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Background of the Study
Multimedia is an interactive computer-based environment that provides active engagement with multi-presentations such as texts, voices, pictures and animations. Multimedia provides the opportunity to be actively engaged in real world contexts, as well as in formal and informal mathematical contexts. According to Mayer (2003), multimedia learning occurs when students build mental representations from words, pictures and voices that are presented to them. The promise of multimedia learning is that students can learn more deeply from well-designed multimedia messages consisting of words and pictures than from more traditional modes of communication involving words alone. There is a growing research base showing that students learn more deeply from well-designed multimedia presentations than from traditional learning, including improved performance on tests of problem solving transfer (Mandl & Levin, 1989; Schnotz & Kulhavy, 1994; Van Merrienboer, 1997; Najjar, 1998; Sweller, 1999; Mayer, 2001).
According to standards in the area of mathematical education, using technology is an integral part of fostering mathematics from an early age in the kindergarten (National Council of Teachers of Mathematics [NCTM], 1989). At this age children develop many mathematical concepts, at least in their intuitive beginnings, even before they reach school age. Infants spontaneously recognize and discriminate among small numbers of objects, and many preschool children possess a substantial body of informal mathematical knowledge. Being engaged in multimedia embedded with mathematics from the youngest age can provide opportunities for thinking and exploring.
Media in Education started in Nigeria around 1955, when the Nigerian broadcasting service (N.B.S) invites the head of British Broadcasting Corporation (B.B.C) schools broadcasts, Mr. Richard postgate to see to the possibility of bringing an educational radio service in Nigeria. After a while, some regional Government in Nigeria established schools. Broadcasting units, using the facilities of the Nigeria Broadcasting service stations in each regional headquarters. Take the case of 1957, when the Northern and Western Ministries of Education began to transmit some educational programmes on civics, teaching methodology, English, Geography and History via the broadcasting service stations in Kaduna and Ibadan respectively. Another introduction was in 1959, when the western regional Government put the first educational television services in the air.
Terminologies such as 'teaching aids', 'apparatus' 'audio-visual aid' and so on have been used to describe educational media at various stages of educational development in Nigeria. The need for the production and use of media in education has been stressed by the national policy on education (1981).
Section 10, sub-section 1, 5 and 10 of the policy under Educational services states as follows:
Teachers' Resource centres, where teachers will meet for decision, investigations, study, short courses and conferences, will be set up in each state/local education area. The centres will also be used for the development and testing of materials.
Audio-visual centres will be set up under the auspices of the federal and state governments and there will be close co-operation and constant consultation between the centres and all educational institution for this development and effective utilization.
Radio and television are products of the technological of designed among other thing to improve communication. They are also being used for the development and improvement of education as well as for the expansion of instructional techniques.
Where the facilities exists radio and television broadcasting will form a permanent teacher of the education system and in this regard, the Broadcasting services, the ministries of Education and other educational agencies will work closely together.
Government has already approved the expansion of the schools Broadcasting unit of the federal ministry of education into an educational technology centre. Asking a solid base to this policy on the use of media in education, the federal government in 1976 changed the former regional schools Broadcasting unit in Kaduna into a federal schools Broadcast and visual Aids Department and up-graded it in 1977 to the 'National Educational Technology Centre'. Along with the National Educational Technology Centre based in Kaduna, state governments have also established Educational Technology Centers and Local Educational Media Services centres were teachers meet to discuss new ways of ensuring effective use of media in education.
Statement of Problem
Despite the strength of education in solving societal problems, its effectiveness in imparting knowledge on its recipients depends largely on a number of factors. Such factors as noted by Adekola (2008) include the suitability of the contents for the learners, the teacher or facilitator and the media used to drive the points home. With the advancement in Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Vikoo (2003) posited that educational media have occupied more significant position in the process of passing new knowledge and information to the people. Today, teaching and learning through the use of educational media, sometimes without the presence of a teacher or facilitator, has been accepted in almost every society of the world. It is for this reason that this study examines the impact of educational media on teaching and learning of childhood education.
Purpose of the Study
The main purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of educational media by primary school teachers on teaching and learning in selected school. Specifically, the study will:
Find out the types of educational media that is available in schools for teachers use.
Find out the extent to which primary school teachers in Lagos State use educational media in their classrooms.
Identify the teachers' attitude towards the use of media in teaching in primary school.
Examine the effect of educational media on childhood educational output
What are the types of educational media that is available in schools for teachers use?
To what extent is the use of the available educational media by primary school teachers in Lagos State
What attitude does teachers' have to the use of media in teaching in primary school?
What are the effects of educational media on childhood educational output
Ho 1: There is no significant relationship between provision of educational media by government and pupils' learning process in primary school.
Ho 2: There is no significant relationship between teachers' effective use of media in the classroom teaching and pupils' learning process.
Ho 3: Using educational media in teaching does not have significant influence on pupils' learning process.
Significance of the Study
This study will provide regular and more opportunities for workshops, seminars, and other service training programmes for primary school teachers in Lagos State.
The outcome of this study will provide adequate provisions for educational media in primary school. This might be done by the Government and also encourage the inspectorate division of the Lagos State ministry of education to embark upon regular evaluation of the teachers performance.
Limitation of the Study
This study will be limited to Government owned primary school teachers in Mainland Local Government Area of Lagos State.
Definition of Terms
Education: Education could be simply defined as the development of the totality of man intellectually, morally, physically and socially.
It is also known as process of change in which one achieve social competence.
Media: This refers to all channels through which messages, information ideas and knowledge are conveyed or disseminated. It is the plural form of medium.
Review of literature was further carried out under the following headings;
The concept of early childhood education
The concept of educational media
Types of educational media
The attributes of educational media
The role of media in education
Teachers attitude to the use of media in instruction
Effect of educational media in teaching and learning in childhood education.
Challenges of using educational media in early childhood education in Nigeria
2.2 The concepts of childhood education
In discussing anything about childhood education, it is necessary for us to first identify a child. That is, who is a child?
According to the National Child Welfare Policy of 1989, a child is anybody who is 12 years or below. But this has been modified a little recently. Thus, a child in Nigeria is now considered to be anybody below the age of 18years. This appears to agree with the United Nations age definition of a child. As you may be aware the Nigerian law also regards anybody below the age of 18 years as a (minor) child. In other words, anybody below the age of 18years in Nigeria cannot vote or be voted for.
The early childhood period is generally referred to as the period from birth till about the age of five or six (Charles et al., 1978). In other words, it is the period before the official primary school age in Nigeria. It means that early childhood does not go beyond the pre-school or what is popularly called Nursery school years in Nigeria (Oduolowu, 2001).
There are different names for the various establishments that take care of children at this stage. Such names as given by Kolawole (1989) and Maduewesi (1999) include:
Daycare or playgroup: For children below the age of three. There are many of them in urban centres in Nigeria. Working mothers use them as safe places to keep their children.
Crèches: For children below three years. This establishment is usually located where the mother is working. They are usually available within the campuses of tertiary institutions, hospitals, markets or big factories. For example, there is one within the Campus of University of Ibadan and another one at the University College Hospital also in Ibadan. This is usually separated from the pre-primary and primary schools.
Nursery School: This is also known as pre-primary school establishment. This is usually for children between three and five years in Nigeria. The Nursery schools are common in urban centres as well as small towns in Nigeria. They are owned mainly by private individuals, groups and institutions.
The Kindergarten: This normally refers to the school for children between five and six years. That is, children who are about to enter the primary school. This implies that such children must have completed their nursery school education. However in Nigeria, people tend to take the kindergarten and the nursery schools to mean the same thing. Only a few schools actually separate them while many do not even operate the kindergarten. This is why many children proceed to the primary school at the age of five after completing their nursery education.
Important reason for having the nursery school for children is the fact that it provides children with very good environment for socialization (Lawal, 2001) There is no home, however wealthy that can provide the type of environment which nursery schools provide for the proper education of children. For example, no home can have as many as twenty or more children of the same age group. There is also no home that can provide the different experts in education as well as the live experiences, which the school can provide. Therefore, since children need a good environment for their proper social and emotional development, it has become necessary for parents to keep their children in the nursery schools. (Oduolowu, 2001)
As stated by Akinbote (2001), the ability of a child to realise his potentials depends on the type of stimulation and encouragement the child receives from home. However, as a result of the socio-economic problems in Nigeria for example, many parents can no longer provide their children the necessary stimulation which they need for their all round development. Therefore, in order to prevent anything that will reduce or prevent the child's rate of maturation and high level of achievement, the nursery school is necessary for the child. In the nursery school the child will receive the necessary opportunities which are not available at home.
Early childhood education is a very important aspect of the general education in any society. Even in traditional African societies, early childhood education is given proper attention. The fact now in modern societies is that because of their socio-economic engagements, parents no longer have enough time to stay at home and take care of their children (Oduolowu, 2001). This is why the various educational institutions have been established to help parents take adequate care of their children while they are away at work. Moreover, the early childhood establishments provide the type of stimulating environment, which no home, however wealthy can provide.
The Concept of Educational Media
Educational media could be seen as any person, material or even that establishes conditions which enable the learner to acquire knowledge, skills and attitudes. The teacher, the textbook and even the school environment could rightly be described as media in education.
Media could be defined further as the graphic, photographic, electronic or mechanical mean for creating, processing and re-constituting visual or verbal information.
Adewoyin (1991) describes educational media as channels through which messages, information, ideas and knowledge are conveyed\ or disseminated.
They could be tools or instruments through which stimuli can obtained or passed when these instruments are used for much purposes, they are referred to as educational media.
Educational media are those which are seen heard or talked about and the instrument which facilitate such activity. These tools are seen to be powerful channels for effective educational programme.
2.2.1 Types of Educational Media
Educational media ranges from materials to equipment and even techniques. Some of the materials and equipment are boards, chalkboards, bulletin boards, filmstrips, motion pictures television, models charts, textbooks and many more. However the availability of these materials, equipment and techniques it still requires the competence of instructional media specialists for the co-ordination and meaningful impact on the learner. Educational Media is defined as media for learning and teaching or learning software. It can also be classified as in terms of multimedia generally includes the integration of text, graphics, video, sound, etc. (Horton, 2003).
Gertach and Ely (1971) classified instructional media into eight groups.
Real Things, People, Events, objects and Demonstrations: Real things including people who are intimately associated with a process or an event provide useful and first hand information.
Verbal Representation: These include printed materials like textbooks and work books, filmstrips, chalkboard, titles on bulletin boards, transparencies, written or printed which are used to relay ideas, skills or attitudes.
Skill Pictures: This aspect of media education deals with photographs' of objects or events. Still pictures could be a copy of a real object or a record or event which might be larger or smaller than either the object or event that is represented.
Graphic Representation: These include charts, graphs, diagrams, maps, drawings or any rendering which is produced with the intention of communicating an idea, skill or attitude.
Motion Picture: Motion pictures are moving images from live actions or from graphic representations. It may be in normal motion, slow motion, time lapses or stop motion, there may be sound or silence. Motion pictures include picture on television screens, video-tape recordings, and crime projections.
Audio Recordings: There are sequence of information which could be verbal or visual, designed to elicit predetermined responses. They include textbooks, instructional programmes prepared for teaching computers.
In programmed learning, an active response is required of the learner before new information appears. The learner is informed of his success or failure immediately. This process of getting immediate knowledge of results called re-enforcement.
Simulation: This is the replication of real situations which have been designed to be as near the actual event or process as possible. Take for instance, the use of a simulated driver's position in an automobile with road conditions presented on the screen. Educational games which simulate economic or geographic conditions demand active decision making on the part of the learner. Computer, tape recordings, motion pictures, slides and objects can be for simulation.
Aroloye (1985) refers to audio-visual aids as, "Anything - equipment, materials, even words, actions and gestures which are at the disposal of the communicator aiding his instructional task".
In his writing on the role of experience in a instructional programme, he states that: "If you want children to learn skills they must practice the skills but in doing this, it is essential that the necessary items or pieces or apparatus to make this possible are provided".
2.2.2 Attributes of Educational Media
The highlights of educational media are being attributed in the following order:
Replicability: These can be reproduced they are inform of textbooks, video tapes, films, audio tapes, slides work books and transparencies. However, teachers performances can be replicated with the use of films or video tapes.
Realism: It is very essential that the learner should be provided with a realistic, meaningful and culturally relevant instruction to make their learning effective.
Time: Time is a very important element of media packages, visuals displayed in media learning packages enhance faster information processing when learners are involved in their individual studies, viewing instructional programmes. Time gained may be spent on other instructional activities such as the diagnosis of learners' problems individually, the evaluation of instructional efforts, production of more learning materials and generating new learning experiences.
Remediation and Re-enforcement: Weaker learners in various areas of the content covered by the teacher could be given learning packages that would enable them to catch up while those learners who are anxious to consolidate would have the privilege to go over the reinforcement learning packages as many times as they wish.
Self-Instruction: Elements such as programmed instruction, films, the television radio, video tapes and textbooks encourage individuals to get information, acquire skill and develop values through personal efforts.
Cornenius wrote "orbus pictus" (the world of pictures in 1685 which was the most popularly illustrated textbook ever written for children. Gerlach and Ely (1971) maintained that:
i. The Fixture Property:
This permits the capture, preservation and re-constitution of an object or event. Audio tapes, video tapes, photographic films, even video tapes are raw materials for fixing objects and events.
Once a photograph is made or a voice is recorded, the information has been 'saved' and it is then available for reproduction at any time. This property enables the record of an event to be transported through collection of photographs, tapes and films which provide instant resources for reconstitution of historical events. Events which occur only once in history can be recorded and reproduced.
ii. The Manipulative Property:
This allows the transformation of an object or event in many ways. The event can be speeded up as in the opening of a flower and which is recorded by time - tapes photograph with a motion picture camera or an event may be showed down by replaying a motion pictures film or video tape at a slower speed than that at which it was recorded.
Media can be edited for instance, an audio tape may be used to present, excepts of a speech by cutting out irrelevant portions.
iii. The Distributive Property:
This is the transportation of an event through space simultaneously presenting each of potentially millions of viewers with a virtually identical experience of the same event.
The distribution of media within the educational setting is limited to a single classroom, or to several classroom within a school, district or region.
Once a subject or event is recorded down in a film, tape or printed pages of paper, it can be reproduced in any location at any given time. The mass distribution systems such as the radio and television increase the potential number of viewers and listeners.
2.2.3 The Role of Media in Education
There is scarcely anything which media cannot do in instruction, whether in politics, religion, ideology cultural change, psychology re-orientation the media, in the hands of an instructional media specialist can exert or exercise tremendous power.
In 1991, Adewoyin early writings maintain that media increase learning effectiveness and since learners are more likely to be able to retain and recall with case, a greater percentage of what they hear, see and manipulate at the same time enhance such activities and help the teacher to engage in other school activities like guidance counseling supervision and research.
The judicious use of educational media makes learning real concrete and immediate. Media such as motion pictures and the television add rural and visual dimensions to learning and also help to broader the learners knowledge, increase his level of understanding and discourage rote learning and verbalization.
Media can also provide educational opportunity for the privileged as well as the less privileged, the urban, the rural dwellers, the physically able as well as the handicapped. They help to individualized instruction through programmed instruction and teaching machines.
Through projecting and other mechanisms complex concepts can be classified while objects and events can be magnified or reduced.
Media lead support, authority and authenticity to the teachers effort, enhance understanding of events in dramatization and in documentation of information.
Teachers Attitude to the use of Media in Instruction
A lot of reactions among teachers both in the United States and Britain arose during the introduction of media some teachers took the innovation with fears, shocks excitement and disillusionment other thought that a new era had come to solve all problems in education.
Furthermore, the innovation seemed to generate fear and uncertainty among those who thought that machines would soon replace teaching done by humans.
The status of educational media in Federal Government secondary schools in Nigeria was investigated by Asuzu (1981) and found out that:
Educators generally had a high positive attitude towards the use of media in instruction and in service training programme.
Most of the administrators and teachers expressed the willingness to attend in-service training programmes in educational technology.
There was inadequate availability of educational media equipment and materials in the schools.
Production and storage facilities were lacking in the schools.
There was no budget for educational media production and utilization in the schools.
2.6 Effective Use of Media in Education
So many studies have pointed out the effectiveness of media in instruction.
Ogunbi et al (2001) recommends that the production and use of instructional materials should be encouraged at all levels of the educational system and that educational technology should be fully used if the aims and objectives of the new National Policy on Education were to be realized.
In 1981, Asuzu called the attention of the Federal Government to the unavailability of adequate funds for the provision of equipment and materials such as textbooks, journals, magazines monographs and projectors to ensure qualitative development of our educational system.
Jean Amos Comenius in great didactic stresses the need for instructional media by saying" do not teach for learn words without the things they refer to as you do not sell, buy or transport wine without a bottle, a sword without a scabbard, a tree trunk without the active, participation of students religious bodies are be sat with cries for greater participation".
If the today student is more of a citizen of the age of electronic and non print media than he is of age of the printed word the educational techniques used in his education must makes allowances for this. Today's young person is aware that his learning experience comes from a vast number of sources. He grows up in an electrically configured world. He is used to needs more than the classified information which the printed word gives him. the bareness of our classrooms and the dryness of our lessons and the dryness of our lessons and lectures have something to do with the pressure on the school systems to expand beyond reasonable limits within short period of time. It is not the expansion itself but the at which it takes place that de-stabilizes educational technology has suffered which should not be the case".
Called from Baikie. A, Educational Technology in the eighties (1958).
He observed that if you ask many teachers today which technology products have most significance for education, the answer should be certainly uniform as they would likely say, slides, filmstrips transparencies, phonographic records, cassettes and video film. When choices have to be made, they might start from the most expensive down the scale until the meager resources available to schools were spent as if the size of the investment were a guarantee of the returns in being effectiveness as educators.
He concluded by saying that:
"True technological advancement is based on making useful things cheaper, smaller and less complex",
One of possible ways of solving educational media problems in Nigeria is to evolve effective educational media through the local production and development materials and equipment.
Obanya (2003) took a retrospective view of what he termed "the good old days" when teachers made every possible effort to provide favourable and conducive learning environments. He also recalled that the pre-independence teachers were resourceful in every respect in the school, classrooms, playground, in crafts, and even the neighborhood. He maintained that teacher actually involved children in physical exercises and that both teachers and pupils supplied the maps, the balls, the basis boys used for various games. He remarked that most of those teachers were never professionally trained yet they prepared pupils successfully for various local and overseas examinations. He described the present state of affairs saying that,
"if overall education standards have not fallen, the standard of teaching has at least fallen".
He suggested that one way of raising the standards of professional teachers would be a return to resourcefulness in teacher training and expressed the hope that,
"the day teacher trainers stop telling people how to teach but start showing by personal examples that good teaching means, that day will mark the beginning of a return of resourcefulness in our schools".
The review of literature has shown among other thing, that the use of media in education is a perquisite for effective teaching - learning process and that if teachers must justify their work in schools, they have to be resourceful in the production and uses of simple instructional media for effective learning.
The teachers in Lagos state primary schools have opportunities for enhancing his professional skills through participation in regular workshops, and seminars on modern techniques of teaching, the production and use of media in the classrooms.
Theoretical and conceptual framework
Children develop media literacy even in the absence of explicit attempts to encourage and promote it. Indeed, many researchers and media producers would argue that children today are more media literate than the children of previous generations, and indeed significantly more media literate than their own parents.
Educational media can as well be interchanged with Instructional media. Instructional media are important elements of teaching and learning activities. The term instruction according to Adekola (2008) is a deliberate arrangement of experiences within the learning space, classroom, laboratory, workshop etc aimed at helping learners to achieve desirable changes in behaviour or performance. Media according to Vikoo (2008) is used to think about Television, Satellite Communication, Computer and other sophisticated modern technologies. Attempt to precisely define instructional media generates divers opinion among scholar. For instance, Gbamanja (1991) described instructional media as:
Any device with instructional content or function that is used for teaching purposes, including books, supplementary reading materials, audio-visual and other sensory materials, scripts for radio and television instruction, programme for computer-managed sets of materials for construction and manipulation.
To Onyeozu (1997), instructional media are resource materials which help to facilitate teaching and learning. The term instructional media as described by Adekola (2008) means all available human and material resources which appeal to the learners' sense of seeing, hearing, smelling, tasting, touching or feeling and which assist to facilitate teaching and learning. Instructional media are channels of communication through which information passes for usage in educational situation in conjunction with the instructor. Going through the descriptions of instructional media, it would be observed that the understanding behind the use of instructional media is to aid learner in his learning.
Research is the process of arriving at a solution to problems through planned and systematic collection, analysis, interpretation and presentation of data (source?). The method of carrying out the research is discussed in the following sub headings:
Population of study
Sample size and sampling techniques
Validation of instrument
Procedure for data collection
Method of data analysis
3.2 Research design
This study employed survey research design. This involves the use of questionnaire in collecting information from a selected group of people.
3.3 Population of the Study
The population for this study includes teachers in Government owned Primary Schools in Lagos State.
3.4 Sample and Sampling Technique
How did you determine your sample size?
The sample for this study was drawn from teachers in Government owned Primary Schools in Mainland Local Government Area of Lagos State. A random sample of 100 teachers was randomly selected from ten (10) public Primary schools in the Area. How?
3.5 Research Instrument
The instrument for the study is self developed questionnaire with two sections A and B. section A of the teachers' questionnaire examines teacher socio economic background while, section B was sub-divided into four sub-section. Each of the sections was set of statements that seek respondent opinions about the impact of educational media in childhood education using likert scale as a measuring tool.
3.6 Validity of Research Instrument
The questionnaire was subjected to face validation. The supervisor who is an expert in the field of education research was given a sample of the questionnaire to validate. After which proper corrections and suggestions was carried out before going to field.
3.7 Administration of the Research Instrument
The copies of the questionnaires were distributed to the selected teachers in their respective schools. The researcher distributed the questionnaire and supervises the filling of the questionnaires.
3.8 Method of Data Analysis
The socio economic backgrounds of the respondent were analysed using simple statistics and the hypotheses were tested using chi-square distribution. The hypotheses were tested at 5% level of significance.
University of lagos
Faculty of education
Department early childhood
This questionnaire is designed to collect information on the effects of educational media by primary school teachers on teaching and learning in selected school. You have been selected as one of the respondents. Please, kindly respond to this questionnaire as honest as possible. All answers will be treated with absolute confidence.
teachers' bio data
Gender Male ( ) Female ( )
Age: less than 25 years ( ) 25-35years ( ) 36-45years ( ) 46-55 years ( ) 56and above ( )
Qualification: NCE ( ) OND/HND ( ) B.SC/B.A ( ) B.SC/B.A (Ed) ( ) M.SC ( ) M.ED ( )
Teaching experience: 1-5 years ( ) 10 years ( ) 15 years ( ) above 15 years ( )
What type of educational media is available in your school: Television ( ) Radio ( ) Video DVD/CD ( ) Computer ( ) others â€¦â€¦â€¦
How often do you use the available educational media in your school: Daily ( ) Twice a week ( ) Trice a week ( ) four times per week ( )
Do you like using educational media while teaching? Yes ( ) No ( )
Do educational media have effects on early childhood educational output? Yes ( ) No ( )
Please tick ( ) the option you considered to be most appropriate, using this scale; SA- strongly agree A- agree SD-strongly disagree D-disagree
Video media are available in our school
Audio visual materials are available in our school
Computers are used in teaching in our school
Government had provided all educational media needed for teaching
The provided educational media does not have effect on teaching and learning in our school
The available educational media is/are used regularly
Visual media are used regularly by teachers while teaching
Audio visual materials are used regularly in teaching and learning in our school
Effective use of educational media will increase learning process in primary school
The use of educational media increases pupils understanding and learning process.
Teachers in our school like using educational media in teaching
Teachers attitude to educational media in my school is not encouraging
Teachers in my school prefer teaching with chalk board instead of media materials
Teachers attitude to the use of educational media in my school is not encouraging
Proper use of educational media will influence pupils performance
Teaching with educational media in primary school stimulate what is been taught
Go to chapters 4 and 5. Include the references.