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Developing countries today face many challenging task in order to develop the countries, so that it will be stand on its own as a strong country, same as other strong country like in American and European. One of the challenges tasks that they are facing right now is preparing their societies and governments for globalisation and the information and communication revolution. Through the globalisation process, our world now comes up with a new global economy, which is "powered by technology, fueled by information and driven by knowledge". This new global economy brings a great impact on our environment and of course on the purpose of our educational system also. The process of learning especially in higher education should require a major overhaul from the lecturing method to something more interesting and interactive. This is what ICT stands for. ICTs stand for information and communication technologies and are defined, for the purposes of this primer, as a "diverse set of technological tools and resources which are capable to communicate, create, disseminate, store and manage information." According to Heinich (1996), ICT was formed in year 1950 which combined various types of static media and moved media that create a learning program formally and non-formally. These technologies include computers, the Internet, broadcasting technologies like radio and television, and also telephone, which all of them can be used by most of the people in the world. As long as the people know how to use it, they can benefit it to do something beneficial in their daily life.
There are many factors which influence the students' academic achievement. According to Mickelson's (1990) study, it shows that the academic achievement of the students mostly related to the family background and social class. This shows that students who are come from well and rich family have a more chance to succeed in their life, compared to those who are poor and lack of social class in their life. This is because the people from a rich family can easily get anything they want. If they do not understand about the lesson in the school, they can have a tutor at home to teach them. But, the poor students of course are not able to do that because they could not afford to pay the tutor. This is why ICT is very important to the students. I believe that most of the students in the world today are already know how to use the computer and other devices that will help them in studies, except for the students that live in the rural area, which still lack of basic needed.
The Pew Internet & American Life Project (2002) also has been carried out in American country out research where basically a profile of the American university students is made, like users of the network for academic and socialization aims of. The objective of this project is to research on the impact of Internet in the daily life of the North American university students and also to determine the repercussion of these usages on its academic and socialization routines of. Questionnaires to the students in a wide rank of higher education institutions were randomly distributed. The students reported a broad positive experience with Internet. About 79% of the American university students said that to the use of Internet had a positive impact on their academic experience. Based on the report, approximately half of them mentioned that the email allowed them to express ideas to their professor that could not be declared to them in the class. Many students also reported that they used the Internet mainly to communicate socially with his friends. Besides socialize, they also can study together on the topic that they do not understand and share the information that they learn in the school. Sometimes, the teacher at the school forgot to tell something important regarding to the subject they teach. In order to prevent it, the student can ask their friend from another school to teach them, so that they are not left behind from others.
ICT actually will influence the academic achievement of students. It is important to add an extra element into the classroom that is ICT. So that the student will learn something new that provides them with the opportunities to enhance their knowledge. Besides learning at school, the students may want to refer to something else, not only what they get in the school. To get to the easier and faster way, they can just use the internet. What they have to do are just key in the word that they want to search and click on the search button. After that, the topic that they want to learn will appear on the screen. It is just as simple as that. With the information that they get, they surely will be an advanced student than those who are depends on the information given by their teacher only. Pedersen and Liu (2003) states that the effectiveness of Problem Based Learning (PBL) enriched with technology is seen to improve the students' problem solving skills and application of knowledge. This statement shows that what are mentioned above is absolutely true.
Besides that, ICT also have become one of the subjects that should be learnt by the students in the school. For some course in higher education, it has become a compulsory subject, taken by the students in order to further their studies. It shows the importance of it. When the students were asked by their teacher to present their topic by using one of the current technologies, they should know how to do it. For example, teachers nowadays often asked their students to present the topic learn by using powerpoint presentation. This is because learning in a creative way will help the students to improve their way of thinking, more understanding on the topic and achieve a great result.
Other than that, computer use also can contribute to the students' cognitive skills, particularly onto visual skills. For example, when the students playing certain types of computer games, mostly action games that involve rapid movement, imagery and other multiple activities that occur simultaneously, helps to improve the visual intelligence skills. Subrahmanyam (2000) points that, these skills "provide 'training wheels' for computer literacy" and are "especially useful in the fields of science and technology, where the proficiency in manipulating images are on a screen is increasingly important". However, they also note that, "computer game playing can enhance a particular skill only if the game uses that skill and if the child's initial skill level has already matured to a certain level". Moreover, it also does not have the cumulative impact on students learning.
However, ICT also have their own disadvantages for the students. First of all, these technologies can make the students become lazy to complete their work. Some students always make their work at the eleventh hour. So, in order to complete their work in the fastest way, they are tend to getting all the information from the internet only. They should know not all the information in there was from reliable sources. Some of them are just an opinion from the people. We do not know whether it is true or not. They also complete the assignment given by the teacher by just downloaded it on the internet. If they continue these habits for a long time, they sure will lack of skills that they should obtain it for a long time ago.
The ICT also will make the students forget what are the most important to do in their life. This is because most of their times spend always in front of those technologies. If the children, they will spend their time in front of the television, just to watch the cartoon. While for the teenager, most of their times are always in front of the laptop. It is okay if they do that to complete the work, but what is happening is in vice versa. Most of them are with their facebook and other social networking. This definitely will waste their time.
Lastly, the communication and social relationship with their friends also will be less. This is because they like to find more friends on the net. This matter is getting more serious when the communication with the teacher also becomes worse. Most advanced students today when they want to consult their teacher to ask something, they are just send an e-mail to them. If they still do not understand, I believe that they will not ask the same question for the second time again. While for the teacher, they will thought their student already understand about the topic and they will not repeat it in the future. The students also tend to do something else when they are using these technologies. For example, while the students send an e-mail or chatting with their teacher, at the same time, they also are listening to the music. The effect from this problem is they are not able to catch the important things that are told by their teacher.
As a conclusion, the ICT have both the advantages and disadvantages that influence the students' academic achievement. But, I will prefer more on the advantages because it definitely gives a big influence on the student. I totally did not agree on the topic that given to me, that is ICT does not influence academic achievement. Without ICT, I believe that all the important information regarding all aspect could not be transferred to the people all around the world.