# Instructional teaching and material development

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### ANALYZE THE LEARNERS

I am attending Ataturk Anatolian High School for school experience in this semester so, I deal with a class from this school for the characteristics of the learners. My plans will be about the topic of ‘Energy Sources' that is also my topic in previous homework. This topic is in the 9th grade level curriculum so I will consider 9-A for this assignment.

### General Characteristics

The class that I am dealing with consists of 27 students. There are 12 girls and 15 boys in the class. They are about fifteen years old. I think that although there are some small differences, most of the students have approximately the same grade levels because Ataturk Anatolian High School accepts students after an entrance examination. The degree of their knowledge of the students is nearly the same and high because all of them enter this school with high grades. In addition, I guess that each student's father and mother are highly educated. Their socioeconomic statuses are very near to each other and most of students come from almost same socioeconomic environment. Also the economic condition of students' families seems well according to the appearance of the students. Although each student is from different cities, all of them live in Ankara with their families. Therefore, I can say that there are no the geographic area factors for these students. All the students are living in Ankara and they have roughly the same socio-economic status so the cultural and ethnic differences between them are very little. Because of the factors above, that the class is near a homogeneous group can be said according to general characteristics of the students.

### Specific Entry Competencies:

Because the school accepts their students after an examination, the previous knowledge of the students is nearly the same. For the topic of energy sources, students should be able to know the definition of energy, comprehend how energy transform another form and know the conservation of energy as prerequisite objectives. In the beginning of the Energy concept, they all are introduced to the students. The level of students' knowledge is really high and there are no problems about the prerequisite objectives. Also, the students seem to be interested in this concept. The high level of reading of the students must be required for this concept and for the students in this school there is no problem about the reading.

### Learning Styles:

Because of school entrance exams, students get used to memorization and competitive learning. The students interested in computational science are only interested in solving lots of problems. They do not want to lose time with verbal concepts because they find them easy and boring. But the linguistic students do not like calculations and computations in physics lessons. Because they all are in the same class in 9th's, there can be some problems about the balance between them. They make choices between computational and linguistic science after the 9th class. The students interested in computational science do not deal with the meaning of the concepts. Because there are no numerical problems, they are not interested in this concept ‘Energy Sources' so much. Also, they got used to competitive learning. Moreover because both the linguistic students and computational science students are learning in the same class it is obvious that most of the students are capable of different learning styles. Actually, even the each student of computational science may have different learning styles. Therefore, teacher should analyze the students' learning styles and teach them according to their differences. Thus, I am planning to make them as small heterogeneous groups and make them to work on handouts that I prepared as a previous homework. If I make balanced groups, I think that the students encourage each other and they work cooperatively not competitively. Also, some charts and shapes in the handout will help students who have learning based on visual to learn easily. In addition, different factors motivate students for learning. For high school students; fun, curiosity and generally students' interests in the topic are effective as intrinsic motivator. So I am planning to ask some open-ended, real world problems to arouse curiosity about ‘Energy Sources' such as ‘how can we use solar energy in our lives?' So, of course, grades and praises are very important extrinsic motivators for students. And I will praise students when they give correct answers by some words ‘exactly, right, bravo'. Students also are affected from environments and their friends. They affect their peers' learning styles and grades. Their physical environments are also essential factor. For example, some students are affected by noise physiologically. They prefer to work in silent environment. Then, I will try to have silent environment.

### STATE OBJECTIVES

### Prerequisite objectives:

Students should be able to

- know definition of energy
- comprehend how energy transform another form
- know conservation of energy

### General Objectives:

Students will able to

- Know the groups of energy sources
- Comprehend that major energy source is sun
- Classify the energy sources as renewable and nonrenewable

### Specific Objectives:

Students will able to

- Give examples of renewable energy sources as wind, solar, geothermal, water, biomass
- Give examples of nonrenewable energy sources such as oil, nuclear, natural gas, coal
- Explain why we divide energy sources by renewable and nonrenewable ones
- Compare advantages of renewable and nonrenewable energy sources
- Compare disadvantages of renewable and nonrenewable energy sources
- State the careful usage of energy source

### Audience: 9th class students in Ataturk Anatolian High School

### Behavior: I stated prerequisite objectives according to the learner performance I assumed that they know definition of energy, comprehend how energy transform another form and know conservation of energy. Also, I stated my specific objectives according to students' observable behaviors for example I expect from students to give examples of renewable energy sources. In addition to these I expect students to use their real world interpretation in my last specific objective.

### Conditions: There is no need to use some equipment in class or labs because the subject is very conceptual then only I use media to teach concepts.

### Degree: For example I expect from students 5 examples and 4 examples for renewable and nonrenewable energy sources, respectively. But I will not put some restrictions such as time or proportion.

### SELECT METHOD, MEDIA & MATERIALS

### Method:

I want students to think creatively and critically. I will make a student-centered lesson so I am planning to use mostly inquiry learning method. With this method, students can investigate the concepts for deep learning and their high level thinking skills are also developed. I want to teach Energy Sources showing that they are really familiar to this topic and they are already know Energy Sources from daily life experiences. Therefore, I choose the inquiry method. I will give brief definition of renewable and non renewable energies then I will ask students to find the samples of renewable and nonrenewable energies. I will expect from students to consider about the daily life experiences and their explanations about these examples. And I will want students to think critically about the advantages and disadvantages of the energy sources and ask students to evaluate them. In addition, I will use group work and I will distribute handouts about the usage of energy economically and I will expect from the students to work on it as a group.

### Media:

In order to draw students' attention I am planning to use PowerPoint presentation as addition to using the blackboard. Therefore, I will use computer, projector and blackboard during my lesson. I will show some videos about the energy and some pictures about the energy sources then it helps students think about the concepts and also it helps me to apply inquiry method because after I show some pictures I will ask some questions to the students about the pictures then they will attend to lesson actively.

### Materials:

To show the figures and some photos, I will use power point presentation. It is also good for time management since drawing the figures on the board takes too much time. For active involvement of students and making easier for students to follow the lesson, I will also use a handout that I have prepared for first homework. I will give a handout to each student before starting the lesson. I designed this handout by thinking objectives and time.

### UTILIZE METHOD, MEDIA & MATERIALS

### Preview the Materials:

Before using the media and materials, I will check them if I forget something or I want to add something. So, I will check the materials and my power point presentation to correct the missing or wrong points before the lesson. Also I will check the handouts if there are any spelling mistakes, missing points and the formulas then they should be corrected before printing. After printing out, it will also be controlled to prevent any mistaken results from printer.

### Prepare the Materials:

After previewing, I will prepare the use of these materials in the class. I will check computer and projector because if one of them has a problem, we will not use the PowerPoint presentation. Also, I will download the PowerPoint to the computer and check the slide show.

Moreover, I will control the handouts and count them whether there is enough number of handouts for each student or not.

### Prepare the Environment:

To fit the media and materials to the environment of class is so important for an affective lesson. Knowing the conditions of the classroom is essential before preparing the materials. Because I can face some problems because of the environment conditions for example it is possible that I have to regulate the classroom and the sequence of students' desks according to my media and materials to be sure that all students can see the board and the slides.

### Prepare the Learners:

I will start the lesson an interesting example from daily life or an interesting question to attract students' attention and prepare them for the new topic. For example, I am planning to start my topic by asking these questions; can we observe the energy in our lives? Do you know where the energy comes from? Also, I will state the objectives of that lesson to the students, I will explain them how the lesson will go like.

### Provide the Learning Experience:

At the beginning of the lesson, I will state the objectives first. After I briefly summarize the topic of the previous lesson, I will pass the today's subject. Because I will use inquiry learning method in my lesson, I will behave as a guide not as a teacher. I encourage them to participate to the lesson by asking questions. I will ask them for telling their experiences and I will also talk about interesting examples. By this way, I will try to provide students' creative thinking. The actively students involvement is very important for an effective lesson. I will try to attract their attention by questions and helps of media I use. Being aware of students' feelings to the lesson helps the teacher to modify the lesson according to students' interests. In addition, misconceptions and the missing points of the students are crucial parts for the lesson. Thus, I will try to form a flexible and productive environment for students to welcome their all questions in the lesson. Then I will distribute handouts to students for group working and I will create a discussion about the concept. And group members will talk about the concept.

### REQUIRE LEARNER PARTICIPATION

Learner participation is an essential point of this lesson because I use the inquiry method which is based on students' discussion. I will ask many open-ended and real world questions as I said before and I will expect students to answer them. Also, to provide an effective involvement of each student I will create some small heterogeneous groups for working on handouts. To create an effective environment, I must create the groups such that each member of the group will work. Also, these handouts help them to follow the power point presentation I will frequently ask questions to provide their participation and request them for asking the missing points. Through the lecture, the class discussion takes place to improve students' critical thinking ability. Then at the end of the lesson I will ask students for summarizing the lesson.

### EVALUATE AND REVISE

### Evaluate Student Performance:

I will use mainly questioning and observation evaluation technique. Because I use the inquiry method, I can observe students easily and evaluate them according to their willingness to take place in the class discussions, their questions and answers, critical and creative thinking skills and careful listening to the lesson through the lesson. After the lesson I will evaluate them by using some assessment techniques such as homework, quizzes and essays.

### Evaluate Media Components:

I think power point and handouts are effective as media components. And if the media components draw the students' attention and help them to learn easily then we can say that the media components are effective. Moreover, if there is no problems occur during the lesson in the media components, it means that this component can be used again. However, if there are some problems about computer and projector, we cannot use the power point presentation and these problems should be solved before the usage of them again. In addition, I hope that both of the components will be available for 9th grade students according to their interests and levels of learning. These components can attract students' attention during the lesson.

### Evaluate Instructor's Performance:

If the instructor's performance is good then students will do the experiments willingly, they listen to the lecture by paying attention, and at the end of the lesson if the groups discuss their work and observation fully and all objectives will be got by the students. Then it means the instructor is so successful. In other words, for evaluation of instructor's performance students' performance and the effectiveness of lesson plan and materials that prepared by the teacher will be considered. They will show the effectiveness of the teacher. I will also go over the method used in the lesson before deciding performance. I will also ask the students to learn the effectiveness of the lesson from them. The lesson, students' achievement and effectiveness of materials are showing the teacher's performance. And if students were successful on quizzes and they made their homework successfully then I think that my performance was high in this lesson.

### ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF THE ASSURE MODEL IN LESSON PLANNING

### Advantages:

- The ASSURE model provides a planning framework suitable for dealing with the media and technology in the teaching and learning environment.
- This model incorporates the most important parts of the instructional planning due to requirements of each step
- All steps are needed to avoid time consuming in class
- This model encourages the teachers for forming an effective and organized lesson because all the steps are explained in detail
- This method helps you to avoid the bad surprises that can be faced with during the lesson which will cause disturbance in the lesson.
- The learner participation that is part of this model provides an effective learning.

### Disadvantages:

- This method requires too much time during the preparation of lesson plan
- This method is not economic because sufficient money is required for cost of supplies
- The method is basically based on the media and materials so it is difficult to provide effective materials all the time.
- The using of these materials will be problem for both students and teachers.

### Reflection

This homework was very useful for me because I realized many things that I was not aware of before for example I have never thought that general characteristics of students are important to have effective learning environment and I learned that stating objectives is very important step and must be considered according to audience, behavior, conditions and degree. Also, I learned that it is important to use media and materials to do an effective lesson but it is important to both choose and utilize them. Before this homework I made many lesson plans but it is more detailed and has many media and tools then it encouraged me to use more media and materials in my lessons. But, because it is so detailed it took so much time and this was the biggest disadvantage for me. But I think, this helps us to make lesson plan easily in future and this homework is ideal in this way.