Improving Subtraction Ability In Whole Numbers Education Essay

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The purpose of study to determine how to improve the ability of whole numbers subtraction ability through RME approach. Research done at the First grade students of SDN Buaran 2 Tangerang Jakarta, Indonesia. The research method was Action Research with four cycles consisting of planning, implementation, observation and reflection. The study was conducted in cooperation with classroom teachers. Data collected using check list to described learning process and test to measure learning outcome and then analyzed descriptively. The study found that contextual problem, mathematics tools and optimization of group work in the application of RME approach can improve the ability of the subtraction ability in whole numbers and foster students' positive attitudes towards mathematics.

Key word: Subtraction ability, RME


Education as a field that occupies a central position in development for educational objectives to improve the quality of human resources in order to be ready to face globalization. Globalization requires human resources that are reliable and able to compete in all areas nationally and internationally. Competitive community development begins with developing thinking ability. Mathematics can develop student’s thinking skills through problem solving (Reys 1998)

The reality show low ability students in understanding math concepts in subtraction ability in whole numbers, particularly on First grade students in primary. Low ability in whole numbers subtraction is influenced by many factors: (1) teachers who have not been able to involve students actively, (2) Teachers do not use a tool or a medium of learning to facilitate students in finding concept, (3) There is no connection between mathematics and real life.

According to child development psychology, First Grade students are still at the concrete operational level. So they need concrete to modeling abstract concept. Thus required the mathematical learning interesting, fun, and exciting for students. This can be overcome by the use of the approach or model of learning appropriate to the level of student growth.

Therefore, it is necessary to approach suitable for use in teaching mathematics. Of the existing berbagaipendekatan, one of which is the approach of RME (Realistic Mathematics Education). RME is largely determined by the views of Freudenthal (1991) who said that mathematics is not a subject that is ready to be for students, but rather a dynamic lesson can be learned by doing. Furthermore Freudenthal (1991) also states that "Mathematics is human activity", thus the learning of mathematics suggested by human activity.

From the above explanation it can be concluded that the RME approach is taught with due respect, namely: (1) mathematics should be close to children and relevant to everyday life situations, (2) that mathematics is an effort that emphasized student activity in the implementation .

Based on the various explanations about the use of the RME approach, researchers interested in studying how the math skills of primary school students in grade 1 in particular on the material reduction of the natural numbers can be increased through the RME approach in one case 2 Elementary School.

Formulation of research problems is the problem can be formulated in this study were: "How operasipengurangan enhance the natural numbers with RME approach grade students of SDN Buaran 2 Serpong I?

Reseach objectives

Formulation of research problems is the problem can be formulated in this study were: "How operasipengurangan enhance the natural numbers with RME approach grade students of SDN Buaran 2 Serpong I?


The study was conducted on students in grade IV, SDN Kramat Pela 01 morning in South Jakarta. This type of study is classroom action research using the model of Kemmis and Taggart (the Koshi, 2005). The variables studied were the ability of teachers to implement the RME and the activities of students in the learning process. Data were collected by observation techniques during the learning process and giving the test to the student interviews. Data collected in the study treated descriptively.


Objektif/persoalan kajian perlu ditulis dengan gunakan font Times New Roman. Saiz 11, guna langkau satu setengah baris. Justified.

Discussion and coclusion

After applying the PMRI approach to learning for three cycles of increasing the ability to operate in the reduction of natural numbers I elementary grade students. Especially during the implementation of the modeling. Modeling in this study had a very important contribution to building the concept of student learning about the reduction of the natural numbers, where the modeling is done by students is the brainchild of students when they understand the problem and solve it in groups. Modeling of the student in the cycle I was still seen a lot of shortcomings, it is because students are not accustomed to learning with PMRI. Students are confused to make the modeling problem with the reduction of vertical to horizontal matematisasi therefore many students ask the teacher. But in the second cycle modeling activities students have experienced peningakatan, students are able to develop their thinking power to model the problem, and the cycle III to be very good results permodelannya. Students are no longer much to ask teachers to do it yourself with confidence and armed with the knowledge of the previous cycle.

The second activity that plays an important role in this research is group work or discussion. Through group discussion the students many learning experiences in which students must come together to share ideas on sekelompoknya friends. This discussion helpful in increasing students' ability to operate a reduction in the natural numbers, it can be seen from the liveliness of the students express ideas and knowledge. I cycle on these discussions lead to some students cry because fighting props and want to work on their own assigned tasks are not discussed with members of the group. Signifikanpun changes occur in cycles III where the students are able to work together in a group without fighting over who should be doing and teachers use props mensikapi disorder by giving one person a prop. It was made in group discussions to be good students.

Percentage activity is also one of the important events in the success in improving student learning in the PMRI approach. This is apparent in every cycle in which students learn to read and comment on their own work which will help students to remember their own concept of reduction as a direct result of learning. Cycles I and II on the percentage of activity is still deficient, especially in cycle I, they still ask for referrals of teachers to speak and no one wants to respond to the percentages. But it turned disiklus III is capable of presenting students were beginning to use simple language that is understandable to them, teachers are motivating to students because it gives teachers a good stimulus for the learning process by asking the question on all students, and threw questions at students others with an easy to understand the students discussed. In the third cycle also has a few percentages of students responding to the question even though the form of simple questions. PMRI approach that teachers use to give a lot of progress in learning activities that impact on improving students' abilities.

Associate professor in the learning activities that have been studied with other materials or with daily life carried out in each cycle. Associate teachers in each cycle of learning with other areas with the intention that students are later used to find an issue that can be solved using the concept of reduction. III Disiklus more teachers to enable students in learning that is linked with other fields and at the time of concluding the lesson. It aims to enable students to finish learning activities.

PMRI approach also ultimately have an impact in terms of students' affective, the students became more excited and happy, especially seen in the discussion group menggunakna props, and by the time students get pengahargaan of teachers. Judging from the activities of teachers, for teachers to get a new experience when implementing PMRI learning approach. In this PMRI learning teachers only act as facilitators who provide direction, motivation and feedback for students to experience the learning process as well.

From the explanation above it can be concluded that learning mathematics is done using the learning approach Realistic Mathematics Education (PMRI) is appropriate to enhance students' ability to operate a reduction of the natural numbers.

Implikasi kajian dan cadangan (Implication and recommendation)

Objektif persoalan kajian perlu ditulis dengan gunakan font Times New Roman. Saiz 11, guna langkau satu setengah baris. Justified.

Rujukan (APA 6th ed)

Faizah. A. Majid (2011). School-based Assessment in Malaysian Schools: The concern of the English Teachers. Journal of US-China Education Review. 8 (10).