Information systems in education

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This article discusses the reason why people resist information system which is based on three theories. These theories are presented and contrasted with the underlying assumptions about information system, organizations and resistance after that evaluating by using logic and data of single case .to find recommendations for implementers.

In this article, the writer shows us very interesting viewpoints and theories which illustrate the resistance to information systems she based her viewpoints and studies on the previous researches she also explains three different viewpoints as basic reasons which led people in an organization to resist using information systems. The three theories divided to first are people-determined, system-determined, and interaction between the two (people, system) these theories are considered as the main causes of resistance. People-determined theory predicts rejection of all systems in a setting in which one system is resisted. People with strong -minded against these theory concentrate on the internal factors of people and group such as cognitive method and human nature upon all of that we can see that some people may still resist all change and others may accept it In both way (accept or reject) system depends on its design feature also system-determined theories emphasize on the system factors for instance poor designed, lack of knowledge while using systems by users however the writer focus on stresses how it can work together with the system and context of use. The third one says that resist to system come due to an interaction between the characteristics of (people, system) moreover; she introduces two kinds of the relations one is socio-technical variance and political variance. The first one concern on create organizational change that cause the resistance and the second one focuses on the power relationship of intra-organizational again on the writer perspective there are two faces of resistance one from rational theory and non-rational theory.

The rational theories point to people who use information systems to share and to achieve the objectives in contrast, the non-rational theory shows that different group have different idea about information system they also have different objective about improvements in their work or system for example to support their organization in other word people who resist the change (information system) have different reason.

From what I understand in this article we have to consider the interaction between people and system factors and non-rational factors as well as rational factors and we can see that people and system-determined factors respectively furthermore, the problem caused by both considering rational factors of costs and benefits and by investigating non-rational factors for example the power and politics.

The writer brings in a case study about the use of Financial Information System (FIS) in the Golden Triangle Company in 1975 in this case study, interviews took place with different people which shows that some data collected from documentary evidence such as Organizational chart, annual report, correspondence about the FIS in the company from 1964 to 1979.

The results of this case study found that most workers of the company complained about the use of FIS and that for different reasons first it was common system for all company accountants second; it was adopted because of its typical cost, efficiency and Standardization of financial data. Before the implementation of FIS in the company, all divisions had their own ways of keeping accounts. There were many distribution with accountants who provide information for corporate and accountants who create reports for strategic decision-making. All of these results were the basic reasons that led people to resist about the use of FIS. When I make the analysis about the FIS I found that no explanation was given by people or system determined theories. Interaction theory explains why last two theories failed. Division accountants lost their power.  Organizational problem should have been fixed before introduction of the system. Finally, Interaction theory is useful. It can predict and explain resistance but it cannot give any universal advice how to deal with resistance moreover, there is another kind of resistance that is top management which support user involve in the resistance for example technically sound systems are less likely to be resisted.  People resist systems that are not user friendly.  People resist change in general.

There are some critiques points that were directed to Lynne Markus.   The information system that was used was an old fashion. There was no concrete system. Personal biases could creep in to cloud judgment. If there was no use of information system, there wouldn't be resistance to the system. The case study that Lynne Markus used only supports interaction theory. The author actually states: “the limited data of a single case. There were a lot of emphasis on Power and politics instead of resistance and the appendix describes the political variation of the interaction theory.