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The use of Information and Communication Technologies or (ICT) in academic field is a major point of discussion. Where educators and educational researchers are continuously working for innovative ways of using these technologies to support and enhance student outcomes in education.
Use of ICT in education and teaching provide number of benefits, but 2 avail the facilities of ICT teachers need to have certain level of confidence. They should be prepared to use ICT in teaching and also trained in how to integrate ICT with teaching.
The main moto of this paper is to shows the gap between the ICT curriculum used in various universities to train teachers with what is expected from the international standards, national ICT in education policy and the development of the field of ICT itself.
This paper also serves those of the challenges and issues faced by
teacher educators in preparing and using ICT training curriculum for the next generation of teachers in the face of rising globalization.
The use of technology in education is not only expected as a means of enhanced and extended instructional methods, but also the learning process in this century. The right and appropriate use of ICT in the field of academic provides both teachers and students various learning opportunities and with that improves their teaching and learning process. Teachers through out the world should learn how to use and teach by incorporating modern technologies in their instructions. It is also essential that teacher education institutions develop plans and strategies to train teachers, and to be well-prepared with ICT skills and competencies to cope with the influx of changes, as this initial training will determine the ways they use it in their teaching-learning activities at the school and Classrooms.
ICT plan in primary and secondary education
The Government has introduced various initiatives to facilitate the greater adoption and diffusion of ICT to improve capacities in every field of business, industry, education, and life in general. Which includes:
enhancement of education and training programmes,
provision of an environment conducive to the development of ICT,
provision of incentives for computerization and automation
creation of venture capital funds.
In order to bring in this transformation in the country's target of ICT mater plan, there it was introduced the concept of ICT-enabled Smart School. With the following objectives.
to reduce the digital divide that exists in the different parts of the country by providing computer laboratories to thousands of schools.
training of teachers, school administrators and other school staff.
Innovative projects like the use of electronic books and e-learning are also being piloted to ensure their feasibility before any roll-out to all the schools in the country.
ICT and academy
ICT when introduced in the field of education will bring along a new era of learning with more effective organizational structures in schools, stronger links between schools and society, and the empowerment of disenfranchised learners. The concept of ICT in education, includes systems that enable information gathering, management, manipulation, access, and communication in various forms.
Integration of ICT in teacher education is influenced in
large part by two sets of factors: national policy and
resources, and policies relating to curriculum
The three main policies for ICT in education.
The first principle is that technology should be infused
into the entire teacher education programme. This
principle means that ICT should not be restricted to a
single course but needs to permeate all courses in the
The second principle advanced by SITE is that
technology should be introduced in context. According
to this principle, particular ICT applications like word
processing, databases, spreadsheets and
telecommunications should not be taught as separate
topics but rather encountered as the need arises in all
courses of the teacher education programme.
The third of the key principles is that students should
experience innovative technology-supported learning
environments in their teacher education programme.
This last principle requires that students should see
their lecturers engaging in technology to present their
subjects, for example, utilizing PowerPoint or
simulations in lectures and demonstrations. Students
should also have the opportunity to use such
applications in practical classes, seminars and
various Government Agencies and their ICT outlets
The Smart School
the development of Smart Schools involves An Outline Perspective Plan of
1. Develop a quality workforce that is
knowledgeable with highly tuned thinking skills,
is able to use technology and new resources
optimally to combine creativity and innovation
effectively and has a diversity of skills and
knowledge in the use of ICT.
Educate students so they are knowledgeable
and ICT literate and able to use technology for
the betterment of themselves, their communities
and their nation.
The Pilot Project is trial-testing the Smart School Integrated Solution, which will involve
the following main components:
Browser-based Teaching-Learning Materials (and related print materials) for Hindi, English Language, Science and Mathematics
A computerized Smart School Management System
A Smart School Technology Infrastructure involving the use of IT and non-IT equipment, Local Area Networks for the pilot schools, and also a virtual private network that connects all the pilot schools
Support services in the form of a centralized Help Desk, and service centres throughout the country to provide maintenance and support
Specialized services such as systems integration, project management, business process reengineering, and change management.
ICT training in primary education
For the successful implementation of any project training is must. Selected master trainers undergo training, and they pass on this training to selected trainers, who in turn, train their colleagues at school, district, or state level. Various agencies should be deployed to conduct training to the teacher's, heads of schools and other school administrators. Orientation courses should also be conducted. In addition to this specialized short-term courses should also be conducted. Also in-service training can be done to train the teacher's and should disseminate the necessary knowledge and skills to their colleagues back in their schools or colleges.
The Computer technology in Schools
Implementing computerization programme in schools can be done in three stages. And for that purpose guidelines should be issued to the schools involved in the computerization programme to help them prepare for upgrading to Smart School status.
The first stage of the computerization programme, a pilot project, is to be carried out in phases in selected states. A computer laboratory will be built for each of these schools. All the laboratories will be handed over and these laboratories will be fully utilized by
the schools concerned.
The second stage, that will be referred to as Phase I, will then be started in which 50% of the remaining schools the buildings to be completed and handed over.
The third stage, Phase II, the remaining 50% of the buildings will be completed and handed over.
Barriers to Implementing ICT in Schools
following barriers to implementing information
technology programmes in schools were reported:
1Physical barriers such as remoteness and an
unreliable electricity supply,
2Scarcity of funds,
3Lack of staff development,
4Insufficient and inappropriate software, and
5.Speed of technological development
The concept- Electronic Book
the use of the electronic book or e-book can also introduced and projected. The prime object is to see how the device stores electronic textbooks and links the user to the internet can be used to improve teaching and learning in the classroom. The aim is to replace conventional textbooks by the e-books and thereby eliminate heavy school-bags.
The pilot project can be conducted in selected schools for a period of five months. This can improve computer and technology knowledge, as well as engage students in reading and learning.
Another project that involves the creation of web presence, web tools that promote collaboration, and web-based services to the community to obtain sought-after information. Components of services delivered include e-mail, web hosting, electronic discussion and the creation of searchable databases.
Project milestones include compilation of current content to be migrated to the E-Learning Website, which will be developed to host homepages for at least 100 schools. Teachers also will be trained in web page development.
Non-Governmental Agencies and ICT
The project aims to set up computer laboratories in more than 100 selected primary schools throughout the country, for the purpose of ensuring ICT literacy of school staff and students. The project also involves the use of selected courseware for classroom pedagogy.
Private Smart Schools
The Smart School concept is no longer considered a fashionable luxury but the only
way forward. This is evident in the adoption and adaptation of the concept by at least some private schools. These schools have incorporated multimedia technology and worldwide networking, in addition to using ICT as part of the teaching-learning environment and as a subject proper.
We need to be committed to utilizing the following multi-prong strategies to ensure that the objectives of ICT in education are achieved.
The preparation of sufficient and up-to-date tested ICT infrastructure and
equipment to all educational institutions
The roll-out of ICT curriculum and assessment and the emphasis of integration of ICT in teaching and learning
The upgrading of ICT knowledge and skills in students and teachers
Increased use of ICT in educational management
The upgrading of the maintenance and management of ICT equipment in all educational institutions
Introducing ICT into all schools in the country is a major undertaking, but it represents an investment in the future productivity of India's workforce and a down-payment on the country's future prosperity. It will require a major commitment of resources, but the country will benefit from the change for many years to come. Success will require support from many stakeholders, including all agencies in the educational system and sufficient funds to establish and maintain ICT in the schools. In addition, policies, norms, and guidelines will have to be established to promote the use of ICT in schools. Lastly, continuing professional development for teachers, school heads, and other educational personnel must be instituted.