Instrumentation, variables and data collection analysis.


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This study is a quantitative research. A questionnaire is used for data collection and the Statistical Package for the Social Science (SPSS) program used for data analysis. The following variables have been set up: students' gender, students' grade of the Thai subject in previous semester; and teachers' personality and teaching techniques. Oppenheim (1966) suggests that the Likert scale can be used for knowing the theory of attitude or attitude pattern. In case of attitude, this can be measured by using rating scale. The instrumental research was a questionnaire which was designed by observing and applying from other questionnaires. After analyzing data, results of the study are described and tables are used to display research details. Additionally, interviews were conducted in order to collect qualitative information. Finally, research results will also be appropriately utilized to develop teaching techniques as well as teaching aids for the Thai subject.

3.2 Samples of the Study

The population of the study was 816 students in Matthayom suksa 3, Prapathom Witthayalai school, Nakorn Pathom. Samples of the study were 300 students in Matthayom Suksa 3, Prapathom Witthayalai school, Nakorn Pathom province in the first semester of the year 2551. All students were chosen by stratify random sampling by using the Taro Yamane's table (Suvimol Tirakanan, 2542: 155-156 cited in Sil Panpinit, 2549:135) sample group at the significance of .05. Students' ages are among 15-16 yeas old. There are 298 students who returned the questionnaires. After reviewing the responses, 274 questionnaires are completely answered; being, 152 males student and 122 females student.

3.3 Instrumentation

In this study, the instrument is students' motivation and attitude toward the Thai subject which was adapted from questionnaires and interviewing. Some part of the questionnaire was composed based on the data the researcher collected on an observation in January, 2008. This questionnaire was divided into three parts as follows:

Part 1: General information of students: gender, The Thai subject grade

Part 2: Attitude towards the Thai subject within 48 items and

open- ended six items:

2.1 Attitude towards Thai teachers (eight items, closed-end questions and one open-ended question)

2.2 Attitude towards Thai teaching method and materials (eight items, closed-end questions and one open-ended question)

2.3 Attitude towards Thai content (eight items, closed-end questions and one open-ended question)

2.4 Attitude towards the role of Thai subject in Thai society (eight items, closed-end questions and one open-ended question)

2.5 Attitude towards an importance of Thai subject on students' view (eight items, closed- end questions and one open-ended question)

2.6 Attitude towards the usefulness of Thai subject for the students' education and career (eight items, closed-end questions and one open-ended question)

Part 3: Motivation towards the Thai subject within 30 items, divided into two parts:

3.1 Intrinsic motivation (15 items, closed-end questions)

3.2 Extrinsic motivation (15 items, closed-end questions)

3.3 Open-ended questions about intrinsic/extrinsic motivation.

The questionnaire consisted of 85 items, both of closed-end and open-ended questions, measuring motivation and attitude towards the Thai subject. The questionnaire examined by the researcher's advisors for content validity and reliability Conbrach's Alpha is used at the significance .05.

For the in-depth interviewing, the researcher collected questions to interview:

- Chairat Padermrod; the principle of Prapathom Witthayalai school.

- The three out of five Thai teachers are chosen. As for the other two teachers, they do not have to teach fully because they are teaching trainers for undergraduate students who teach Thai. Among three Thai teachers, there are two 53 year-old females, and one 47 year-old male. He graduated from Srinakharinwirot University, Phitsanulok, and bachelor degree in the faculty of Social Sciences. He has started teaching since 2534 B.E. until now. As for the other two Thai teachers, they both graduated from Teacher's college, Nakorn Pathom, bachelor degree, the major of Thai. One of them has started teaching since 2519 B.E. and has worked for Prapathom Witthayalai school since 2526 until now, and another one has started teaching at the primary school, Nakorn Chaisri, and has moved to Prapathom Witthayalai school since 2538 B.E. until now.

- The questions for the administrator consisted of eight questions covering

The general information of school, the procedure of teaching and learning, problems

about teaching and learning Thai.

- The questions for the Thai teachers consisted of 16 questions covering the general information of teacher, education/work backgrounds, teaching methodology, materials used throughout setting lesson plan, and classroom research.

3.4 Variables in the Study

In this study, the researcher distributes variables into independent and dependent variables. Independent variables consist of:

3.4.1 Students' gender



3.4.2 Teachers' personality

3.4.3 Teaching techniques

3.4.4 Students' grade of the Thai subject in the previous semester.

The gender of students may affect motivation and attitude towards the Thai subject. According to Sutcharit Peanchob and Saijai Inthararumpan (2538), Aiken (2002) state that females may have higher motivation and attitude than males. In addition, Thai teachers who use an interesting media or method may affect students' motivation and attitude. Also, students' grades in the Thai subject, indicate that those who achieve higher grades may have higher motivation and attitude than students who receive lower grades.

Dependent variables consist of:

3.4.5 Motivation towards the Thai subject.

3.4.6 Attitude towards the Thai subject.

3.5 Data Collection

This study is a survey research that study in motivation and attitude towards Thai subject of students in Matthayom Suksa 3: A Case of Students in Matthayom Suksa 3 Prapathom Witthayalai School, Nakorn Pathom. The process of data collection is as follows:

3.5.1 To do the pilot study, 30 students in Matthayom Suksa 3, Princess Sirindhorn's College, Nakorn Pathom were selected. There were 15 males and 15 females. Princess Sirindhorn's College has similar background as Prapathom Witthayalai; that is, they use the same curriculums, there are secondary students both males and females who have quite similar backgrounds. Therefore, the researcher contacted the principle of Princess Sirindhorn College, Nakorn Pathom to request permission to use the questionnaires for this study by sending an official permit from Research Institute for Languages and Cultures of Asia, Mahidol University.

3.5.2 The revised questionnaire was tested with 30 students from Sirinthorn Ratjhawitthayalai School to confirm the reliability of the questionnaire.

3.5.3 The researcher analyzed the validity of the questionnaire content (.8069 for attitude test, .8335 for extrinsic motivation test, and .9699 for intrinsic motivation test, respectively) by using the coefficient formula of Conbrach's Alpha correlation (Preecha Asawadechanukorn, Sorachai Pisanbuth & Saowaroj Yaisawang, 2549).

3.5.4 After the questionnaire has been finalized, the researcher contacted the principle of Prapathom Witthayalai School, Nakorn Pathom to request permission to conduct this study by sending an official permit from Research Institute for Language and Culture of Asia, Mahidol University.

3.5.5 After the principle of Prapathom Witthayalai School, Nakorn Pathom allowed the researcher to collect data from the students in Matthayom Suksa 3, the researcher informed the proposed schedule, the data processing and objectives of this study to the teachers who teach the Thai subject so they may distribute the questionnaires.

3.5.6 Preparing the questionnaire enough copies of the sample group that was setting in the collecting of data.

3.5.7 Collecting data after class (maybe in the Thai subject class and they will receive the questionnaire in person) the researcher will allow students to have 10-15 minutes to finish the questionnaires. The researcher and the teachers will stay in classroom and teachers will administer the questionnaires. After that, the researcher will collect the questionnaires and select the questionnaires which are completely filled out for analysis in the next step.

3.6 Data Analysis

According to the purposes of this study, all the data has been rechecked for completeness and analyzed by the SPSS program devices. The results are described and illustrated on tables. Statistical devices used in this study are demonstrated as follows:

3.6.1 Percentage (%) is used to show the general data of the sample group.

Percentage of interesting data

where = numbers of interesting data

= numbers of total data

3.6.2 Means (); average value of data set, and standard deviation (S.D.); the variation of data set from the mean, it shows the dispersion of the data set. They will be used to display the motivation and attitude of the students.

Mean of a sample ()

where = mean of sample

= sum all the elements [numbers] in the distribution

= numbers of total data (population)

3.6.3 The Independent Samples T-test is used to examine the statistical significance of the motivation between male-female, attitude between male-female. If the value of 'p'≤ .05, it means there is a significantly difference between the data sets. On the contrary, if 'p' .05, this means the difference is not significant.

3.6.4 F-test by ANOVA (Analysis of variance) is used for finding the differences between the attitude and the motivation of the students which are divided by Thai grades into 3 groups. Also, multiple comparison test of Scheffé is used for examining if pairs of independent variables are significantly different. In this study, the level of significance of a test is set at 0.05. If ≤ .05. This means there is a significantly difference between the data sets. Conversely, if .05, this means the difference is not significant.

3.6.5 Analysis of data about students' motivation and attitude towards Thai subject is in two parts by using five scales as follow:

4.51 - 5.00 = Strongly agree

3.51 - 4.50 = Agree

2.51 - 3.50 = Neither agree nor disagree

1.51 - 2.50 = Disagree

1.00 - 1.50 = Strongly disagree

3.6.6 Illustration in the form of tables, bar chart, histogram, and describe details.

Once the researcher finishes collecting all data, SPSS will be used to calculate the percentage of the general data such as the numbers of valid and invalid of the sample group. After that, means and standard deviation will be used to show the motivation and attitude of the students and then T-test, F-test by One-Way ANOVA and Scheffé are the tool for hypotheses testing. After all the data is analyzed, the results of study will be shown in the chapter IV.

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