Income Management In Every Day Life In Ghana Education Essay

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The people of Wa Municipality, like most people in Ghana, depend on farming, rearing and other natural resources such as trees, leaves and fruits. However, these activities of people are threatened by the erratic rainfall. Other ways to live include depending on relatives and friends, or selling livestock. The people of Northern Ghana, more particularly the Upper West Region, are behind (in the greatest need?), among all the regions in Ghana in terms of basic needs such as education, transportation, food, water, shelter, and clothing. This makes it difficult for them to live a normal life and maintain their personal dignity and to live as normal human beings (Blench, 2006).

"…..Upper West Region is the most disadvantaged region of Ghana. In terms of child mortality, disease incidence, and access to health, schooling, roads and communications it remains at the bottom of the table. Apart from UWADEP, it has seen remarkably little donor investment and has been largely neglected by government…" (Roger Blench, 2006:18) Why is the quotation in italics?

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According to Blench (2006), the Upper West Region is not only neglected by the government but also the NGOs and donors for decades.(You need a reference for this last statement) Suntaa-Nuntaa, a local NGO exist in the region, made an attempt to assist farmers for the past decades. The majority of the people in the Upper West Region are farmers and infertility of land is a serious major problem facing people in the area. Livestock is considered as one of the important properties because it is used for so many purposes. For example, it is used for ceremonies such as funerals, scarifies (sacrifices?), and marriages. These animals are also being sold in the market and the income is used for food, staff especially during the learn (lean?) season (Blench, 2006).

Diseases like 'epizootics' that attacked livestock and the inability of most of the farmers to afford the services of veterinary officers is a threat to the survival of these meager income earners. (Isn't there also a shortage of veterinarians? And those that are here, are they any good?) These same people are most often exposed to various situations that easily push them deeper into a lack of basic needs, especially subsistence farming in the agriculture sector .Disasters such as flood, fire, drought, animal diseases, and too much rainfall can easily put the poor farmer into a very bad situation in the Upper West Region.

'…Poor workers in developing countries can lead very insecure lives a single unforeseen event can drive them into poverty…' ([http://aspe.hhs.gov/poverty/05pverty.shtml)2004[06-02-2010] (Only write the name of the source here and the date, and put the full website in the bibliography. See handout on referencing for more details.) Vulnerability.Why is this word standing alone?

A majority of the people in the northern part of Ghana have so many mouths to take care of because of the practice of the extended family system and this usually puts pressure on the person who earns meager income. Does it also bring opportunities - that is, other members of the extended family helping out? Might add a few sentences or a paragraph or so on the extended family in relation to poverty.

"…the three northern regions, Upper West, Northern, and Upper East recorded high

Household sizes of 6.5, 5.5 and 5.3 respectively…" (GSS, 2008:4) Integrate this into the text, and remove the italics.

The household's quartile expenditure (which household? For the Northern Region as a whole?) was the worst lowest in the northern part of Ghana (Gh cedis per household…). The Upper West Region has more the lowest household quartile expenditure in all of Ghana (Gh cedis per household) (Ghana Living Statistical Survey, 2008). This is due to the low income they get from their subsistence farms, as indicated by the the work in Ghana Living Statistical Survey (2008) indicates.

"…On the other hand, the three Northern regions; Northern, Upper East and Upper West have low proportions of households in the highest quintile and relatively high proportions of their households within the lowest quintile. Upper West in particular has the lowest proportion of its households, 3.1 percent, in the highest quintile and as much as 76.7 percent in the lowest quintile. This indicates that poverty is very high in the northern regions, particularly in

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Upper West…." (GLSS, 2008:95)

Hence, the study was, thus designed to answer the question, 'How do people earning less than a dollar a day manage to live on their meager income?' in order to assess how people with meager income manage to live.

Ghana living standards survey report of the fifth round (glss 5) © 2008 GLSS What is this line for?

1.4 MAIN RESEARCH QUESTION

The fundamental question is, how do people earning less than a dollar a day manage to live on their meager income to enable them to survive to run their daily activities, in the present exorbitant prices of goods and services in this unpredictable economy? Okay, but should we stick with the dollar on this? Or use the Ghana cedi? Somewhere, you need to explain why you are choosing the dollar in particular.

1.4.1 SUB-RESEARCH QUESTIONS

The odious challenge that confronts the peasant man is the issue of how will he manage to survive till the end of the day? How do these meager income earners (earning less than a dollar a day) manage to access and use certain facilities such as education, transportation, health care, communication and some basic necessities in life such as food, shelter, and clothing? And also the performance of funeral and wedding ceremonies? You mention the peasant man. Are women important to this question, too? Also, you will need to define what you mean by peasant at some point in the thesis.

1.5 MAIN RESEARCH OBJECTIVE

The overall objective is to make a contribution towards the sustainable and effective management (coping) of a peasant man who earns less than a dollar a day. My hope is that the research will lead to effective coping or better management practices among meager income earners; particularly those earning less than a dollar a day.

1.5.2 SUB-RESEARCH OBJECTIVES

To find out how meager income earners (earning less than a dollar a day) manage to live. And to throw more light on the challenges that confront them and make recommendations that could contribute towards effective and sustainable management to improve their standard of living. Considering the following: how they…

1.5.2.1 Feed themselves and their household;

1.5.2.2 Take care of their children in school;

1.5.2.3 Provide health needs for themselves and the family;

1.5.2.4 Perform their funeral and wedding ceremonies;

1.5.2.5 Provide shelter and clothing for themselves and the family;

1.5.2.6 Cater for their transportation.

CHAPTER TWO

Literature Review

2.1 INTRODUCTION

The available literature on concepts and theories of poverty and coping are considered below and opinions on it will be given. Do you mean to say that you will consider them and give your opinions, or that the literature has already done this? It is hard to tell from the passive voice.

2.2 MANAGEMENT (COPING)

Most A number of scholars have devoted their time trying to come out with the definition, meaning, and measurement of poverty and how it can be eliminated. But However, how poor people manage to live, are is being to be relegated to the background by researchers. Mostly words like "alleviate", "reduce", and "eliminate" are commonly found in the literature (Apusigah, 2005) (UNDP/UNICEF, 2003: 3-4, cited in Apusigah, 2005).  Put in a few more references for this, if possible. Apusigah (2005) suggested that most poverty in Ghana can be found in the rural areas. This finding is worth consideration because a majority of the people in Ghana who are in the agriculture sector are found in the rural areas and the challenges that confront them are the poor road network, lack or inadequate health facilities, poor educational infrastructure and poor care of children in school, hunger, place to lay their heads and the recent complex nature of funeral and wedding ceremonies (Blench, 2006). You are relying a lot on this one source.

Eradication or elimination of poverty, as suggested by researchers, can never happen on this earth.  This is your judgment. While it may be true, the sentence does not read like academic writing. You need evidence. Those who are poor can only cope with their poverty and possibly strategies can be put in place to minimize the stress poor people go through in their lifetime. You are perhaps taking a structuralist view of the poor as helpless in efforts to get out of poverty. That is fine, but you may need to frame your work within a structuralist perspective; e.g., by identifying certain forces that keep people from being able to break out of poverty (e.g., global capitalist system, patriarchy, class-system) and by reading up on structuralism or another approach that can serve as a framework for your thinking. We can discuss this.

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The majority of the people who are poor are confronted with the issues of hunger, how they can feed themselves and their households. Food insecurity is their major challenge which makes their life uncomfortable and unbearable on earth  this is too strong a statement. You are making a judgment that the lives of the poor are unbearable on earth. You need evidence to make such a sweeping generalization. , before other challenges like education, shelter, transportation, health, clothing and expenses on funeral and wedding. Mostly the livelihoods of the poor are in the agriculture sector.  didn't you already say this? The majority of the poor people in Ghana are in the rural areas depending on what they get from their subsistence farms (Al-Hassan and Diao, 2007, as cited in Quaye, 2008). Quaye 2008);Al-Hassan and Diao 2007 (cited in Quaye, 2008)

2.3 CONCEPT OF POVERTY.

Poverty as a matter of fact has been a subject of discussion for a number of centuries before civilizations and birth of Christ (Nketiah, 2004).  what if the reader is not Christian? poverty According to Nketah Nketah or Nketiah? (2004), poverty is something which is unkind to every human being on earth. It makes people not to have any source of livelihood, thus people experience life full of deprivation and instincts especially in developing continents such as Africa. This is the true picture of poverty in developing countries; however, Nketiah was silent about how these poor people survive horrible conditions in which they found themselves. The work also emphases on how these poor people continue to found find themselves in this unfortunate situation throughout in their lives. The concept is known as the? "vicious cycle of poverty". The perpetual problem of these poor starts from subsistence production which cannot enable them to save for the future.

"… low productivity leads to low income, low income leads to low savings, and low savings leads to low investment and low investment to low productivity…" Reference? Why italics?

They only live from hand to mouth or they are thinking of the way they can only manage to survive. The situations behind this perpetual situation that confront the people in Africa differ from one country to another. Central to the problem is inadequate technology, unskilled labor, and poor rural infrastructure. Despite the leading possessor in terms of resources among the continents in the world  incomplete sentence

"… Low levels of production technology, high illiteracy rates and under developed rural infrastructure …The irony of Africans (Africans'?) problem is that the continent is the richest continent in terms of resources in the world. According to African Kingdom Business Forum, Africa today is known from statistics to be the most resource rich continent on the face of the earth. Available statistics as at 1997According to a World Bank report on Gender, Poverty and Environmental Indicators on Africa (2002-2003) …" (Nana Kumapremereh Nketiah, 2004:2) No need to put quotations in italics. Reread the original. There appear to be some problems getting the exact words and punctuation down.

The implication is that the availability of resources in a particular continent or country does not necessarily mean that poverty will be done away with; certain things have to be put in place such as good governance, technology, education, and change of attitudes. Though there is relation between saving and poverty reduction, the poor man in Africa cannot even afford the bread for the day to talk of putting something aside for the future (Nketiah, 2004). It is implicit in the work of Nketiah (2004) that the way for the poor to live is to save but this is a fallacy. The only way for the poor people is to copy ?? for the rest of their lives?? on the earth. The life of the poor will deteriorate, impaired, and above all perish if the poor people in Africa and for that matter Ghana attempt to save. Explain the statement. You need evidence or some justification for this statement. In the so called developed countries in the east known as Asian tigers (list them?), the success (what success? Economic development?) was attributed (by whom?) to the internal generation of resources [suggested by some researchers which worth little consideration  I don't know what you are trying to say here]. The fact of the matter is that there were very strong external influences used as experiment which are not known to these researchers, no matter how hard work and sacrifice by the, poverty can never be eliminated on earth (Nketiah, 2004).better management strategies can be adapted. These last two sentences are incomplete.

For a master's thesis, I would expect an understanding of basic concepts like absolute poverty, relative poverty, and a hybrid of the two. It would also be relevant to consider the resource curse thesis. You might also read up on other relevant concepts, such as globalization (unless that is too tall an order). You may need to travel to another area, such as Tamale or Accra, for a library that will have relevant materials.

CHAPTER THREE

3.0 METHODOLOGY

3.1 CASE STUDY.

In the case study, a particular situation out of a lot is carefully studied in different perspectives that will enable you to have in-depth study of the case (Gäre & Göransson, 2007). In this study, it is management with meager income less than a dollar a day. This particular method will help you to in getting the actual information on the ground, since there is focus and concentration on one or a few objects and this makes the study understandable, trusted and reliable as compared to other ordinary surveys like the Statistical Living Standard Survey. The essence of case study is when one has the intention to develop a hypothesis, since they go into detail or specific issues to discover the unknown.  Are you sure about this? I thought that you were not going to have a hypothesis in your work. Taken into consideration the outcome of the study, there is certainty that you can come out with hypothesis and possibly examine it in other studies (Jacobsson, 2002:95, cited in Hanna Gäre & Caroline Göransson, 2007). You are stating it twice so a hypothesis must be very important to this study. Looking at the other side of the coin, the setback mostly critiqued is impossibility to generalize the work to other areas which is one of the purposes of this research work. No, generalization to other areas is not possible. What you can say is that people can be informed by what is going on in one area, it may help them reflect on what is going on in their own areas, even if there are major differences. To resolve this controversy, I employ other methods such as interviews, focus group discussions, and distance observations. (Lundahl, U., Skärvard, 1999: 195 cited in Hanna Gäre & Caroline Göransson, 2007).  Is Lundahl the last name? If so, don't include U Skarvard. The case persons are my co-worker and his other co-tenants and the rest are found in the community in which I am presently working. This makes it a wonderful and exciting case to study. I don't understand. You are studying your co-worker? And your co-tenants? Or your co-worker's co-tenants? State more clearly who is in your case study, and justify why they are included (e.g., low income, knowledge of income source).

FOCUS GROUP DISCUSSION

Start this section by describing what a focus group is, and why/how it can be useful for your research.

(sarantakos, 2005). Why are you referencing Sarantakos before you have written anything in this section? The method can be categorised into two, structured or semi-structured qualitative and structured form quantities (structured form quantities? What is that?) depending on one area of research (Stewart and Shamdassani, 1990, cited in Sarantakos, 2005). Most qualitative researchers prefer this method (Morgan 1996, cited in Sarantakos, 2005). I don't know what you are saying in this paragraph. Is it about focus groups? Or about qualitative research in general?

This method will be appropriate for this topic:( How people manage to live on their meager income less than a dollar a day) since each and every one in the group will be given the opportunity to provide information for discussion among the group to get in-depth issues pertaining to the subject. "According to Sarantakos (2005:195, citing Dreher and Dreher, 1991; and Mariner, 1986), a focus group "explains trends, variances, reasons, causes, attitudes and opinions...". The group discussion can generate vital information about how people solve their own problems "…enable the testing of group strategies in solving the problem…" flick 1998 (cited in Sarantakos, 2005). Capitalize names. Complete the sentences. Add page numbers for all quotes. This method can come out with a lot of Varity of information and reveal into detail the unknown.

Your methods will need a lot more detail. You need to explain about observations, focus groups, interviews, sampling, and analysis, among other issues. It would help to give some sequence to your method - what happened first, and then what? You will need to provide a much fuller explanation of your methods.