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Information and communication technologies provide supportive environment for teaching and learning. Yadav suggest that it necessary to understand applications of ICT which are major sources of learning achievements. It is big challenge for teacher educators because "educators must travel through a number of stages (entry, adoption, adaptation, appropriation, invention or innovation) to intense technology successfully into their classrooms and their teaching programs to change the learning environment." (Trinidad, 2003, p.100).
ICT-supported teachining startegies provide new experience, help to undestand different concepts, provide teacher educator oportunity to evaluate and stregthen professional skill in accordance with requirement of students. (Baron, & Harrari, 2005). A big challenge is to understand that "the worldviews, beliefs, and prior conceptions of students cannot be ignored but must be addressed explicitly and openly." (Smith, 2010, p.561). Discussing possibilities and challenges, Livingston, & Condie (2006) stated:
However, teachers need to recognize that e-learning is different from traditional practice, acknowledge the student's ability to manage her or his own learning, and provide a foundation in terms of skills and attitudes for future learning beyond school. A new level of training and ongoing support is needed for teachers to achieve this. Training programs must look beyond providing teachers with the technical skills required to use ICT and focus on helping them to explore how technology can transform the teaching and learning process and radically change the roles of teachers and students in the classroom.(p.157)
Integration of ICT in education and policies in Pakistan
New initiatives and commitment by government is very important to develop policy guidelines for integration ICT-enriched initiatives to achieve education objectives
(Cox, & Marshal, 2007). Teacher education in Pakistan has been neglected and there is need to launch new programs for the improvement of teacher to modernize teaching methodoloies in teacher training institutions. Institutional reforms are reuired to evaluate the existing ICT- supported policies for the betterment of educationa achivements (Pelgrum, 2001).
Study conducted by Looi, & David Hung (2004) argued that "from the various ICT efforts in the Asian context, we have observed the phenomena of diminishing traditional divides such as the digital divide due to ICT developments" (p.38) and in the same study he proposed that "a comprehensive policy for ICT in education needs to consider several key success factors: infrastructure, content and learning resources, teacher training, curriculum, and assessment and evaluation"(p.38) . Policy level descions have been taken by Government of Pakistan. Keepining in view significance and improtnace of ICT in teacher education, policy document stated;
Use ICT to show teachers ways to move away from the whole-class lecture mode towards more active, student-centered methods of learning. Teachers can utilize ICT tools in making learning an engaging, motivating experience for students. An ICT-rich environment can provide more independent and collaborative, team-based learning in which students assume greater initiative and responsibility (Ministry of Education, 2006, p.14)
UNESCO in the Education System in Pakistan:Assessment of the National Education Census survyed and highlighting facts mentioned that " vacant teaching posts and untrained teachers both affect the quality of education provided to Pakistan's youth"( Lynd ,2007, p.8).
ICTs based teaching Models
Development of ICT- supported models provide direction and enhance professional development (Gilbert, 2001). Teaching models provide academic support to teacher education because " much of the teachers' time is used in bureaucratic and managerial tasks" (Stephen, 2006, p.177)
Richards (2005) investigated importance and significance of ICT-supported teaching models for improvement of learning, learning, impacts and outcome while using ICTs in teacher education. He stated:
To more effectively harness the exciting education implication and learner-centered possibilities of ICTs, teachers need (a) new design strategies for teaching and learning which promote the applied integration of ICTs, and (b) to avoid the kind of add-on tendencies associated with still dominant assumptions about formal lesson planning and syllabus design on one hand, and are often in advertent in the use of top-down models such as instructional design and social constructivism theoryâ€¦use of practical design models (a) provide a useful focus in teacher education for encouraging teachers to become more active and innovative" designers" of ICT-supported learning the digital age, and (b) indicate the generic structure or anatomy of an effective ICT-supported learning activity. Practical activity -based learning with ICTs that provides pretexts for more effective curriculum learning and reflective practice exemplify a diagonal approach to educational design...The dialogical stage of native, critical, and applied learning represent a framework for not only linking educational content and process and also learner thinking and doing, but very transformations which exemplify and ICT literacy transition from mere competency to applied understanding, knowledge and innovation.(p.75)