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As present day responsible citizens (as we should be) and future years successful leaders (as we wish to be), let us have a serious discussion and an effective interaction on the prevailing education system that is followed in the UK, of its advantages and disadvantages, aiming to improve or even rebuild the system to lead the country to a better future. The only purpose of education is to teach a student how to live his life-by developing his mind and equipping him to deal with reality. The training he needs is theoretical, i.e., conceptual. He has to be taught to think, to understand, to integrate, to prove. He has to be taught the essentials of the knowledge discovered in the past, and he has to be equipped to acquire further knowledge by his own effort.
The main objective of this study is to investigate Chinese and Saudi Arabian students' use of computers, and differences between Chinese and Saudi Arabian students in their use of computers at the University of Central Lancashire. Besides that, this study seeks to determine the different levels of Chinese and Saudi Arabian students comparatively in using computers. Apart from these facts, this study seeks also to examine how to improve the University of Central Lancashire's management, environment, living conditions, and facilities in order to attract more Chinese and Saudi Arabian students to come and study at the University of Central Lancashire.
Primary data was collected by using questionnaires. The questionnaires were distributed to all University of Central Lancashire Chinese and Saudi Arabian students who are studying at Foundation Campus. Data collected was analyzed utilizing the SPSS version 16.0 computer software program. The results indicate that the University of Central Lancashire Chinese and Saudi Arabian students are moderate in almost every section, although using the computer differently while studying in the school.
Since 1990, there has been tremendous growth in the use of computers by Chinese and Saudi Arabian students. While in 1990, the average number of hours a student spent on the computer was about one hour per week, this number grew to nearly four hours per week by 1995, and to approximately 20 hours per week by the year 2000. This significant growth in the use of computers by the Chinese and Saudi Arabian students in the 1990s can be attributed to several factors. Since the UK began welcoming foreign students in the early 1980s, the numbers have increased rapidly, and there are now about 66,000 international students enrolled in the country's schools and universities, including more than 14,000 international students attending public universities. This growing number of international students heads to the UK in order to take advantage of the British educational system.
The reality is that international students are now essential to UK university survival, both from a financial and a relevance point of view. The revenues generated by these students are essential for many universities. No less important is the fact that UK universities, particularly in business areas, must be seen to be relevant in the new global network. If the UK is to maintain and grow its share in this vital market, there is a need to understand what the prospective students of the 21st century are looking for.
The United Kingdom is situated northwest of the European continent, between the Atlantic Ocean and the North Sea. It has a total land area of 244,100 square kilometres (Sources: www.google.com). Recent developments are putting the UK more prominently on the world map, as it focuses on becoming a knowledge-based economy. To develop world-class quality education and to meet the demands and requirements of the new millennium, as well as to affirm the position of English as a world language, the Government has initiated major educational reforms by formulating new legislation on education.
1.2 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
In recent years, due to encouragement and promotion by the UK Ministry of Education, there are an increasing number of international students studying in the UK. The UK has many public universities, including Foundation Campuses. These are comprised of the University of Central Lancashire, London South Bank University, and Coventry University.
The University of Central Lancashire (UCLan), situated in the heart of the northwest of England, is going global and is evolving every day. They are now one of the largest universities in the UK with students and staff numbering more than 35,000. There are 500 undergraduate courses and 180 postgraduate courses, and that is not all. UCLan was created in 1992, but its roots go back to 1828, the humble beginnings of the founding of the Institution for the Diffusion of Knowledge. From this small acorn, the university has propelled itself into becoming a major player both at home and across the world. Around 70 percent of UCLan's students come from the Northwest and the university is proving to be a vital heartbeat to the region's booming regeneration. It employs 3,000 people, has a turnover of £120m a year, and contributes £300m to the regional economy. It has established itself as one of the leading providers of quality education, offering programs in Engineering, Computing, Management, and Design (Sources from: www.FoundationCampus). These programs are tailored to meet the nation's needs for qualified professionals in order to facilitate its progress into the next millennium. (Sources based on: www.uclan.ac.uk).
1.3 PROBLEM STATEMENT
In the UK, there are three main Foundation Campuses that have attracted international students: the University of Central Lancashire, London South Bank University, and Coventry University. The University of Central Lancashire appears to be positioning itself as an educational hub. Furthermore, it faces tough competition in attracting students from China and Saudi Arabia to study in its institutions of higher education. Numerous studies have determined that Chinese and Saudi Arabian students' approaches to the use of computers are different from one another and other students. Research has also shown that these different approaches result in differences in social and educational experiences.
Indeed, the Chinese and Saudi Arabian students, being from different educational and social environments, are also expected to show differences in their approaches to using computers. Thus, this will create problems in the University of Central Lancashire. Therefore, if the UK is to maintain and grow its share in the educational market there is a need to understand these differences between the Chinese and Saudi Arabian students studying in UCLan in using the computer.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1.4.1 What are the usage style preferences and approaches of international students from China and Saudi Arabia?
1.4.2 How does their demographic background, such as country of origin, gender, and age affect their different computer usage orientations?
1.4.3 What are the initial usage problems faced by the Chinese and Saudi Arabian students at UCLan?
1.4.4 How can the staff cater to the Chinese and Saudi Arabian students' differences in computer usage at the University of Central Lancashire?
1.5 RESEARCH OBJECTIVES
1.5.1 To investigate the usage style preferences and approaches of international students from China and Saudi Arabia.
1.5.2 To examine how their demographic background, such as country of origin, gender, and age affect their different computer usage orientations.
1.5.3 To highlight the initial usage problems faced by the Chinese and Saudi Arabian students at UCLan.
1.5.4 To gain insight and assist the staff in catering to the differences in computer use between Chinese and Saudi Arabian students in the University of Central Lancashire, and, hopefully, to overcome the difficulties.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This research might help UCLan and its staff to improve the usage, management methods, and styles in order to cater to the differences between the international students, especially from China and Saudi Arabia. This may also help UCLan to identify and acknowledge distinctiveness among the international students, especially in dealing with students of Chinese and Saudi Arabian background.
This research can be used as a source of information for the local students to understand the computer usage differences and other distinctiveness of international students. This is due to the fact that different countries may have different computer usage approaches and styles. On the other hand, this research can also benefit the Chinese and Saudi Arabian students; they can express their feelings and the difficulties that they encounter during computer use while studying in the University of Central Lancashire.
1.6.3 Future Researcher
This research could give insight to other researchers in studying the differences between international students, especially students from China and Saudi Arabia.
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This research only focuses on the international students from China and Saudi Arabia studying at the Foundation Campus Programme in the Faculty of Business and Finance. The respondents will include students studying in various semesters and different years.
This research will only focus on the University of Central Lancashire Foundation Campus. This is due to the fact that this Foundation Campus holds a majority of Chinese and Saudi Arabian students. Currently, there are around 200 Chinese and Saudi Arabian students enrolled in business courses in the Faculty of Business and Finance.
This research discusses the differences in computer usage styles and learning approaches of students of Chinese and Saudi Arabian origin studying at the University of Central Lancashire. It also focuses on the problems and difficulties faced by these students.
1.8 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
This research will only be focused on one location, which is in University of Central Lancashire Foundation Campus. Thus the information gathered will be limited to students that are studying in this particular location and will not represent the whole population of Chinese and Saudi Arabian students in UCLan. As we know, UCLan has many faculties and branches in China and Saudi Arabia, but due to time constraints the researcher will not be able to cover all of the locations.
1.8.2 Sample Size
A limited number of respondents will be selected as a sample size, so that this will limit the information that can be gained by the researcher. In fact, there are many students from China and Saudi Arabia studying in the various faculties of the Foundation Campus; the limited number of the sample size may not represent the whole of Chinese and Saudi Arabian students, and this could lead to inappropriate information when considering the whole population.
1.8.3 Research Questions
The research questions will only focus on computer usage differences faced by the Chinese and Saudi Arabian students and will not cover other aspects of study, such as cultural differences and general usage styles. The scope of this study is limited to the areas covered, and, due to time limitations, the researcher will not be able to focus on broader aspects.
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS
1.9.1 Conceptual Terms: Use
The Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary (2008) defines use as "to put into service or apply for a purpose; employ, to avail oneself of; practice, to conduct oneself toward; treat or handle, to seek or achieve an end by means of; exploit, to take or consume; partake of."
Student The Cambridge, Advanced Learner's Dictionary (2008) defines student as "A person engaged in study; one who is devoted to learning; a learner; a pupil; a scholar; especially, one who attends a school, or who seeks knowledge from professional teachers or from books; as, the students of an academy, a college, or a university; a medical student; a hard student."
Chinese The Cambridge, Advanced Learner's Dictionary (2008) defines Chinese as "referring to anything pertaining to China; specifically it may refer to its people or culture."
Saudi Arabian The Cambridge, Advanced Learner's Dictionary (2008) defines Saudi Arabian as "a person from Saudi Arabia or of Saudi Arabian descent, of, from, or pertaining to Saudi Arabia, the Saudi Arabian people or language."
Foundation Campus Offers successful international students guaranteed entry to a wide range of degree courses at major UK universities at both undergraduate and Master's level (sources: adapted from http://www.ceg-uk.com/en/foundation-campus/home/).
1.9.2 Operational Terms
Use The Cambridge, Advanced Learner's Dictionary (2008) defines use as "to put into service or apply for a purpose; employ, to avail oneself of; practice, to conduct oneself toward; treat or handle, to seek or achieve an end by means of; exploit, to take or consume; partake of."
Student "Student" is mentioned by the dictionary as someone who is committed to achieving an educational goal and has a desire to learn.
Chinese Refers to a person of Chinese descent, or to any of the Sino-Tibetan languages spoken in China, regarded as dialects of a single language (even though they can be mutually unintelligible) because they share an ideographic writing system.
Saudi Arabian The Cambridge, Advanced Learner's Dictionary (2008) defines Saudi Arabian as "a person from Saudi Arabia or of Saudi Arabian descent, of, from, or pertaining to Saudi Arabia, the Saudi Arabian people or language."
Foundation Campus Offers successful international students guaranteed entry to a wide range of degree courses at major UK universities at both undergraduate and Master's level (source: adapted from http://www.ceg-uk.com/en/foundation-campus/home/).
This chapter provides an introduction to the Foundation Campus study with regards to the students' use of computer: differences between Chinese and Saudi Arabian students in the University of Central Lancashire. The chapter presents an overview of the study, background of the study, problem statement, research questions, research objectives, significance of the study, scope of the study, limitations of the study, and definitions of terms upon which the study is based.
In this chapter, the reader will be exposed to various information and studies pertaining to the research questions and their backgrounds. Before proceeding with the analysis, the researcher will briefly review the concepts of the computer and its usage among students. In addition to that, various past researches that are related to the subject matter will also be presented here.
According to various dictionaries, the term "Use or Utilization" is generally referred to as making something serve one's purpose. The word "Use" is a general word which can be implied as to use a telephone, to use a saw, to use one's eyes or to use eggs in cooking.
The term "Use" also can be defined in terms of "Consumed". For example, a used automobile or butter that has been used. On the other hand, the term "Use" can also be implied to some selfish or sinister purpose, for instance; to use another or to advance oneself.
The word "Utilize" entails practical or profitable use, such as to utilize the means at hand or a modern system of lighting.
2.3 USES OF COMPUTERS AND SOFTWARE
Basically, there are numerous uses of computers and software. They are:
With computers and their software, word processing allows for automatic spelling and grammar checking, in addition to which, if the content of a document repeats, you may use copy and paste features, which allow you to save time and are user friendly. You may even print documents and make several copies of your work. This includes producing different types of certificates or greeting cards. Moreover, it is easier to read a word-processed document than a handwritten document. Additionally, computers allow for images to be added to your document.
The Internet is a network to other computers on the globe. With internet access in a computer, you may browse through and get connected to more additional information than you possibly could in a library. This is due to the fact that computers are able to store enormous amounts of information, allowing for fast and convenient access to it. Examples of information that can be gathered from the internet include news or marriage possibilities. Apparently, there are many websites which allow you to read the latest or old news. Other than that, there are matrimonial sites through which one can search for a suitable bride or groom.
Through E-mail and Instant Messaging, you are able to reach and communicate with a person whose distance is thousands of miles away from you in just seconds. Instant Messaging is chat software which allows a person to chat with another person on a real-time basis. Apart from that, rapid video conferencing tools are also being used and made available to the common person.
With internet, you are also able to visit many alumni websites which help you to regain contact with your classmates.
Digital video or audio composition
Audio and video composition and editing have been made much easier by computers. Nowadays, film and music producers are no longer bearing the high costs of video or audio equipment just to compose music or make a film. With the benefit of computers, many graphics engineers are taking the advantage of using computers to generate short or full-length films or even to create three-dimensional models. Anybody owning a computer these days can easily enter the field of media production by making, for example, special effects in science fiction and action movies.
With the help of desktop publishing, one is able to create layout pages for entire books on his personal computer.
Computers in Medicine
With the help of computers, medical officers are able to diagnose diseases and come up with cures for such diseases. There are plenty of medical software uses to examine the internal organs of the human body and which are used for performing surgery. In addition to that, computers are used to store patients' data.
Thanks to computers, mathematical calculations and computations can be made with great speed.
Institutions such as Banks, Travel Agencies, Telecommunications Firms, Defence Organizations, Shops and Supermarkets
For Banks, the uses of computers are extensive as they provide security, speed and convenience for all financial transactions. Computer software even authenticates the user and dispenses cash from an ATM machine.
With regards to travel agencies, one can book his journey--flight or railway tickets--or even make hotel reservations online.
Telecommunications firms, on the other hand, utilize computers widely. This can be seen with all mobile phones having software embedded in them.
For defence organizations, there is software that is embedded in almost every weapon, which is used for controlling the flight and targeting in ballistic missiles. Furthermore, software is used to control access to atomic bombs.
Other than that, shops and supermarkets also use software, which allows them to calculate the bills. The other uses of computers by these companies are for performing accounting or bookkeeping, for calculating payment of taxes, and for predicting future trends of business. This is done with the help of artificial intelligence software. Moreover, software is also used when trading in the stock market online.
Computers can be used for learning from e-learning software. Sometimes, for students who are studying on a part time basis, e-learning software will help them to learn if they are unable to attend face to face lectures.
With computers, students are able to sit for their exams and receive instant results online.
Software installed in computers is able to examine content for plagiarism.
Planning and Scheduling
Software on computers can be helpful to store important contact information, generating on-going plans, scheduling appointments with clients, and meeting deadlines.
Weather Analysis and Forecast
Supercomputers are used to analyze and forecast weather.
Operations of Robotics, washing machines, microwave ovens, aeroplanes
Thanks to computers and software, we are able to use these machines and equipment for the benefit of living. These machines have definitely eased the performance of our daily tasks.
Now, with the wide usage of computers and internet, many gamblers are able to try their luck by gambling online without going to the casino.
In the sports field, there is software that is used for making umpiring decisions. Furthermore, there is simulation software that allows a sportsperson to practice his or her skills. Here also, computers are able to identify flaws in technique.
(Sources: Based on http://www.buzzle.com/articles/uses-of-computer.html)
2.4 TYPES OF COMPUTERS AND THEIR USAGE
(Sources from: www.google.com)
2.5 REASONS FOR CHINESE AND SAUDI ARABIAN STUDENTS INTEREST IN USING COMPUTERS AT THE UCLan LIBRARY
Basically, the reason for such interest in computer usage among students at the UCLan Library is due to the fact that there are many computers and laptops that are available for loan within the building.
2.6 PERSONAL COMPUTER GUIDE - EASY PROCESSES
Get to know the PC hardware
Install external devices and software
Move files to a new PC
Manage digital images
Choose anti-virus software
Keep files safe
Send and receive emails
Understand PC jargon
2.7 REASONS FOR CHINESE AND SAUDI ARABIAN STUDENTS' USAGE OF LAPTOPS
The main advantage that can be derived from the usage of a laptop compared to a personal desktop is that of reduced size and mobility. Apart from that, the price of the laptop is generally more expensive, but it comes with impressive performance. The laptop's hardware configuration is much less adaptable, even though it is possible to connect additional external peripherals thanks to its numerous I/O ports.
Hence, the motivation of buying a laptop must indeed above all be a need for mobility or a need to save space. In addition to that, with the emergence of the wireless networks, and the WiFi in particular, it is very easy and hassle free to connect to the Internet in public such as hot-spots or simply in any room of your home as long as it is equipped with a WiFi terminal (Sources from: http://www.google.com/).
To sum up, this chapter has summarized the literature review that supports the study, particularly on the uses of the computer, the types and differences, the reason for Chinese and Saudi Arabian students' interest in using computers at the UCLan library, a personal computer guide to the easier processes, and the reasons behind the Chinese and Saudi Arabian students' usage of lap tops.
Research is an intensive and purposeful search for knowledge and understanding of social and physical phenomena. Further, research is a scientific activity undertaken to establish something: a fact, a theory, a principle, or an application. While research methodology is a way to systematically solve the research problems, it may be understood as a science of studying how research is done scientifically. In this research, there are various steps that are generally adopted by the researcher in studying the research problem, along with the logic behind them.
3.2 RESEARCH DESIGN
In this study, the research problems have been formulated in clearly defined terms, therefore the researcher is required to prepare a research design.
Research design is a set of advance decisions that make up the master plan specifying the methods and procedures for collecting and analyzing the needed information. The significance of research design is to make some decisions in advance about the best plan to resolve the problem and match the given problem and research objective (Uma Sekaran, 2003). In other words, the function of research design is to provide for the collection of relevant evidence with minimal expenditure of effort, time, and money.
Exploratory research is the most unstructured, informal research that is undertaken to gain background information about the general nature of the research problem. Research is undertaken to describe the answers to who, what, where, when, how, while being descriptive. It is desirable, when we wish to project a study finding to a large population, that the study's sample be representative.
This research is a descriptive research design because it is applied research. This research focuses on differences of students' computer usage between Chinese and Saudi Arabian students at the University of Central Lancashire. Descriptive study is chosen in order to ascertain and be able to describe the characteristics of the variables of interests in this situation. It is based on a clear statement of the problem and specifications of the information needed.
Descriptive research is undertaken to describe answers to questions of who, what, where, and how. The goal of descriptive study, hence, is to offer to the researcher a profile or to describe relevant aspects of the phenomena of interest from individual, organizational, industry-oriented, and other perspectives (Uma Sekaran, 2003). In this study, descriptive research design is undertaken to identify any differences in using computers, as well as styles and approaches adopted by Chinese and Saudi Arabian students while studying at the University of Central Lancashire.
3.3 SAMPLING DESIGN
Population refers to the entire group of people, events, or things of interest that the researcher wishes to investigate in this study.
The targeted populations in this research are students that are of Chinese and Saudi Arabian origin who are studying various courses and at various semesters at the Foundation Campus. The total population is around 200 students. According to (Uma, Sekaran, 2003), sample size for this given population size dictates that only 100 respondents be chosen. The respondents are randomly selected from different semesters and years.
3.3.2 Sampling Method
This research is the non-probability sampling design because there is no probability attached to the choosing of a sample subject. This means that the findings from the study of the sample cannot be confidently generalized to the overall population. Sometimes non-probability sampling can be the only way to obtain data. Some non-probability sampling plans are more dependable than others and can offer some important leads to potential useful information with regards to the population (Uma Sekaran, 2003).
In this study, convenient sampling is used. Convenient sampling refers to the collection of information from the members of the population who are conveniently available to provide it. The questionnaires will be distributed to the Chinese and Saudi Arabian students from different disciplines, semesters and provinces of origin.
3.4 PROCESS OF DATA COLLECTION
The present research involves collection of data from primary and secondary sources, and it presents them in quantitative terms. It stimulates the process of understanding on the one hand and deepens the insight on the other. This research is objective and logical, applying every possible test to verify the data collected and procedures employed.
3.4.1 Primary Data
Primary data refers to information obtained first-hand by the researcher on the variables of interests for the specific purpose of the study and also data gathered for research from the actual site of occurrence of events. Some examples of primary data are observations, personal interviews, telephone interviews, and questionnaires. The internet could also serve as a primary data source when questionnaires are administrated over it. In this study the primary data are used to examine how computers are used differently among the Chinese students from China, and Saudi Arabian students from Saudi Arabia. In this research, 100 questionnaires pertaining to the differences in computer usage of students were distributed randomly to Chinese and Saudi Arabian students. The questionnaire was given to the respondents with a request to return it after completing the questions.
3.4.2 Secondary Data
Secondary data are those that have been collected for the purpose other than the problem at hand. According to (Stewart and Kamins ,1993), the data that are already collected and achieved in some fashion are referred to as secondary information. Secondary information is an inexpensive data source that facilitates the research process in several ways. It is useful in comparing findings from different studies and in examining trends. Secondary data can be classified as internal data and external data.
a) Internal data
Internal data are those that are generated within the organization for which the research is being conducted. This information is available in the organization's annual reports, pamphlets, and brochures, and also information routinely supplied by the management decision support system.
b) External data
External data are those that are generated by sources outside the organization. Those data exist in the form of published material, on line databases, or syndicated services. External data are gathered from journals, books, magazines, articles, newspaper cuttings and the Internet.
3.5 RESEARCH INSTRUMENT
Questionnaires are used as the research instrument in this study. A questionnaire is the vehicle used to create the questions that the researcher wants the respondent to answer. Questionnaires provide the respondents a chance to answer privately and at their own time convenience. An interval scale is used where the number is assigned to reflect the relative rating. The researcher also will have a general interview with the respondents to explain the purpose of the study and identify problems encountered by the respondents.
3.5.1 Close-Ended Categories of the Questionnaire
The questionnaire has a close-ended survey questions section, which consists of eighteen questions (refer to Appendix A: Research Questionnaire) used to identify the computer usage style preferences, and approaches to usage among Chinese and Saudi Arabian students. The questionnaire mainly consists of close-ended question, which are straightforward, and accordingly can be self-administered by the respondents.
Advantages of close - ended questionnaire:
The answers are standard and can be compared from person to person.
The answers are much easier to code and analyze, thus time can be saved.
The respondent is often clearer about the meaning of the question.
The answers are relatively complete and a minimum of irrelevant response is received.
3.6 TYPES OF ANALYSES
Many people do research for various purposes. However, the main purpose of research is to discover answers to questions through the application of scientific procedures. The purpose of this research is to find out the truth which is hidden and which has not been discovered so far.
After the data have been collected, the researcher turns to the task of analyzing them. The analysis of data requires a number of closely related operations such as the establishment of categories, the applications of those categories to raw data through coding and tabulation, and then drawing statistical inferences.
In brief, the researcher can analyze the collected data with the help of various statistical measures. The most widely used for statistical analysis in the research is the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS).
In conclusion, this research is focused on descriptive research, and questionnaires were used as the research instrument to gather the information needed, while both primary and secondary data were collected in order to ensure sufficiency. As a final point, SPSS 16.0 is used to evaluate the statistical analysis.
This chapter encompasses the empirical findings and combines them and the theories in order to conduct an analysis. Data has been analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 16.0. The application of this software to analyze the strength of each variable enables this research to answer the research questions and to meet the objectives of this particular study. The reports presented and discussed are according to data gathered from Students' Use of Computers: Differences between Chinese and Saudi Arabian Students in the University of Central Lancashire studying in Foundation Campus.
The data gathered are as follows¼š
Respondents background such as origins, age, gender, hobbies, and so forth.
The patterns of computer use, the approaches and problems involved in computer use, and the factors that influence Chinese and Saudi Arabian students to come to study in University of Central Lancashire.
Computer use problems affect Chinese and Saudi Arabian students in University of Central Lancashire Foundation Campus.
4.2 FINDING ANALYSES
To accomplish the research objectives and the research questions of this research, the research questionnaires were prepared. These questionnaires were distributed to one hundred respondents and all of them were returned. This questionnaire consists of eighteen questions which were distributed to Chinese and Saudi Arabian students studying at the University of Central Lancashire, Preston. The results collected from the respondents will be analyzed in this chapter.
This questionnaire consists of three sections. Normally, the answers are agreeable to the respondents. Consequently, their answers strongly recommend to me that I do further work with my data analysis. The respondents are really helpful and important to me, and are highly appreciated. Figures one to eighteen are shown as below. We can see there are quite a few comparable pie charts, column, and graph charts presented. We can obtain a lot of information from them.
According to the table, 50% of respondents are from China. Similarly, 50% of respondents are from Saudi Arabia. Questionnaires were distributed to fifty Chinese students and fifty Saudi Arabian students.
2. What age group do you belong to?
From the chart statistics, we know that 60% of Chinese respondents are 21-23 years old, 20% of Saudi Arabian respondents belong to that age group. Apparently, a majority of Chinese students start their education earlier than Saudi Arabians.
As we can see from the chart, 90% of Saudi Arabian respondents are male, 10% of Saudi Arabian respondents are female, 40% of Chinese respondents are male, and 60% of Chinese respondents are female. In sharp contrast, male is main dominator in Saudi Arabian society; male and female are fairly equal in China.
4. Which of these hobbies do you engage in?
As is shown in the graph, 55% of Saudi Arabian respondents engage in playing games or surfing on a computer, whereas only 20% of Chinese respondents do that. In some cases, Saudi Arabian students seem to be lazier and more likely to stay at home than Chinese students. Probably, Chinese students prefer going out to playing games or surfing on a computer.
5. When do you use a computer during a day?
As has been stated in the graph, 60% of Chinese respondents use a computer in the evening, and 50% of Saudi Arabian respondents use a computer in the evening as well. Both Chinese and Saudi Arabian students have classes in the morning and afternoon. Simply speaking, they are more available in the evening.
Did you have any prior experience using computers before coming to the University of Central Lancashire?
According to the graph, 95% of Saudi Arabian respondents have prior experience using computers before coming to the University of Central Lancashire. Chinese respondents also had prior experience. Undoubtedly, having prior experience using computers before coming to the University of Central Lancashire is equally important for Chinese and Saudi Arabian students.
What do you mostly do on your computer?
From the chart, 69% of Chinese respondents mostly watch movies and sporting events; by contrast, 40% of Saudi Arabian students access the news and weather. What is more, there are some different styles, cultural backgrounds, and interests between Chinese and Saudi Arabian students.
8. The factor that influences you the most in using a computer in University of Central Lancashire is:
As can be seen from the graph, a little more than twenty Chinese respondents are influenced the most in using a computer in the University of Central Lancashire for searching for information; half of Saudi Arabian students also do. Thus, most of Saudi Arabian students are always pursuing knowledge to add to their knowledge. Beyond that, 62% of Chinese respondents are influenced the most in using a computer in University of Central Lancashire by socializing/contacting friends; however, a little more than twenty percent of Saudi Arabian respondents do that. Obviously, the vast majority of Chinese students are quite confident about socializing.
How long do you spend on the computer daily?
As is shown in the chart, more than half of Chinese respondents spend much of the day on the computer (more than 5 hours); at the same time, 30% of Saudi Arabian respondents do as well. Practically speaking, a majority of Chinese students are more willing to spend much time on a computer rather than take part in activities and popular culture.
10. The main problem you face when you are using a computer is:
As is shown in the chart, more than forty percent of Saudi Arabian respondents face a problem with knowledge of how to use a computer; a little more than 38% of Chinese respondents also do that. In some respects, Saudi Arabia is encouraging Saudi Arabians to learn how to use a computer. Next, 30% of Saudi Arabian respondents face difficulties in upgrading software. 40% of Chinese respondents do as well. Traditionally, this has normally happened to Chinese females. Sometimes, it has happened to males, too, though, since they have different educational backgrounds, and different forms of Chinese are spoken by them.
11. What can University of Central Lancashire do to improve the use of their computers?
According to the chart, most of the Saudi Arabian respondents want the University of Central Lancashire to improve internet speed in halls of residence; similarly, the vast majority of Chinese respondents also do. They have in common wanting the University of Central Lancashire to improve the use of computers.
12. Which software you download for online chatting?
From the chart, we see the statistic that 90% of Chinese respondents download Ren Ren and QQ software for online chatting. Interestingly, Chinese students quite support typical Chinese cultural concerns. The essential things for them are communicating with family members and friends.
13. The internet connection experience at University of Central Lancashire is quite different from my home country (e.g.: speed, line colour)
As can be seen from the chart, on the whole, both Chinese and Saudi Arabian respondents chose satisfied, going into a new environment, and trying to adapt to it.
14. The main purpose for using a computer is to search for useful information and not for entertainment.
As is shown in the graph, more than half of the Saudi Arabian respondents chose satisfied; 26% of Chinese respondents also do. Admittedly, Saudi Arabian students use computer properly; Chinese students would rather enjoy themselves than study under pressure.
15. Chinese and Saudi Arabian students find it easy to use the computer to access the internet.
As has been stated, in the chart, in the first place, 60% of Saudi Arabian respondents chose satisfied, and 51% of Chinese also did. Seemingly, the vast majority of Saudi Arabian students use a computer frequently; furthermore, for the most part, Chinese students usually use the computer when they need to search for information and entertain themselves.
16. Students like to access the internet so as to chat with their friends and family members.
As is shown in the chart, 100% of Chinese respondents chose strongly satisfied and satisfied; conversely, 57% of Saudi Arabian respondents did that. To be sure, comparing Chinese with Saudi Arabian students, Chinese students are more likely to socialize, chat, and exchange ideas with their friends and family members.
17. Students like sending and receiving by e-mail a variety of information and documents, such as letters, papers, video and audio files in a short time.
According to the chart, 41% of Chinese respondents chose strongly satisfied and satisfied, whereas 87% of Saudi Arabian respondents did as well. Needless to say, Saudi Arabian students are always in line with international standards, even using e-mail accordingly; on the other hand, Chinese students want to keep using Chinese QQ and Ren Ren indefinitely.
Students define their own passwords so that they can always keep their mail secret.
According to the graph, both Chinese and Saudi Arabian respondents chose satisfied. As a result of they had experience in using computers; keeping mail secret is common sense for them.
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
This chapter discusses the overall conclusions and recommendations based on the study of students' use of computers: differences between Chinese and Saudi Arabian students in the University of Central Lancashire.
In this research, it was found that most of the respondents who were 21-23 years old, whose gender is male or female, and who are engage in playing games or surfing on a computer, also use a computer in the evening. Mostly, they do have prior experience using computers to learn before coming to the University of Central Lancashire.
On the other hand, respondents mostly watch movies and sport events and access the news and weather, .
It was also found that the respondents faced some problems about how to use a computer exactly, how to properly use UCLan computers in the halls residence, and various other usage-related problems.
UCLan needs to satisfy Chinese and Saudi Arabian students' requirements, to resolve their computer use problems, and to provide education about other new concepts for them; at the same time, seeing that the Chinese and Saudi Arabian students are satisfied with the computer infrastructure, environment, and connection speed. The implication is that, while studying at UCLan, Chinese and Saudi Arabian students will find alternative computer use styles in order to fulfil their life in the UK. Therefore, UCLan could improve in certain aspects, especially on computer usage issues.
5.4.1 Recommendations for Chinese and Saudi Arabian Students
This study shows that a majority of Chinese and Saudi Arabian students at the University of Central Lancashire have prior experience using computers, especially the Saudi Arabians; they like sending and receiving by e-mail a variety of information and documents, such as letters, papers, video and audio files, often in a short amount of time. Chinese and Saudi Arabian students seem to find it easy to use computers to access the internet. Supposing the allocation of computer use time is sufficient, Chinese and Saudi Arabian students will be able to choose what kind of computer to use and how to use it more easily.
As a recommendation, I would like to suggest that UCLan implement upgraded computer facilities, and try to be more concerned about Chinese and Saudi Arabian students; Chinese and Saudi Arabian students should be able freely to use computers when they go back to their residence; UCLan staff should help Chinese and Saudi Arabian students to use the computers properly; UCLan should also help to set right Chinese and Saudi Arabian students' attitudes towards using computers, enabling them to do much better.
5.4.2 Recommendations for Future Researchers
One might suggest that the future researcher should focus on all the aspects of computer using styles and using problems in more detail. This researcher recommends that the user methods and solutions to using problems should be flexible and readily applicable. The researcher should not only focus on using styles, but should focus on various user problems such as the Chinese and Saudi Arabian students' expectations, wants, complaints, and other computer needs. The researcher can also pursue studies regarding other use styles and avoidances, or do comparison research between Chinese and Saudi Arabian students, and students of other nationalities.
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