Integration of information and communication technology (ICT) tools has been at the forefront of the education sector and has had a profound effect on the way on teachers and learners. The Success of student learning with the help ICT will depend largely on the attitudes of educators and their willingness to embrace the technology. (Teo 2006). Teachers are the central forces in tapping the learning opportunities with the aid information communication technology.
Technology enables teachers to individualise instruction, allows students to learn and develop at their own pace (Peck and Domcott1994). ICT can improve learning outcomes, even in traditional rote learning exercises and innovative in the development of pedagogy-ICT integration. Changes may be introduced in both teaching-learning methods. Students can enjoy learning actively, such as by bringing the outside world into the classroom or by interacting with peers, experts and online aids. Furthermore, the students will have the opportunity to learn new skills, such as locating appropriate information, making informed choices by learning to recognise the authenticity of sources, and collaborating with other learners.
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Five important reasons for teachers to use technology in education: motivation, distinctive instructional abilities, higher productivity of teachers, essential skills for the information age, support for new teaching techniques (Roblyer and Edwards 2000). Moreover it promotes to social and economic interests, such as reducing the costs of education and preparing students for work and for living in a society permeated with technology. Many countries make use of computer technology in schools by implementing computer laboratories and embedding actual classrooms with digital technologies to assist and support current classroom learning.
Teachers' beliefs motivate students and enhance their self- esteem as well as influence decisions about computer use. - (Blumefeld 1992). One of these factors is teachers' attitudes towards the use of technology in teaching and learning process. Research shows that the success of technology use in the educational settings largely depends on teachers attitudes toward technology use (Albirini, 2006, Baylor & Ritchie, 2002). Teachers' attitudes are considered as a major predictor of the use of new technologies in the educational field (Albirini, 2006). Thus, their attitudes toward computer can play an important role in the acceptance of computers. Thus, an attitude plays an important role in determining people reactions to situations. A review of the psychological literature reveals diverse definitions of attitudes. Much of the research on barriers also considers what factors enable or encourage people to use Ict. It is important to recognise that a number of factors have been identified which encourage and enable teachers to integrate ICT into their teaching.
ICT can offer teachers, whatever their context is: scaffolding tools to support their own construction and understanding of new academic and professional knowledge; environments and contexts for learning, enabling teachers to experience new situations, activities, problems and solutions; communicative tools facilitating unique social participation structures between teachers; meta -cognitive tools enabling teachers to reflect on the learning process itself, both at individual and group individual (Leech, Moon & Power,2002).Thus, it can be concluded that the attitude related to the usage frequency of technology and usage amount of the technology.
BARRIERS FOR TEACHERS' ICT INTEGRATION
There are many elements identified as obstacles in the way of introducing ICT in schools. Pelgrum (2001) presents a list of ten such issues that educational practitioners perceive as serious impediments for realising their ICT related goals. The three major ones: (1) insufficient number of computers, (2) teachers' lack of knowledge/skills, and (3) difficult to integrate in instruction. Ely (1993) similarly distinguishes as major conditions, relevant to ICT implementation, the following: (1) dissatisfaction with the status quo, (2) existence of knowledge and skills, and (3) availability of resources.
External and Internal barriers
Many authors categorise barriers as external (first order) or internal (second order). First-order barriers include lack of equipment, unreliability, lack of technical support; second-order barriers include both school-level factors such as organisational culture and teacher-level factors such as beliefs about teaching and technology, and openness to change (Snoeyink & Ertmer 2001). A lack of equipment is the highest rated barrier internationally (Pelgrum 2001), often cited even in well-resourced countries. Indeed, one study (Guha 2000) found that teachers who used technology most were more likely to complain about a lack of equipment. It would appear therefore this is less a barrier to the introduction of technology than to its use in creative and innovative ways.
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Older teachers seem to be reluctant towards the incorporation of ICT in schools, while student teachers and some newly qualified teachers are the most confident users of ICT( Galanouli & McNair 2001). Underlying these anxieties are fear of embarrassment when using computers (Russell & Bradley 1997) and fear of losing professional status through a downgrading of traditional pedagogical skills (Fabry & Higgs 1997).
It seems that teachers' attitudes regarding ICT use in schools not only pose difficulties in the use of technology but also cancel the learning benefits expected to spring from the instructional reform. Teachers are characterised as being 'technophobic' about using ICT (Rosen & Weil 2002)
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T. Teo, C.B. Lee, C.S. Chai (2006) Understanding pre-service teachers' computer attitudes: applying and extending the technology acceptance modelLearning Sciences & Technologies Academic Group, National Institute of Education, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore.
Peck& Domcott (1994) http://www.ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/ies/article/viewFile/5891/4664
Leach, Jenny; Moon, Bob and Power, Tom (2002). Building teachers' professional knowledge through ICT: experience and analysis across the digital divide. In: European Conference on Educational Research, September 11-14 2002, School of Psychology and Educational Sciences, University of Lisbon, Lisbon, Portugal.
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Michelle M. Weil, Larry D. Rosen(2002) The etiology of computerphobia California State University, Dominguez Hills, USA