parents have inconsistent and complex opinions about inclusion; some were completely for mainstream education whereas some considered special schools was the atmosphere where their children's needs would fully be met. Runswick-Cole (2007) also states that schools are aware of the advantages of inclusion yet inclusive classrooms have not really taken any drastic rise. This book was really beneficial and will certainly use it for my research because it presents both for and against arguments on inclusion for SEN learners as well as parent's views.

Thousand, J. and Villa, R. (2005) Creating an inclusive school . USA: ASCD.

Villa (2000) and Thousand (2000) have published and edited numerous books on inclusive education; this particular book is very beneficial for parents, teachers and those with any kind of impairments. The book begins to describe and explain the fundamentals of inclusion as well as providing various perspectives on the definition of inclusive education. It then moves on to a section composed by a parent whose child is in school; the parent records a conversation with his child and witnesses a child with an impairment being eliminated from the class. There is a brief history provided and the original meaning of inclusive education is provided as well as information and description of the viewpoint and reasoning for developing inclusive education institutions. Furthermore, there is a chapter that is written by an individual with an impairment which provides a significant but neglected viewpoint about learners with disabilities. There are a lot of chapters that talk about adjusting the curriculum to the requirements and needs of all learners in addition to creating alterations to inclusive educational institutions. I found it beneficial mostly because it has a chapter of questions that teachers and parents may have on developing inclusion in schools. I found this book the most interesting and will definitely use it for my research because it provides insight on parents and teachers of learners with impairments perspective on inclusive education. The book includes various fascinating sections written by teachers and parents of learners with disabilities that convey the viewpoint explained by the experts to life.

Winzer, M. (2000) The history of special education : From Isolation to Integration. Washington

In this book, Winzer (2000) presents the history of special education across the globe. He speaks about special educational needs that traces back as far as the fourth century and how special educational needs has advanced by providing views and support to what he says. Whilst looking at special education need's history, he talks about major events that have altered the way people view special needs. It reveals that individuals with special needs were looked down upon and how time has really changed because learners with special educational needs now are accepted. I found this book really helpful with my research because it provides a real insight on how badly learners with special educational needs were treated. I did not find it to be biased because it provided general information of the past on how special needs learners were treated. This book was published by a special needs university which makes it reliable as well as the author being specialised in this specific area and having written numerous other books regarding special education. It was very beneficial for me because the book provided me with a deep understanding and awareness of how far education has gotten. Having said that I don't think I will use a lot of the information from the book for my research because it mainly focuses on the history of special education so it is I will mainly be using it when I'm talking about the history for one in paragraph.

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