Information and Communication Systems and impact on education

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In 1988 the United Kingdom approved the "Education Reform Act" to form the National Curriculum, in which Information Technology were included. In national curriculum revised in September 2000, the courses were changed to Information & Communication System, stressed the importance of ICS in the development of personal abilities of learners and training learners to participate in the competitiveness of the community. Thus the integration of ICS and education reform has become an important trend around the world. In this paper, it discussed the changes ICS taken to education on teaching and learning. At the same time, it puts forward some measures to adapt to the new changes for teaching and learning.

Background

In the early human era, people can only communicate by means of oral language or body language, and educational activities of human beings mostly focus on surviving education. As information communication technology development and popularity of the Internet, means of education have a new breakthrough, and education has performed remote and multi-media trend. People can access varies of information resources needed effectively and rapidly, which have a great role in promoting to enrich the content of education and flexible teaching methods, to take use of rich teaching resources, to improve teaching effect and the quality of education (Michael Klebl,2006). Now, online degree programs that are provided by some developed countries are common. A growing number of governments and organizations have put forward on the agenda to establish sub-regional, regional and international virtual university to provide virtual courses (Rob Koper, Bas Giesbers, Peter van Rosmalen, etc al. 2005). Asia-Pacific Distance and Multimedia Education Committee established by 10 countries and 16 universities is planning to provide virtual courses cooperation. The World Bank has commissioned the American Education Research Institute to complete a feasibility study on distance education. All of these are the changes taken by the ICS to the education contents; the means of delivery, the range of benefit and co-project owners.

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The modern information technology and system has its advanced features on the exchange of information as integrating controlling, non-linear network, intelligent interactive, beyond realistic virtual feature and the global network to achieve a wide range of communication (Dalziel, J. R, 2003). Information and communication system and technology made more challenges to education than ever, while provided models and methods for education to address these challenges, providing the possibility of change for the education. The real roles of e-Learning based on this is to take use of making educational environment, educational content and learning tools digital to make the information technology to be teaching aids for teachers and learning tools for students.

ICS does not make teachers become redundant, but will enable the profession to redefine their future role (Koper, Rob, 2001). Many studies have shown that in order to take use of ICS effectively, teachers will have full of confidence and mastery of technology, and they must clear reasons for using this technology and are sure to achieve its benefits.

The needs of major changes on education focus and the process have made the expectations to teachers higher, especially in using ICS in the teaching and learning process. Whether these radical changes are in the local area or across the country, teachers are very difficult to adapt fast enough. Therefore, teachers are an important aspect in the designing and implementation to decide to achieve the returns from ICS investment. It has become a long-term key issue to effectively strengthen innovation of teacher recruitment, training and career development (D. Griffiths, J. Blat, 2005).

Information and Communication System (ICS) will change the teaching experience of learners and educators. The ICS in Education will mean to create new, dynamic and interactive discussion space for learning and teaching. Internet improves and expands opportunities for access capacity to information (Koper, R.,&Olivier, B, 2004), so that teachers and learners can communicate and collaborate in the classroom, school, and university or outside, which has marked a significant development of educational opportunities.

For example, in the electronic age, the teachers use electronic presentation, and electronic texts become an important element in teaching and learning activities. The use of ICS can more easily deal with the traditional text materials to be transferred into electronic text materials, which had a revolutionary impact on teaching (Ryan, A. W. 1991). Electronic text have many characteristics, the most important are three points:

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(1) It can help achieve paperless teaching to take use of a computer to present the text.

(2) It will be influenced mostly by environmental aspects, environment impact the length of the text, writing style and information content.

(3) It may copy and modify at any time, and change the traditional relationship between reading and writing.

The emergence of electronic texts has brought the gospel for teachers to prepare teaching materials, it changed the situation that traditional text has more difficulties to be accessed and in low utilization rate. and it help teachers make use of existing teaching results, avoid duplication of effort, and shorten the teaching cycle, in order to save a great deal of time and expenses (R. Koper and C. Tattersall, 2005). At the same time, teachers take the initiative to exchange the identity in the class under the guidance of advanced education and teaching concept from the user of resources to upgrade to the builders of resources, taking use of ICS tools for the production of electronic teaching and learning materials to serve teaching in the classroom. An electronic copy can open up the idea of teachers, actively promote invention and innovation by the teachers, and promote co-operative teaching to achieve continuous development of teaching.

The second ICS in lesson is Multimedia text. Today, the traditional text can no longer meet the needs of students, students need to audio, video and other multimedia to stimulate their learning willing (Sandy Britain. 2004). It can help students learn better to take use of multimedia materials to interpret the teaching content. With the development of electronic media, there are more and more forms of media, which the text contains a variety of media elements referred to as "multi-media version." Multimedia texts have many advantages and play its deepening role on teaching:

(1) Multimedia text can help students self-learning or group learning. One of the merits of multi-media text is interactive, students choose teaching materials, assisted learning; choose partners, have the exchange of learning. Multimedia Text increases the interaction between self-study.

(2) Multi-media text has changed the linear sequence of teaching in the classroom; classroom teaching changed its way into a hyperlink. For example, students cannot understand some materials; teachers can play video materials related to background knowledge to introduce it, increasing students' perceptual knowledge for the item, and enhancing the effectiveness of teaching.

(3) Multi-media texts can promote the students to take their initiative construction of ideas. The knowledge students have, interests and hobbies, learning desires, and multi-media elements are woven together, mutual influenced, and have been interacted, which jointly promote students take the initiative to the construction of their ideas. This form of classroom interaction is a deeper interaction, changing the meaning of traditional teaching (Gilbert Paquette, Michel Leonard, ect. 2006).

Conclusion

Network technology and multimedia technology break the geographical and time constraints, teaching and learning are all open. On the one hand, education must understand the characteristics and requirements of learners and pay attention to mutual cooperation. The authority of teachers has not been based on the backwardness of information of students. This requires teachers should have the sense of innovation and creative spirit. On the other hand, learners have good self-learning ability and absorption ability to digest and reflect on knowledge, putting into knowledge with a positive attitude, in order to develop and promote ways of thinking and the creative capacity. Similarly, Higher Education Management calls for new management and leadership styles. With the application of information technology development, standards to judge the merits of a school's are in much of changes. It has become a standard to measure the level of the school if they have a good information technology infrastructure and teaching methods supported by high technology.