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After analysis of the data collected and analysis of the findings the following are the recommendations that may be carried out at different level, for the integration of ICT tools in teaching. The recommendations cover the assessed problems as to the objectives, that is as per the availability of facilities and resources, the educator's development programme, and adoption of policies at managerial levels so as to reduce the barriers of integrating ICT tools in Teaching in that particular school.
Infrastructure: require massive investment in Computers, networking, peripherals, interactive boards, smart classroom, state of the art projection and sound system
Instructional: convert notes and handout to pedagogical support on web, use of multimedia system
Technical: technical assistance to develop pedagogical resources, repair and maintain facilities and resources
Support: in-service and out-service training and development programs for educators, online help, availability of resource persons
Management: design and adopt formal and informal policies, monitoring systems, evaluation techniques, provide incentives and motivation factors, investment policies
Student: increase familiarity with ICT tools
Together with the above the following can be thought as simple ideas by which integration can cake place slowly in the curriculum of any teacher for any subject:
The World Wide Web is probably the technology tool that is most often used by the students. The internet provides many sites that easily lend themselves to classroom integration.
Dictionary and thesaurus links are also easily accessible
Translation links are available too
Email accounts are sound means for communication and sharing of information.
Puzzle makers can be used to develop crosswords, mazes, cryptograms and other more based on curriculum vocabulary and concept
Brain boosters offer many activities that can be used to help students to develop higher level thinking skills.
Blogging provides quick and easy way for teachers and students to share work, opinions, ideas and information.
Word processors can also be used for desk top publishing to create magazines, newsletters, advertisement and flyers etc..
The drawing tools provided by most word processors can be used to create pictures and logos as well they can use the program to record "what I learnâ€¦"
Charts and graphs are natural to Spreadsheets. This application can be use to record and tally results, create game boards or patterns, calendars and timelines etc
Presentation programs are very powerful as they can be used in any situation for all sorts of research projects and can be easily adapted. Also, oral presentation can be plus to interactively present projects.
Digital cameras can be use to illustrate a variety of curricular topics, through picture slide show or short films, to which sound files can easily be integrated.
And the list is not exhaustive; however, these can be the basic elements that can be considered to start the integration of ICT tools in the class.
Until recently, the primary reasons for computers in schools have been to learn about and learn how to use the technology. Now, it's high time to shift the focus from learning about the technology to learning with the technology. That is moving from the traditional objectives of :
Basic computer operation
The office package
Writing simple programs
Use of networking capabilities such as email and the internet
Social impact of computers in society
To a more modern and innovative set of objectives which are:
Use of curriculum free programs for exploring ideas and relationships with data
Engaging in problem solving
Organisation and presentation of data
Using internet tio access information
Use curriculum specific courseware suc as educational games, [practice activities, simulations, tutorials etc
In the new strategy, the teacher uses both curriculum free and curriculum specific software that conforms in difficulty levels and content to the established curriculum.
5.2 Scope for further studies
This project is not an end in itself; it is just the starting point of many other research projects. This study was so conducted to provide a bird's eye view of the situation presently about the use of technology in schools, particularly in Keats College. The same can be replicated in different other school to have an idea of the situation in the country.
The present situation being known, thought can be directed into divergent or convergent hypotheses to the situation. Some of the topics that can be studied are:
Studies of the effectiveness of using those technologies can be studied.
As well, the effect of those technologies as per the quality of education provided.
Does the quality of delivery changes with the use of technology
Does the content presentation affect the quality of the learning process?
How technology can change the level of low achieving students
This list is not an exhaustive list many other topics can be added to it and the research of the above can be modified and rephrased so as to be more precise in the studies.
The educational technology literature indicates that although a significant start has been made, there are still serious barriers to the widespread adoption of the type of student-centred, real world, technology-rich education our modern information society requires.
Factors that hinder the technology integration are firstly, teachers that of a previous generation who grew up in a world where technology did not have great importance, usually consider the pain to be taken to learn and master the new technology as "somebody else's problem" as they are quite near to their retirement. They do not see the importance of this as they have been teaching for so long without and that with good results at the end. They just can't understand why they should change for the few remaining year that they are left with in the profession. This fear of change constitutes a major barrier.
There is also the lack of training in the basics of technology usage. Be it in-service or pre-service, training is a major factor that has to be considered. Taking single day workshops or even a class here and there will definitely not be enough for the teachers to learn how to technology integration or incorporate technology in their way of delivery, presentation of content etc. They have to be trained thoroughly for them to be able to appreciate the value and for them to overcome their functional unfitness to the subject.
The classroom context are so varied for different subject and teachers, because the way students react to those constraints are so varied that teachers must be innovative to capture their attention so that they can incorporate technology.
Motivation is another aspect that needs to be considered, for both the teacher and the student. Both of them need to be seen to benefit from this innovation else the resistance might have the upper hand. Personal productivity skills must be used as means to foster interest.
The in-house support is very important for the success for this project, massive investment are need in the material, infrastructure, training etc. this will create a conducive environment that will help to reduce the anxieties, fears and concerns about the subject. And such resistance will be seen to be reduced.
The barriers might also include:
1. Inadequate facilities and resources put at the disposition of the teachers
2. Inadequate implementation of educational technology
3. Teacher resistance to the new roles required of them by educational technology,
4. Inadequate funding, time, and support for teacher training,
5. Educational administrators who resist change
The coming to light of those barriers allows the consideration of teachers to the fact that technology changes the ways teaching is done as the teachers role grows into that of an adviser, content expert and coach, rather than the traditional content deliverer.
Ideally, Educators' professional development should not be isolated from other elements of instructional and non-instructional educational environments, such as curriculum reform, physical/technological infrastructure, examinations, and research. Simply providing professional development for Educators in the use of computers and the Internet, in a situation with outdated curricula, traditional standardized test systems, and insufficient technology access, is unlikely to produce any systemic improvements in learning. As well, the "Add-on" nature of most attempts of local changes without proper change in strategy right away from the education plan and the Action plan do enforce the weakness resulting in the integration failures.
Ensuring the success of educators to acquire the skills and knowledge they need to use technology effectively opens the door to all kinds of new educational opportunities for both Educators and students. And will only happen if the stake holders are ready for the change in investing time, required resources, incentives and political will power.
"Teachers will not and cannot be merely told what to doâ€¦
Teachers practice an art.
Moments of choice of what to do, how to do it, with whom and at what pace,
Â Â Â Â arise hundreds of times a school day, and arise differently every day
and with every group of students"
(Joseph Schwab, 1983, p. 245)