Instructors Have An Obligation

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In learning institutions, instructors have an obligation to make students understand their lessons. Many times it is not easy to achieve this on their own thus have to get aid from instructional models. Instructional models ensure that the teaching objectives are achieved at the end of the learning process. This paper examines some of the instructional design models.

Though there are different instructional design models, most possess common elements in them. Some of the common elements include; objective identification, defining content, designing instructions and presentation methods, syllabus development, evaluation and feed back (Ryder M, 2009). The major difference lies in the purpose of their design.

The ADDIE model is the earliest model developed by instructional designers .Other models are modified versions of the ADDIE model. This model contains five phases; analysis of needs, design, development of materials, implementation and evaluation. It is considered as the supreme model being dynamic and flexible. It serves as an effective guideline for training and monitoring performance (Ryder M, 2009).

Gagne"„¢s nine event instructional model focuses on participant motivation. It ensures active participation by the students. Its main focus is on the outcome of the training process. Instructors using this model are assured of satisfying student"„¢s needs and meeting the set goals and objectives (Ryder M, 2009).

Dick and Carey model emphasis on acquiring skills from the learning process. Its effectiveness is evident when learners develop new skills after training. First, it identifies goals to be met by the students. To achieve this, each component of whole process is carefully linked to each other. Trainers offer tests to determine the level of understanding for each student. This model is empirical and replicable thus ensures mastery of the concepts by the students. However it is criticized for its cumbersomeness and rigidity. (Ryder M, 2009).

The Kemp instructional design model is recognized for its holistic approach. It covers almost all factors in learning environment. It takes into consideration; learning objectives, learners characteristics, teaching activities, resources used in learning, support services and evaluation. This process is inclusive, iterative and easily revised. This model is recognized for the attention it gives on learner needs and goals. It also focuses on support and services which lacks in other educational models. Since this model is small scale, it can be used for individual lessons (Ryder M, 2009).

Rapid prototyping involves the reception formative feedback in the process of creating instructional materials. It is a technique used to manufacture scale model using computer aided design (CAD) data. This model saves time and money by discovering problems when they can be easily rectified or in time. Rapid prototyping decreases costly mistakes and decreases development time (Ryder M, 2009).


Most instructional models fall under reductionism; that is, they reinforce the desired behavior. They define objectives and develop instructional components to achieve the desired objectives. However, for effective learning, instructors should use progressive models such as the Gagne model which incorporates a collaborative learning process, with the students playing a major role.


Ryder Martin. Instructional Design models & theories .Retrieved on 14th September, 2009 from