Inclusion Of Students With Learning Disabilities Education Essay

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Over the last two decades, there has been a great deal of interest in research related to inclusion of students with learning disabilities. The importance of investigating Learning Disabilities and their complex relationship with Individualized Education Plan (IEP) has led to the development of different definitions of models of the mental retardation as a medical or a social , Psychometric and Education . The notion of inclusive education, which aims to engage special needs students holistically, is a relatively 'new' movement, at least in the Arab world. In particular, there seems to be a shortage of qualitative research conducted on Learning Disabled and its relations with (IEP) in the Saudi context. Moreover, Special Education has a preference over other traditional approaches of education in that it does not deal with students with special needs according to certain developing standards. Instead, it deals with those students as independent individuals who have certain abilities and needs. It is important to diagnose the kind of retardation they have in addition to assessing their abilities in order to determine their current level of performance, which is considered the base upon which annual objectives for the Individualized Education Program (IEP) is built. Many professionals in the (IEP) see that the individualized education plan is considered one of the main aspects in developing the special education program. It is the base for any other training and educational activities for students with special needs (Haroon, 2004).

The process of fully including L\D students in Saudi mainstream school settings is rather complex and multidimensional. The education authorities' claim that there is provision of inclusive education but in reality the practice shows that it merely provides an access to ordinary schools settings (self-contained classrooms). This means that it partially accomplishes only one level of inclusion, that of providing effective educational engagement and respect (Mithaug, 1998).

In the Saudi context, as in other parts of the world, there have been significant changes in the way in which SEN pupils receive their education. Since the beginning of applying new inclusion policy and practice (1997), there has been a major transition from the traditional mode of teaching L\D students within a long-established special schools framework (called institutions in Saudi) towards emphasis on acknowledging their various needs to be effectively engaged and respected in schools that are well prepared to allocate them. Therefore, it is central in this investigation to explore the complexity of Learning Disabilities seen as a deficit/disability by the medical, a socio-cultural minority, Psychometric and Education interpretation.

Significance of the Study and Contribution to Knowledge

This study is significant for the fact that the best of my knowledge, it is the first empirical endeavor to be undertaken in the Saudi context. Another significance of this study is that it is concerned with identifying the barriers, which stand against applying the (IEP) as determined by teachers of Learning disabled students' point of view. These barriers affect the process of providing those students with the educational services. Knowing these barriers is also important in order to plan the proper strategies to stop or limit the disadvantages caused by them. It also helps the instructors to put the outlines, which assure applying the (IEP), according to the huge effect in creating a new spirit for the work and improving the level of educational services provided for Learning disabled students. As a result, this will increase creativity and this is the most important process. Finally, it is hoped that the current study will also pave the way for more qualitative research on Learning Disabled and its relations with (IEP) in Saudi Arabia and in the Middle East generally. It is also hope that the study will contribute to the ongoing debate about inclusion of students with learning disabilities literature and special needs education in general.

The nature of the problem

My experience in a Disable Learner in the city of Riyadh shows that there is a that lack of knowledge base of IEP among teachers of special needs in general and Disabled Learner teachers in particular. My experience also shows that implementation of IEP by these teachers is either weak at best or absent at worst. There also seems to be barriers that could stand against teachers' use of the IEP, which could negatively affect the flexibility and team-work features that characterized EIP and consequently could only lead to undesirable outcomes.

It is important to realize the potential of teachers' knowledge of IEP in identifying and handling obstacles which in turn could improve their practice and enable them to adopt approaches that best suit the Learners Disabled. Some of these barriers, for example, are: absence of assistant teacher, large classroom size, lack of In-Service training in IEP and lack of family participation. Added to this is unawareness of the importance of both multidisciplinary teamwork as well as ICT as crucial elements in planning and implementing IEP.

Research aims

This study focuses on teachers of Intellection disabilities using IEP in teaching students with Intellection disabilities Based on the research problem discussed above, the current study is an attempt to investigate best ways in which teachers can implement IEP as well as ways in which these teachers can approach obstacles that could hinder the implementation of IEP.

Historical of Special Education Needs.

One of the most significant current discussions in legal and moral philosophy is history of special education needs. The history of special education of important dates in the dates of other sciences, but there is considerable controversy about its history where there was no scientists interested in him because it began in the form of an individual's, there was a great arguments on around it.(Derrick,2003)

it can be seen that ,people with special needs are more ,special' than other and they were not able benefit from the educational programs provided which is taken account Unless laws and special legislation are made for handicapped .(Fred,1986)

In the history of development special needs , it has been thought of as a key factor in educational research. In the nineteenth century and even now, it seemed interest in the field of special education and provide all the services provided to children with special needs, such as legislation and educational programs for each category of special education.

In addition, throughout history challenge attitudes towards individuals with special needs, and have always tended toward the negative. It Was seen as a disabled individual to be a burden on society financially, in addition to the mind of the spirit and the abomination of Satan (Alrousan,1998).According to Ronald and Graham (1992) The concept of special education is hidden and encompasses a wide range of disabilities . there is considerable controversy about the dissatisfaction about the term specific use in the handicapped people. Peer ( ) pointed out that the development term of special education through contributions to efforts started in the form of an individual organization is concerned with some disabilities. For example, in the field of mental retardation in the early nineteenth century it efforts taken by educational Pioneers in many countries of the world such as Itard ,Seguin and Montessori . they were the pioneers of special education in the field of mental disabilities. In Greeks and Romans period a disabled person who did not suitable for life and must be disembarrass of him or her and also were used for entertainment and amusement. In the Christian period was the mainstream for persons with disabilities were a kind of humanity and acceptance in community. By Contrast, Islam called non-discrimination between human beings and called for the establishment of equality between them, and is characterized by the Muslim community in dealing with non-ordinary nature of justice, equality and humanity, that the status of humanity in how to deal with others are characteristic of the Arab-Islamic culture.(Fayyad,1983). It seems that the development serving special needs people has gone through several main legislations. First , Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). This law was the first special law to the disabled and this is called the law ' the Education Act all persons with disabilities issued in 1975, Which carries with it certain requirements of various States is helping to provide education for all students with disabilities. Second, section 504 the Rehabilitation Act. it included a decision on rehabilitation, Public law L. 93 -112 Rehabilitation Act, Which was adopted in 1977, stated that individuals with disabilities cannot be deported from any program or activity funded by the federal government just for disability only Finally, family Education Rights and privacy Act of 1974, it emphasized to Protect the rights of disabled children and parents and supported funding for their education free.( Brookshire, Roy, Klotz, Jack. (2002). It appears, however, that the perspective of special education needs from legislation still focus on The principle of the least restrictive Environment of the people with special needs.

Definition of special education needs

"special needs is about giving exceptional consideration and providing exceptional help to those whose needs (whether by reason of special gifts or, in the more generally accepted sense, significant handicaps, disorders or difficulties) are greatest, whilst at the same time acknowledging their entitlement to maximum participation in the social , political, cultural and religious aspects of life which we all share"(Fred,1986,p.1-2).

Furthermore, The field of special education from the fields of educational which has witnessed many changes and trends as a result of changes from negative to positive towards the members of this category . As Derrick has indicated special education, like other social science , refers that there are strengths and weaknesses in this science and can be debated and solve problems attitudes to towards persons with disabilities (2003). If we play sufficiency attention for this defining, it can be seen that , The issue of special needs has been a controversial and much disputed subject within the field of educational . The education authorities' claim that there is general provisions of special education needs , people with special education needs achieve a degree of social consensus and psychological and vocational education if the process be used by individual education plan which meet the special educational needs arising from disability .

On the other hand, In view of these mainstreams on the importance of issuing laws and legislation for those with special educational needs, we find that many countries have taken the initiative to pass laws and legislation for the disabled; So I'll take a look at some of the laws and legislation for those with special educational needs at the international stage and local stage. Britain's experience

In the seventies of this century , Britain has seen increasingly rapid advances in the field of special education needs which is interested with the issuing of laws and legislation for those with special educational needs, and this interest has come after the issuance of Act . 94/142 of the United States of America. Britain government has shown a clear interest in children with special needs. In a study of Len and Sally found that the Warnock Report, involve the rights and legislation for children with special needs, This report covers the dimensions of special education, classifications of special education, concept of learning schooling , merge the academic and private schools, continuing education, resource centers, early education, measurement , diagnosis, and teacher training.(1981). We can be noted that from the above view of some laws and legislation for the disabled that there is great interest in the laws and legislation and in particular at the international level has held international conferences, which issued recommendations for the rights of disabled persons and the responsibility of the State and the international community towards them such as of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in 1948 , the Declaration on the Rights of Retarded mentally in 1971 and the issuance of the Declaration on the United Nations in 1975, which decided the necessity of respecting the human dignity of persons with disabilities and protect their rights just like the rest of the misfits. Despite the fact that, Derrick(2003)states that , in twentieth, the special education is growth policy marks and educational people who have aware the concept of special education It can be said that , Special education system in Britain is interested in providing the best educational programs for the disabled in the presence of Laws and legislation for the disabled.

Special education needs in Saudi Arabia

I will describe the current situation of Special education needs in Saudi Arabia on the whole . In the middle of 1987, there was a major shift in the mode of special needs legislations and the ways under which they should receive their education .the first law in Saudi Arabia established(the law of persons with disabilities) which based on the law on a number of social foundations, educational and most important of which: equality disabled rights and international laws which were issued in the field of legislation and the rights of persons with disabilities.(Rousan, 1998). By 2000, Saudi Arabia had 13,914 pupils dispersed into 226 programmes in a variety of settings starting from special schools with residential facilities to mainstream schools with supporting units. By 2001 the number had increased to 901 institutions and various types of schools that had joined the mainstream movement (Al-Mosa, 2005). Today, laws of special education needs is providing educational services are helping more SEN students who were not served before, such as those who have autistic, motor or multiple, physical disabilities, hard of hearing, and learning disabled. (Al-Mosa, 2007) According to Oliver( 1996; p. 94): "The history of the twentieth century for disabled people has been one of exclusion. The twenty-first century will see the struggle of disabled people for inclusion goes from strength to strength. In such a struggle, special segregated education has no role to play."

. Historical of Intellectual Disability

Over the past decades, the role of special needs education in human life has been vital in every society. At present, living standards and quality of education could be the since middle of human history. As a result, many societies have achieved unprecedented levels of education , income per capita and civil participation. In this context, the term ' special needs education' refers to imparting knowledge, skills and attitudes. special needs education is not only what people obtain through formal schooling, but also through informal learning and it is a life-long learning process. Also, 'progress in special needs' can be defined as improvements and sustainable developments in health care, the economy and social status. Also, there has been a great deal of interest in researching intellectual disabled students 'Disability, not only in Saudi Arabia but all around the globe. The importance of investigating I\D and its complex relationship with disability, has led to the development of different terms , of models of the I \D as medical ,psychometric, social and education. On the other hand, there seems to be a shortage of qualitative educational research on Intellectual Disability and its relation with special education needs. According to J. Zen Meservy, M.D. (2008,p.7): "The term intellectual disability covers the same population of individuals who were diagnosed previously with mental retardation in number, kind, level, type, and duration of the disability and the need of people with this disability for individualized services and supports. Furthermore, every individual who is or was eligible for a diagnosis of mental retardation is eligible for a diagnosis of intellectual disability ". Clearly, the I\D refers There are different kinds of mental retardation such as a simple MR, mild MR and severe MR. measures must be diagnosed by mental retardation which it provides appropriate educational programs through individual educational plan. Helpfully , (Karyoti, carcinoid, Samadi, 1995, p 67-68) reveal a succinct brief of basic stages of the Learning Disability which are ,they indicated ,fourfold. First , stage of genocide, The human societies in ancient times to get rid of the weak and disabled children the most prominent examples, "Plato's Republic," which called out the need of persons with disabilities outside the boundaries of the State until they are destroyed,. secondly, neglect phase: In this phase of negative responses for the mentally disabled are rid of them with death or removal to death, but living in the community are left abandoned without any help to them. Thirdly, phase of fundamental care : in this phase calls under the auspices of the weak, the sick, the disabled and other disadvantaged groups in society, and characterized this phase of care for mentally retarded and provide them with food , drink and find homes for the mentally retarded, . finally, stage of education and rehabilitation, This phase started with the last of the eighteenth century and the beginning of the nineteenth century and the start of this stage was characterized by attempts to train mentally retarded and rehabilitation. Besides , The efforts of a French doctor Itard who were the real beginning of this stage and Segiun who opened in 1854 the first boarding school for the mentally retarded, and efforts Maria montessorei who established in 1897 a school for the mentally retarded. After World War second, increased attention to the disabled in general as a result of efforts to foster the war-disabled and wounded soldiers, and continued attention to the disabled and increased awareness of the problem of disability through the Universal Declaration of Rights of Disabled Persons who was adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations in 1971. It can be said that, In view of these stages we find that they ranged from isolation to openness in the upbringing and care and rehabilitation. As a result ,started to kill them and isolate them from society completely, and then reached the final stage is the stage of training and rehabilitation in the community in general. Moreover, prevailing view that findings in Learning Disability research have related to the notion of general education .This means that it created a important role in education of Intellectual Disability .(Brian,1976). Peter L. Tyor and Leland V. Bell. (1984) disagree, and argue that oddly enough, the past two decade , social structure services have not provided to the people with Intellectual disability. There seems to be considerable debate about the concept of mental retardation and services which have provided for the disabled . Therefore, it is important revisions of legislations of special needs and commitment to the implementation.

Definition of Intellectual Disability