This essay has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers.
English is considered as most important international language. Institutes all over the world in different countries have to teach this language in order to enable the students as this language is treated as a global language all over the world. This piece of work will concentrate on the different ways in which College students that are learning English as a foreign language influenced and poor participation in the class room or no participation at all is reported from their teachers. This is a very vast topic and the issue is one of the serious ones that have attracted attention of different researchers from time to time. This study will provide reader with and in depth knowledge about the topic and the advancements that took over from time to time. After providing an analysis of the work from different researchers and the seriousness of the topic this piece of work will highlight and focus on different areas related to the topic that can be improved.
It is a well known fact among language acquisition specialists that there is a discrepancy between what classroom second/foreign language learners are taught, what they learn/acquire and what they can actually produce. This inconsistency has prompted second/foreign language researchers to investigate the role of explicit grammar instruction and whether, when and how focus on form benefits classroom second/foreign language learners. This inconsistency seems to support the assumptions underlying Krashen (1982)'s acquisition/learning hypothesis. Krashen argued that focusing on linguistic form was of limited value because it can only contribute to 'learning' and never to 'acquisition'. So the Learners must also acquire the knowledge of how native speakers use the language in the context of social interactions.
With the rising value of communication in the modern era, people tend to focus on the ability to speak a foreign language fluently instead of just reading or writing it. Yet, fluency in a foreign language requires more than learning grammatical and semantic rules. This is especially difficult for EFL learners because of the minimal use of the target language and contact with native speakers. Consequently, EFL learners, generally, are relatively poor at spoken English, in particular regarding fluency and control of idiomatic expressions. However, in practice, it is too often assumed that learner's communicative proficiency can be developed simply by assigning students topics to discuss and encouraging them to participate in various speaking tasks.
Mostly, studies in EFL learning have addressed the necessity of students' classroom interaction or oral participation in class for the development of communicative competence. Rubin (1975), in 'reporting on the attributes of the good language learner', claims that the good language learner practices and usually takes "advantage of every opportunity to speak in class..." (Robin, 1975:47) Recent studies have shown that formal instruction can be beneficial (VanPatten and Cadierno, 1993; Long, 1983; Pica, 1983), that exposure to input alone is not sufficient (Swain, 1985), and that classroom learning, regardless of the focus of instruction, results in "more acquisition" in learners than non-classroom environments (Pavesi, 1986).
However, getting students to participate in speaking tasks in conversation classes is a problem that most EFL teachers face. Success in a conversation class may be defined as a setting in which students are able to communicate effectively in English. Therefore, enhancing students' communicative competence is the ultimate aim of the second-year college conversation class, which is considered as a required course at Saudi colleges and universities for English majors. However, a problem that most EFL students face in conversation classes is practical use of the basic language rules they have learned. Even advanced students who have mastered form and vocabulary can often read and write better than they can speak in a foreign language.
Using the data collected from observations, students' self-evaluation and course evaluation questionnaires, this paper explains the reasons why most college students may not be willing to participate in various speaking tasks in conversation classes. It also explores how college students perceive and assess their English conversation classes and to what and to whom do they attribute their difficulties in improving their English communicative proficiency.
This introductory chapter encompasses the statement of the problem, purposes of the study, topic selection, research questions, significance of the study, limitations of the study as well as assumptions of the study and organization of the study.
1.1 Statement of the Problem:
Studies in language learning have addressed the necessity of classroom interaction to the development of students' communicative competence; however, getting students to respond in an EFL conversation class is a problem that most teachers face. It is important to point out here that in Saudi Arabia, English is learned as a foreign language for at least six years in intermediate and secondary schools. So before their enrolment into colleges and universities, students have basic knowledge of English grammar and vocabulary. Although much effort has been made to improve teaching of English in Saudi Arabia, the traditional grammar-translation method is still widely used by many teachers. This led to the fact that most English majors often find it hard to participate in speaking tasks because oral skills were not focused in the classroom. Thus, conversation classes for English majors at many colleges and universities are tough assignments. As a result their Oral English proficiency is far from satisfactory on graduation and the students themselves often voice dissatisfaction or frustration at their own lack of progress in speaking.
1.2 The Purpose of the Study:
As previous studies have shown the importance of classroom interaction, this study sought to reinforce these findings. The main objective of the study was to describe college level conversation class in light of the relationship between second-year English majors' oral proficiency and their participation in class and other potential factors that may affect classroom oral interaction. Therefore, the initial hypothesis of this study was: students' communicative proficiency level is the only factor that influences their participation in class. A second purpose was to evaluate the effectiveness of the implementation of my contribution to this course at girls faculty of Education during the first term of the year 1429-1430 AH and to explore the attitudes and preferences of my students towards the kinds of speaking activities that took place during this twelve weeks course.
1.3 Topic Selection:
During the first term of the year 1429-1430 AH, I was consigned as the instructor of second-year English majors' conversation class. In such a class, students are expected to participate actively in the various speaking tasks in order to improve their oral proficiency level. But I was surprised to know that the majority of student's are reluctant to take part in classroom interaction which led to the malfunction of some of these activities. This problem has enforced me to select this topic for my research and I decided to investigate "the factors that led to my students' general reticence to participate in the speaking tasks during conversation classes"
1.4 Research Questions:
This study addresses three main questions:
What affects second-year English majors' oral interaction in the conversation class? Is the oral proficiency level the only factor that influences students' classroom participation?
How do students perceive and assess their oral proficiency level before and after taking the conversation classes?
Would students' classroom participation be significantly related to their scores in the final oral test?
1.5 Significance of the Study:
Communicative language ability, as one of the productive skills that language learners must develop, has been the focus of language learners and teachers. However, an important fact that needs to be given attention to is that most of the studies on ESL/EFL oral English teaching and learning are conducted in English speaking countries. So, results shown in these studies may not represent and solve some of the problems that are facing EFL students who are learning in non-native situations. The results of this study could well serve as a basis for the improvement of oral student participation in conversation classes where reticence and lack of opportunities to practice English with native speakers outside the class are limiting factors. Therefore, this study is of significance to the domain of EFL oral English teaching and learning as it extends the knowledge base that currently exists in that field.
1.6 Limitations of the Study:
Generalization of results from the study was limited by the following conditions:
The participants in the study were limited to second-year English majors and their teacher at Girls' faculty of education who participated in the English conversation course in the first term of the year 1429-1430 AH.
The students' oral classroom interaction that the present study focuses on was limited to participating in a few types of speaking tasks that were used in the conversation class for the first time. It should be noted that the course is held only two hours a week for twelve weeks.
1.7 Assumptions of the Study:
The following assumptions were made for the purpose of this study to examine students' attitudes towards participating in conversation class speaking tasks:
It was assumed that all participants of this study clearly understood the items mentioned in the questionnaire and the written interview.
It was also assumed that all participants provided unbiased responses to the questionnaire and written interview to the best of their ability.
It was assumed that few individuals would have a high oral proficiency level.
1.8 Organization of the Study:
This dissertation is composed of 5 chapters. Each chapter provides an understanding of various issues that are critical to this research. The structure of the study is as follows;
Chapter I comprises the introduction, statement of the problem, purpose of the study, research questions, significance of the study, limitations of the study, assumptions of the study, and organization of the study.
Chapter II provides a review of literature and research related to the background of communicative competence, importance of classroom interaction and the factors that influence EFL learners' participation in conversation classroom speaking tasks.
Chapter III presents an overview of research methodology; the research design, the strategy, approach, and an explanation of the procedures utilized in conducting the study.
Chapter IV presents data analysis using SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences).
Chapter V contains the summary, conclusions, discussions and recommendations.
Chapter 2: A Review of the Literature
Literature Review is one of the longest plus extremely significant chapters in a standard dissertation. The reasons for classifying this chapter as one of the mainly significant chapter is it's in depth concentration on research carried out by dissimilar researchers in the past. This chapter in addition will offer the readers by means of an in depth knowledge regarding the views as of dissimilar researchers as well as their recommended techniques to over come the issues of Students in addition to their involvement in conversation classroom speaking tasks.
2.2 The significance of English Language:
Nowadays, learning English has become a necessity all over the world. English is the mainly common language that is widely used. No doubt, learning English requires mastering the four language skills; listening, speaking, reading and writing. Learning English as a foreign language is one feature of that broad process of learning. Therefore, not having a balance flanked by those two domains, English learning process will be negatively affected. Benson et al., (1997) claims that language learning is affected by both domains which are the mental as well as emotional sides of human behaviour (Benson et al., 1997)
The affective domain comprises emotions and psychological facets that the learner holds regarding learning. No wonder, perceptions that the students bring to the learning circumstances have been recognized as a significant causal aspect to the learning process. Those facets can be enthusiasm, attitudes, nervousness or confidence. They can be positive or negative aspects. In recent years, the significance of affective aspects like nervousness, reticence, enthusiasm and confidence has been of interest in the field of language learning for the reason that of their high effects on learning a foreign or a second language. For this reason, Brintonet al., (1989) call upon reducing nervousness and reticence and enhancing learner's enthusiasm plus confidence in the classroom framework. (Brintonet al., 1989)
2.3 Theoretical Framework
English language is a world wide language. It is an international means of communication. The number of second/foreign language speakers is further than the number of local speakers of English. Using a language means communicating through that language as well as practicing it. Bhatia, (1993) mentioned that "learning a language is learning to communicate through it in all modalities, all skills and competencies as well as through integrating form, function and content". Communication is an interactive process that requires dissimilar components. These components comprise: linguistic competence, textual competence, functional competence, socio-culture competence and strategic competence. However, competences are gained through listening, speaking, reading plus writing. The writing skill is the core of this research. (Bhatia, 1993)
2.4 Affective Aspects
Cognitive domain, affective domain and psychomotor domain are essential issues in the language learning process. The affective domain, as Bolinger, (1976) stated "refers to emotions in addition to feelings". It is considered the emotional side of human behaviour. However, this domain is not easily to be scientifically defined for the reason that several variables are implied into it. (Bolinger, 1976)
Affective aspects have an extremely significant influence on student's EFL learning. Stern noted that "the affective component contributes at least as much and frequently further to language learning than cognitive skills". So that, it is significant to understand student's feelings and know further regarding these aspects; Communication in EFL is frequently associated by means of a number of affective aspects such as apprehension. Several studies were conducted by the researcher to measure communication apprehension, whether spoken or written, among EFL learners. In fact, apprehension, fear, negative perceptions of one's abilities in addition to other problems are associated to affective aspects such as nervousness, reticence, low confidence etc. In this research, English writing attainment plus confidence were measured. (Mustafa, 1995)
Reticence is an affective aspect which is clearly associated to confidence. Individuals develop a set of defences to protect themselves as of either external or internal criticism. Reticence prevents people as of expressing themselves freely and comfortably. Learning a second or foreign language necessitates making errors and learning frequently occur through making errors. However if a learner fears of making errors as well as considers errors as a harmful effect on his ego, he will fall into internal (one's self) as well as external (others') threats. Both are barriers to learning. In fact, the non-threatening and relaxed environment can drop student's reticence to the lowest degree. (Benson et al., 1997)
Communication in a second/foreign language requires some guessing plus competing. A number of learners fear to take the risk and answer any question unless they are completely sure it is correct. They choose to keep quiet all the time to avoid making errors or fear of looking ridiculous. Such fear of trying or being subject to making errors makes students lose several chances to practice the target language. St. John, (1996) maintains that:
The silent student in the classroom is one who is unwilling to appear foolish when errors are made. Confidence seems to be closely connected to a risk-taking aspect: when those foolish errors are made, a person by means of high global confidence is not daunted by the possible consequences of being laughed at. However, EFL learners have to be active and ready to make predictions, guess and take the risk of being wrong. (St. John, 1996)
Nervousness is like any other affective aspects, it is not easy to be defined. Defining Nervousness, St. John, (1996) in addition states that "it is associated by means of feelings of disquiet, frustration, self-doubt, apprehension or worry". Nervousness can be experienced in dissimilar levels. It can be broken down into: (St. John, 1996)
Fear of negative communal evaluation
Another categorization of Nervousness was presented by Swales, (1990):
Mediated responses; when a learner plays with his pen or hair and not steady in his seat or his voice quavers when he speaks.
Unaffiliated behaviour; when a student avoids involvement in addition to sits quietly or is reluctant to answer or avoids eyes contact with the teacher.
Image-protection; when a student smiles or nods his head devoid of interest while listening, gives a brief answer or might laugh to show others he is interested in the conversation.
All these reactions to avoid communication in the target language show dissimilar sides of Nervousness. Nervousness can be harmful or helpful. It makes the student alert plus does well in his research or it can be a barrier to learning. Further, too much or too little of Nervousness has a negative effect on EFL learning. (Swales, 1990)
Enthusiasm is one of the affective aspects that have a strong influence on student's success or failure. Wesche, (1993) considers enthusiasm a vague term as well as a broad umbrella that comprises dissimilar meanings under it. Enthusiasm is an inner drive or emotions that move people to a particular action. A number of students are enthusiastic regarding learning as well as feel interested in learning activities. This feeling of enthusiasm depends mainly on the teacher's ability to maintain the interest in the classroom atmosphere. Enthusiasm is affected by several aspects as Wesche, (1993) mentioned "interest in the subject matter, perception of its usefulness, general desire to achieve, confidence as well as patience and persistence". (Wesche, 1993)
Confidence is a basic need in human life. Tarnopolsky, (2000) defined it as "the experience of being competent to cope by means of the basic challenges of life and being worthy of happiness. It consists of efficiency and self-respect". Confidence has multi-dimensions which are: global confidence which means general assessment a person makes of one's self, situational confidence which means a specific circumstances such as foreign language framework plus task confidence that means a particular task inside a circumstances e.g., writing in an EFL framework. (Tarnopolsky, 2000)
Moreover, confidence contributes to all features of one's life. To live psychologically healthy, confidence is essential. It is the mainly vital feature of the touching aspects for the reason that all are associated or caused by confidence. (Tarnopolsky, 2000)
2.6 EFL Teacher's part in constructing Students' Confidence
The teacher's role in constructing confidence is integral. EFL teachers have to create a climate where students can develop their confidence, make them experience success and try to augment their self-confidence. Mustafa, (1995) indicated that "success depends less on materials, techniques and linguistic analysis and further on what goes on inside flanked by the people in the classroom". (Mustafa, 1995)
It is the EFL teachers' responsibility to create a positive as well as supportive language learning environment. They can augment students' attainment through applying dissimilar strategies that make students express themselves freely, feel comfortable and believe that the teacher cares regarding them. In this regard, Tarnopolsky, (2000) mentioned that "Warm-hearted interaction flanked by teachers plus learners, as well as among learners themselves, this friendly interaction is, in our opinion, the mainly essential aspect in successful language learning".(Tarnopolsky, 2000)
Students can achieve well and do their best if they feel safe. This occurs when the teacher behaves modestly, be a good listener, cares regarding their involvement as well as makes them feel they are worthy and efficient. Littlejohn, (2005) suggested a number of strategies for EFL teachers to create a supportive atmosphere in the classroom:
Establish a norm of tolerance.
Encourage risk-taking and have errors accepted as a natural part of learning.
Bring in and encourage humour.
Encourage learners to personalize the classroom environment according to their taste.
Furthermore, Littlejohn, (2005) suggested further strategies:
Teachers should create a positive classroom environment
Teachers should encourage their learners.
Teachers should know their learners.
Teachers should encourage interactions with other learners.
Teachers should structure learning to be flexible in addition to supportive.
Teachers should assist their learners acknowledge success.
What EFL teachers have to believe in is that they can influence students' whole life plus might transform their future. They have to allow students to talk regarding their interests, feelings and do not consider this as deviation as of the subject however it is to enrich the subject. When students believe that their feelings are significant to their teachers, then teachers become significant to them as well as they will not consider school as a waste of time. (Littlejohn, 2005)
Moreover, besides enhancing students' confidence, teachers have the power to harm it. For instance, criticizing them or making them feel inferior leads students to underestimate their abilities as well as be unable to succeed. In brief, EFL teachers have to encourage their students and establish a positive environment not only for low confidence students however in addition for high confidence ones to maintain confidence. (Mustafa, 1995)
2.7 Humanistic Approach
Integrating the cognitive and the affective domains in learning is the main goal of humanistic education. Abraham Maslow is one of the fathers of humanistic psychology who first affirmed the role of schools and teachers in making students feel regarding themselves in the instructional framework. After his age, several other researchers such as Dudley-Evans et al., (1998), called upon his view plus stressed the significance of humanizing education. Dudley-Evans et al., (1998) defined humanistic approach and humanistic education further than others. She is one of the pioneers in the field of humanistic education. (Dudley-Evans et al., 1998)
The Humanistic Approach refers to humanizing and personalizing learning. Educationists who call upon involving the humanistic approach into education emphasized that "affective education is effective education". Humanistic education tries to combine both subject matter and personal growth into curriculum. On one hand, Stanton, (2005) thinks that integrating the following five components leads to a meaningful definition for humanism; feelings, communal relations, responsibility, intellect as well as self actualization which are the full realization of deepest qualities. On the other hand, Stanton, (2005) emphasized that "humanistic education starts by means of assessing the basic needs of humans". He categorized these basic needs into six areas:
Physical security; food, clothing, health.
Love-attention; encouragement, praise, physical contact.
Creative expression; promoting sensory capacities, exploring new manners of expressing oneself.
Cognitive mastery; achieving relative competency in basic skills.
Communal competency; acceptance plus interaction with peers.
Self-worth-strengths stressed as well as weaknesses played down
What is clearly presented and discussed through the writings of these researchers is that learning is strongly affected by one's self and how students feel regarding themselves. Stanton, (2005) maintained that "humanistic education is a manner of relating that emphasizes self-discovery, introspection, confidence and getting in touch by means of the strengths in addition to positive qualities of ourselves as well as others"(Stanton, 2005)
2.8 Hypothesis of humanistic learning
The humanistic approach, humanizing and personalizing education is the manner for effective education. It is in addition the manner to achieve the goals of education. Affective as well as cognitive growth has to go side by side to get better learning. Educational transform for advancement occurs frequently in any institutionalized framework, and further frequently than not this transform process is full of "problems". (Benson et al., 1997)
A number of the educational transforms produce desired outcomes while others source irritations amid the chief stakeholders. Teachers along with learners, particularly, find it discouraging for the reason that of erratic as well as insuperable obstacles that they observe hard to beat. Based on the theoretical framework of educational transform plus cultures of teaching by dissimilar researchers like Spanos, (1989) etc., this piece of work divulges the requirement for universal prospectus restructuring in general teaching plus chiefly in the framework of schooling English as a foreign language (EFL). (Spanos, 1989)
2.8.1Cultures of Teaching plus Teachers' responsibilities in prospectus development
The awareness of teacher mores can be outlined back to the early 20th century, when McDonough, (1984) initially pointed out the segmented in addition to remote temperament of instructors' effort in a classroom setting. Much shortly, delve into teacher seclusion augmented significantly in range. However, a number of significant difficulties in the investigation of teacher backgrounds, which McDonough, (1984) disputed, at present stay unsettled. Since he set it, the key issue was "whether there is a lone body called the traditions of schooling that differentiates the profession altogether; whether there is a diversity of split as well as maybe even rival teacher traditions; or whether the two one way or another coexist side by side". Moreover, a number of researchers like McDonough, (1984) etc. argued that a current sect of uniqueness lives amid teachers. This is so all-encompassing that it might be measured a sole feature of the whole teaching career. (McDonough, 1984)
The aspects that construct teacher mores varied are argued by (Pally, M., Bailey, N., Camhi, P. J., Bernard, R. W., & Carson, J. G.) in their widespread review of North American literature on the traditions of teaching. They portrayed the dissimilarities in age, skill, sex, teaching beliefs, subject issue, as well as position altitude amid teachers, in dispute that the supposition of a consistent teaching society is unsustainable. However, they appeared to exaggerate edifying plus sub-cultural aspects, therefore overlooking a number of "generic features" always there in the teaching atmosphere. (Pally et al., 2000)
Johns, (2001) acknowledged the presence of those diverse cultures however the absence of overall clarification as well as arrangement of teacher mores all through the line of work. He believed uniqueness plus concerted civilization as the mainly widespread structures of teacher customs, deeming that they were the source of accepting a number of the limits as well as possibilities of educational transform. (Johns, 2001)
Inside any civilization of teaching, the function of teachers as the chief stakeholders in instructive restructuring has been the centre of fragmentary attention to prospectus researchers as well as argued at length in the literature equally theoretically plus empirically. To investigate what is happening in the performance segment of any prospectus improvement, Snow et al., (1997) used Pickett's, (1989) notion of "commonplaces" topic stuff, setting, student, plus teachers - to discover prospectus difficulties. They asserted that the mainly influential aspect amid the commonplaces is the instructor as such as in Pickett's, (1989) certain confidence that programme growth is ultimately regarding teacher growth. At the same time as probing the teacher in relation to programme, Jordan's (1997) and Mustafa, (1995) imagined that "the educator is an essential fraction of the programme created and enacted in classrooms". Pickett's, (1989) stressed the significance of teachers' participation in programme growth in addition to management in prospectus improvement. He recommended that overlooking teachers as well as refuting their participation in probability studies was the key motive national testing failed to be adequately executed in the classroom. (Pickett's, 1989)
Teachers' involvements as well as transform in teachers are both indispensable to the success of curriculum reform. Mustafa, (1995) believed that "transform in the curriculum is not effected devoid of some concomitant transform in the teacher," for the reason that it is the teacher who is responsible for delivering the curriculum at the classroom level. "What the teacher thinks, what the teacher believes, what the teacher assumes all these things have powerful implications for the transform process, for the manners in which curriculum policy is translated into curriculum practice". Lewis, (2000) specifically claimed that teacher transform is not entirely an individually indomitable fact. Rather, it is shaped by the communal framework in which they work. (Lewis, 2000)
Littlejohn, (2005) pointed out the need for teachers to have a thorough understanding of the principles as well as practices of proposed transforms in order to achieve successful implementation. He emphasized that teachers need to understand plus value the theoretical underpinnings of the innovation. Further significantly, teachers have to realize how the innovation can be applied inside their classrooms. In an exploration of how a communicative teaching syllabus was introduced and adopted in Greek public secondary schools, Mustafa, (1995) discovered that teachers failed to gain a complete understanding of the EFL innovation there. Their misconceptions resulted in negative perceptions of the curriculum innovation. (Mustafa, 1995)
Implementation of any curriculum innovation is closely connected by means of "cultures of teaching" as defined by Lewis, (2000). Inside any teaching culture, it is always the teachers who play a deciding role in shaping the nature and extent of implementation. The success of curriculum reform in addition to its implementation depends on whether teachers willingly participate in and are valued as well as acknowledged in the process. Teachers' understanding of the innovation is in addition indispensable in contributing to or impeding long-term success. (Lewis, 2000)
2.8.2 The association with confidence and academic attainment
Concerning the association flanked by confidence plus academic attainment, in their research, Jordan's (1997) explored the correlation among three variables; efficiency, confidence as well as scholastic attainment. Participants were 151 students. Students' attainment scores were worn; efficiency and confidence scales were administered to the participants, too. Findings revealed that efficiency scores had correlation by means of attainment while confidence scores had not. (Jordan's 1997)
In Krueger et al., (1993) research, the correlation clearly appeared flanked by dissimilar features of confidence plus academic attainment. The sample was 208 third, fourth and fifth graders; regular and special education students. A standardized attainment test as well as Confidence Index was administered to the participants. The instrument of confidence comprised; familial acceptance, academic competence, peer popularity in addition to personal security. All subscale scores linked significantly with students' attainment however peer popularity did not. Krueger et al., (1993) focused on the necessity of integrating confidence and academic attainment inside learning experiences. Moreover, in a survey made by Jordan's (1997), several studies were conducted to find out the influence of efficiency on academic performance. The roles of efficiency plus motivational constructs in dissimilar academic areas were investigated. Outcomes revealed that mainly of those studies indicated that efficiency had a strong influence on academic settings. (Krueger et al., 1993)
If confidence augments; academic attainment augments and if it declines; academic attainment declines. In addition, they measured global confidence so that the outcomes were dissimilar e.g., in Jordan's (1997) research, confidence linked by means of a number of subjects, while other subjects showed no correlations. In addition, in Johns, (2001) survey, a number of studies revealed a strong effect of confidence on academic attainment while few of them did not. In fact, several studies that measure general confidence or general efficiency failed to show any correlation. The two concepts, confidence as well as efficiency have to be specific in a certain subject matter or a certain task when measuring attainment for the reason that it is not necessary that global confidence appears in student's performance in a certain task however it is necessary for task confidence to appear in a specific task. (Johns, 2001)
Consequently, mainly of the studies that worn general confidence scales to find its association to a certain task are not dependable. In the present research the three dimensions of confidence were comprised and were measured to find if there is any correlation flanked by confidence and attainment in English. (Johns, 2001)
With reference to language learning, the role of affective variables, in general, and confidence, in particular, can not be neglected. The association flanked by confidence and language learning has been explored. The correlation was either positive or negative. For example, in his research, Hyland, (2000) investigated a number of affective aspects (comprising confidence) that influence learning English as a second language. (Hyland, 2000)
2.8.3 The Overall influence on the students' Involvement in the Class:
It can be observed after going through the work of different researchers that the overall influences on the students' involvement in the Classroom is not positive. This not only affects their participation interests but at the same time makes them the back benchers. Students who face the language issue and are not good in one or any form of language that is writing, listening, reading and speaking starts hesitating and this increasing level of hesitation not only kills their confidence but at the same time a gap starts to build up between these students and their colleagues as well as their teachers. (Dudley-Evans et al., 1998)
Students with the language issues concentrate more and more on the way to pronounce the words right and speak very much like the way the native students do. This thought comes purely in their mind to avoid themselves and the way they speak English fun for others. They don't want to face any embarrassment due to this language issue. Teachers do have to work really hard and at times it becomes really impossible to shake these students and bring their confidence back so that they can participate in the class on regular basis. A lot has been researched, said and done in this regard however one may still feel that there is a need of a lot more to be done in order to save these students from considering themselves as failures or dull students just because of the fact that they can not speak or understand the language fluently. (Benson et al., 1997)
2.9 Summary and Concluding remarks:
This chapter makes the Influences of EFL Students' Oral Proficiency on their Participation in Class. Different researchers have classified the serious manners in which this issue affects a student's participation in the class in their own way. But one point that can be found common in all the above mentioned work from different researcher is the fact that the influences are not positive on a student's participation and his learning process. Because the study mainly focuses on college students therefore the researcher would like to make an important point here that came to the researcher's mind after going through different researches carried out in the past by different researchers in the past. And that point is that the concerned bodies and authorities should try to repel this issue in the early learning age of a student. This is because in the early age it is far much easier for a student to pick and learn what has been taught to him/her. While in the college age most of the students finds it difficult to learn and pick what has been taught in a keener way.
The chapter compares and contrasts the work of over twenty researchers in order to make it easy for the reader to understand the significance of the topic and weak links that can be found in the teaching and learning process. The chapter in addition highlights in brief the different roles that can be played by teachers in order to help the students to come out this situation and participate with confidence in all the learning activities that takes place in the class room.