Improving Secondary School Attendance For Boys Education Essay

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Introduction

Seychelles has made significant progress in areas of education such as compulsory education, literacy and numeracy. However, there are still many challenges ahead in areas such as student performance in exams and student attendance amongst others. The United Nations defines school attendance as; present at any regular accredited educational institution or programme, public or private. Whilst the student handbook from the Seychelles' Ministry of Education (MOE) stipulates that any student who is in a compulsory full time education institution, who misses school without a valid excuse for more than 10 per cent will be penalised.

In discussing student attendance, informal feedback from a number of teachers pointed out to a growing concern in primary and secondary schools (See figure 1 in Appendix). A common remark made by teachers relates student attendance especially that of boys to students' ability, performance and social ills such as drug abuse and domestic violence.

In justifying and understanding student attendance from rational and evidenced-based perspective, the use of research is seen as important and imperative in order to provide conclusive evidence as to the way forward. According to Bassey (1999), research is a systematic and critical enquiry which aims to contribute to advancing knowledge in areas of concern. In focusing on student attendance, systematic and critical enquiries need first and foremost to address concerns put forward by teachers as to how student attendance impacts student learning and performance for both boys and girls.

Research Aim (s)

To determine the extent to which attendances amongst boys in secondary schools is a major concern and determine the relationship and impact between student attendance and performance.

To recommend strategies to MOE and schools as to how student attendance (focus on boys) can be minimised and suggest ways/strategies to assist student with low attendance to improve their performance.

2.1 Definition of Terms:

Attendance: Teachers attendance register will be used to verify this. Students will be considered in attendance if the teacher has indicated 'Present' or 'Late with Excuse'.

Secondary Schools: Secondary 1 to Secondary 3 (S1-S3)

Major Concern: To be determined from teacher, counsellor, school management feedback and verification of teacher registers

Performance: Performance in end of term exam results from S1 toS3

School Management: Head teacher, Deputy Head teacher S1-S3 and Deputy Head teacher S4-S5

2.2 Research objectives

Determine teachers', counsellor and school management views with regards to student attendance and performance among boys from S1 to S3

Identify major areas of concern with regards to attendance and performance among boys from S1 to S3

Investigate the relationship between attendance among boys from S1 to S3 and their performance in end of term exams

Determine the impact of boys' non-attendance from S1 to S3 on their performance in end of term exams

Recommend actions and strategies to help the school minimise non-attendance of boys and assist boys with low attendance record

Research Methods and Design

Research Methods

For this study a mixed methods approach will be employed. This will include both quantitative and qualitative approaches (see figure 2). As to the former, Bryman (2012) describes this as "...entailing the collection of numerical data" and the "quantification of aspects of social life" (p.160). For the given study numerical data will be generated from student attendance and exam performance. In this, attendance or non-attendance will be analysed from a social perspective as such issues go beyond the school and into the community where student originate. Qualitative methods on the other hand attempts to provide meaning to research participants' opinions, experience and feelings (Bryman, 2006a). For this study, the opinions, experience and feelings of teachers, school management and counsellor will be sought and compiled to generate recurrent and common themes for further analysis. In addition, see figure 3 for time schedule period of the research.

Research Design

For the study, data will be collected using:

questionnaires,

interviews and;

Documentary evidence.

Questionnaires

According to Bryman (2012), questionnaires are collection of questions administered to respondents. In addition, Paraboo (1997) stipulates that this is used to collect information on facts, attitudes, beliefs and perceptions of individuals. For the given study, questionnaires will be administered to teachers from S1 to S3. The purpose of the questionnaire will be to gather teachers' views, attitudes and beliefs with regards to boys' attendance and performance from S1 to S3.

Interviews

According to Johnson (1994) interviews are social encounters between researchers and participants. They have a particular purpose and focus. For the given study, the researcher has opted to carry out focus group interviews which Bryman (2012) describes as a form of group interview in which several participants being interviewed simultaneously. It is envisaged that two sets of focus group interviews will be carried out. One will include school management and the counsellor and the other a sample of students from S1 to S3. In opting for this approach, the researcher hopes to save time as separate interviews would be time consuming and furthermore school management might not be in a position to entertain separate interviews on different dates. As for the student interviews, focus group implies that students will be released only once from regular classes.

Documentary Evidence

According Bell (2009), the analysis of files and records serves as a valuable source of data. For this study, documentary will be examined from two main sources. The first being the teachers' register to ascertain the number of boys and their frequency of non-attendance to classes. The second will be the teachers' mark book to determine the boys' end of term exam performance.

4.0 Selection of sample

This study will be conducted at two Secondary schools on Mahe; School X and School Y. This will be randomly selected from the eight secondary schools on Mahe.

The participants and sampling strategy for this study will be:

Male students from S1 to S3

The two students from each level in the table (see figure 4 in appendix) will be purposefully selected from the teacher's register. It is envisaged that one will have regular attendance and the other will have a maximum of 1 or 2 days per week of non-attendance. The reason for not selecting students who are regularly absent is that they might not be available for the study. Their exam performance for term 1, 2 and 3 in 2012 will be recorded.

Teachers teaching S1to S3

Two teachers teaching S1 to S3 will be randomly selected from each school.

Headteachers and Counsellors from school X and Y

They will be purposefully selected.

5.0 Data Presentation and Analysis

Data collected from questionnaire and interviews will be analysed and interpreted. By using statistical techniques by input of data through software called Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) to get a better picture of the research.

Quantitative data will be presented by using tables, graphs, pie charts, and statistics. Whilst qualitative through interview, the data would be done through coding, which is a process whereby the data are broken down into components parts. This is to find out the more frequent recurrences of sequences. The aim is to link the process of making sense of the data with the research questions (Bryman, 2012).

6.0 Reliability and Validity

Reliability and validity are important components of any research project. Validity relates to the extent to which the research tools measures what they are supposing to measure. SPSS program will be used for both interview data and statistical data in the validation of the research.

Reliability relates to the consistency of data over time. In this case it is difficult to measure reliability since it is the first study.

Data collect from head teachers; teachers and counsellors will add credibility of the research. Furthermore, doing a piloting research, devising research questions, using appropriate literature on the subject matter, conducting the research only by one person to keep consistency of the asking questions and by submitting the research proposal all add up to the credibility of the research.

7.0 Research Ethics Audio permission

Permission will be asked to the MOE, and head teachers of the two schools where about the research is going to be conducted All participants will be asked for their consent before the investigation started (see figure 5). Letters will be sent to the participants, they will be informed that all information collected will remain confidential and will only be used only for the purpose of this research. That on the questionnaire their names will not be written but will be given a number instead. For students, letters will be sent to their parents for approval.

8.0 Research Budget

It is important to ensure consistency between the budget and the proposed research methods. Therefore a detailed budget needs to itemize a list of every expenses require to complete the project. The budget can be estimated by a detailed protocol that specifies what exactly the participant task, tools to work with to ensure expenses are not overlook; like travel expenses, resources to phone respondents, food allowance and so on.( see figure six)

1504 (1200)

References: (for Question ONE and Two (c))

Bell, Judith. (2009) Doing Your Research Project (4th Edition) McGraw - Hill. UK

Bryman, A (2012), Social Research Methods (4th Edition) Oxford University Press. New York

Bryman, A and Bell, E. (2007), Business Research Methods (2nd Edition) Oxford University Press. New York

Bush T. (2007) Research Methods Module, MBA in Educational Leadership, University of Lincoln: UK

Cohen, L, Manion, L and Morrison K (2008), Research Methods in Education (6th Edition) London, Routledge

Crawshaw, J and Chambers, J (1994) A Concise Course in A Level Statistic (3th Edition) Stanley Thornes, Great Britain.

Emerging Researchers Network. Preparing a credible Budget for your Research Proposal .By Claire Botha [Retrieved: on 21/10/2012] Time: 14:50

http//:em.nrf.ac.za/control/viewblogArticle

Institute of Public Administration, (2010) Research Methods. Dublin: Educational Programme of Institute of Public Administration

Johnson, D. (1994), Research Methods in Education Management, Harlow, Longman

Policy statement of the Ministry of Education Seychelles (2003).Education for learning Society: [Handbook]. Ministry of Education and Youth. Seychelles

Royse, D. (2008), Research Methods in Social Work (5th Edition) Thomson Brooks/Cole, University of Kentucky. Australia

Walliman, N and Buckler, S (2008) Your Dissertation in Education. Sage Publications Ltd, London.

Appendix

Figure One: Number of Secondary Schools in the Seychelles

State school

Private School

Mahe

8

3

Praslin

1

1

La Digue

1

0

Total

10

4

Source: Ministry of Education, Seychelles

Figure Two: Advantages of combining the two methodologies

Qualitative research can be used as a facilitator for quantitative studies.

Qualitative and quantitative approaches can be combined in order to provide a more complete picture that is one approach is used to plug the gaps in the other.

A quantitative approach can help the researcher in the selection of informants for a qualitative investigation.

Findings of one approach can be compared with those of the other

The strength of quantitative research in laying bare the structural features of social life can be combined with its counterpart's strengths in discovering processual aspects.

Researchers that is quantitative and respondents' that is qualitative views can be combined

Each approach can be used at different stages of a study, example longitudinal

The addition of quantitative evidence may contribute to lessen the critique of qualitative findings not being generalizable.

Qualitative research can be conducted within a quasi experimental research design.

Source: Bryman 2012

Figure 3: Time Schedule for twelve months

Months

Action

Month One

Literature on the subject

Preparing first draft of proposal

Hand over proposal

Month Two

Prepare instrument for collecting data

Talk to teachers and students in general about factors of low attendance and performance in schools.

Month Three

Devise means and ways to counter effect these factors

Proper procedures of interviewing and collecting of data

Month Four and Five

Start giving out questionnaire

Start focus group interviews with students and School Management

Month six and seven

Collection and input of data

Analysis of data and interpretation

Month Eight and Nine

Any missing data - call back to respondents to collect more or any issue to be clarified

Month 10

Re evaluation, there may need for more work in certain areas

Writing of report on findings (Draft)

Month 11

Final report ( conclusion and recommendation)

Month 12

Handover report

Note: The research will be conducted on a part time basis.

Figure Four: Name and the Number of participants

Participants

School X

School Y

S1

1

1

S2

1

1

S3

1

1

S4

1

1

S5

1

1

Head teacher

1

1

Teachers

2

2

Counsellor

1

1

Total :18

9

9

Figure Five: Guidelines for reasonably informed consent

A fair explanation of the procedures to be followed and their purposes.

A description of the attendant discomforts and risks reasonably to be expected.

A description of the benefits reasonably to be expected.

A disclosure of appropriate alternative procedures that might be advantageous to the participants.

An offer to answer any inquires concerning the procedures

An instruction that the person is free to withdraw consent and to discontinue participation in the project at any time without prejudice to the participant.

Source: US Department of Health, Education and Welfare et al. 1971

Figure six: Propose Research Budget

Particulars

Justification

Calculation

Total

Direct Expenses

Survey Supplies:

Survey Supplies:

Audio Recording Devise

Letter head

Envelopes

Number of questionnaires

This part of funding will be used

to cover direct out-of-pocket

expenses, including

questionnaire production,

printing, distribution, and

collection

Ã- 1

Ã- 20

Ã- 20

Ã- 4(200)

R1000

R250

R250

R800

Mailing Expenses:

Questionnaire, cover letter and return

Reminder letter

In case for further information needed.

R2000

Personnel assisting in the 12 month Research:

The study requires significant effort in the research administration (e.g.,

distribution and collection), data

management (e.g., data input and

analysis), and feedback report

writing. Time been invested in extensive literature review and research design (since only one person - allowance will be given to him)

R2500/month

(30,000)

Miscellaneous expenses:

Food allowance

Travel allowance

Phone allowance

Interviews or collection of data whole day.

Phone if change of plan, lateness etc

R600/month (R7200)

R500/month (R6000)

R500/month (R6000)

Total: SR 34,300

Question Two

Introduction

A non profit organisation provides counselling services to long-term unemployment persons living in an urban centre. For planning purposes, the Board of Management at the body commissioned a study to determine the length of time that clients of its service had been unemployed. Below are the results of a random sample of 80 service recipients.

Table 1: Ungrouped data

9

17

6

11

10

15

16

13

11

15

22

14

9

22

21

19

12

16

19

33

10

11

24

13

29

13

10

7

18

18

28

14

21

7

37

18

19

5

33

10

15

12

16

19

18

17

12

14

30

37

25

32

22

27

21

16

11

8

22

16

19

19

31

21

23

35

14

11

27

23

19

22

24

8

32

30

18

27

25

27

Table 2: An 'Array' of this data

5

6

7

7

8

8

9

9

10

10

10

10

11

11

11

11

11

12

12

12

13

13

13

14

14

14

14

15

15

15

16

16

16

16

16

17

17

18

18

18

18

18

19

19

19

19

19

19

19

21

21

21

21

22

22

22

22

22

23

23

24

24

25

25

27

27

27

27

28

29

30

30

31

32

32

33

33

35

37

37

Table 3: Ungrouped frequency table/distribution

X

Æ‘

X

Æ‘

X

Æ’

X

Æ’

X

Æ‘

5

1

11

5

17

2

24

2

31

1

6

1

12

3

18

5

25

2

32

2

7

2

13

3

19

7

27

4

33

2

8

2

14

4

21

4

28

1

35

1

9

2

15

3

22

5

29

1

37

2

10

4

16

5

23

2

30

2

Table 4: Group frequency table

Class (x) Frequency (Æ’)

0 - 5 0

5 - 10 8

10 - 15 19

15 - 20 22

20 - 25 13

25 - 30 8

30 - 35 7

35 - 40 3 80

Histogram for Group Frequency table (figure 1):

Table 5: Group frequency table with Class Mark (midpoint of the class)

Class (X) Class Mark Frequency (Æ’)

0 - 5 2.5 0

5 - 10 7.5 8

10 - 15 12.5 19

15 - 20 17.5 22

20 - 25 22.5 13

25 - 30 27.5 8

30 - 35 32.5 7

35 - 40 37.5 3 80

Frequency Polygon using Class Mark (Figure 2):

Table 6: Cumulative Frequency Distribution

Class Limit Cumulative Frequency

< 5 0

< 10 8

< 15 27

< 20 49

< 25 62

< 30 70

< 35 77

< 40 80

Cumulative frequency Distribution to construct an Ogive (Figure 3):

The sample (arithmetic) mean:

Class Mark (X) Frequency (Æ’) Æ’X

2.5 0 0

7.5 8 60

12.5 19 237.5

17.5 22 385

22.5 13 292.5

27.5 8 220

32.5 7 227.5

37.5 3 112.5

n= 80 1535 =

= ∑ƒiXi

N

= 1535 = 19.19 months

80

The median:

Class Limit Cumulative Frequency

< 5 0

< 10 8

< 15 27

< 20 49

< 25 62

< 30 70

< 35 77

< 40 80

The median is 80/2 = 40th position, which in the class 15 - 20. Which contains 22 values (49-27).

Median = L1+ (N/2 - ) Ã- C

Æ’med

Key

L1 = lower class limit of the median class

N = Total Frequency

) = sum of the frequencies of classes below the median class

Æ‘med = frequency of the median class

C = width of the median class

= 15 + (80/2 - 27) Ã- 5 = 15 + (13) Ã- 5 = 15 + 2.9545 = 17.95 months (18 months)

(49 - 27) (22)

The Mode:

Class (x) Frequency (Æ’)

0 - 5 0

5 - 10 8

10 - 15 19

15 - 20 22

20 - 25 13

25 - 30 8

30 - 35 7

35 - 40 3 80

For group data, classes are of equal width, the following formula is used to calculate mode:

Mode = L1 +d1 Ã- C

d1 +d2

Key

L1 = lower class limit of the modal class (the class with the highest frequency)

d1 = frequency of the modal class, minus frequency of class immediately below the modal class

d2 = frequency of the modal class, minus frequency of class immediately above the modal class

C = modal class width

= L1 + d1 Ã- C = 15 + (22-19) Ã- 5 = 15 + 3 Ã- 5 = 15 + 1.25 = 16.25 months

d1+d2 [(22-19) + (22-13)] 12

The Inter quartile Range:

It is the difference between the third and first quartiles in a set of data. Therefore it measures the spread in the middle 50% of the data

Inter quartile range = 3rd quartile - 1st quartile

= X75 - X25

X50 = Q2 = median = 17.95 months

Class Limit Cumulative Frequency

< 5 0

< [10] [8]

< 15 [27]

< [20] [49]

< 25 [62]

< 30 70

< 35 77

< 40 80

X25 = the value below which 25% of the data lie

X75 = value below which 75% of the data lie

X25 of 80 = 25% of 80 = 20

X25 = 10 + (20 - 8) Ã- 5 = 10 + (12) Ã- 5 = 10 + 3.1578 = 13.16 months

(27 - 8) (19)

X75 = 75 Ã- 80 = 60

100

X75 = 20 + (60 - 49) Ã- 5 = 20 + 11 Ã- 5 = 20 + 4.2307= 24.23 months

(62 - 49) 13

Therefore: Q3 - Q1 = 24.23 - 13.16

Interquartile range = 11.07 months

Box and Whisker Plot (figure 4)

(V) The Sample standard deviation:

Xi

Æ’i

Xi -X

(Xi - X)2

Æ’i (Xi - X)2

2.5

0

-16.69

278.56

0

7.5

8

-11.69

136.66

1093.28

12.5

19

-6.69

44.76

850.44

17.5

22

-1.69

2.86

62.92

22.5

13

3.31

10.96

142.43

27.5

8

8.31

69.06

552.48

32.5

7

13.31

177.16

1240.12

37.5

3

18.31

335.26

1005.78

4947.45

Mean = 19.19

Formula for Standard Deviation:

S = √∑ƒi(Xi - mean)2

N - 1

S = √ 4947.29 = √ 62.62 = 7.91

80-1

S = 7.91

(2) (B) REPORT:

1.0 Summary:

The report shows the data analysis of a study to determine the length of time that clients at the counselling services had been unemployed. A total of eighty service recipients were selected at random and each was asked how many months he/she had been unemployed. The results were as follows:

Statistical Information collected

Mean = 19.19

Median = 17.95

Mode = 16.25

Standard Deviation = 7.91

Maximum = 37 months

Minimum = 5 months

Inter quartile range = 11.07

2.0 Introduction

After the study, raw data was collected. An estimation of the extraction and its interpretations of these data analysis were done using various techniques and statistical measures. This was to ascertain the interpretation of the data collected.

3.0 Mean

From the results the mean of the number of months for unemployment is 19.19. This indicates the average of the whole 80 unemployed length of time. However, the mean may give undue weight to, and be unduly influence by extreme abnormal items (outliers). For example the number of months for certain recipients might be high and therefore make the average month of unemployment higher than it would be. In that case the average would give an incorrect impression.

= ∑ƒiXi

N

3.1 Median

The median is the 40th position (80/2) and is in the class of 15-20 which contains 22 values (49-27). The 40th person was unemployed duration of 17.95 months. From the results there is a slight difference between the mean and the median value. This indicates that most of the unemployed recipients are below the average time duration of unemployment. It represents the middle value within a range of numbers. It is not affected by extreme values.

3.2 Mode

A mode of 16.25 months was seen. This indicates the number of months most frequent of the 80 recipients in unemployment.

3.3 Inter quartile range

Quartile split the ranked data into four segments with an equal number of values per segment. The inter quartile range is the difference between the third and first quartiles in the given set of data. Therefore it measures the spread in the middle 50% of the data. The inter quartile range is 11.07 months.

3.4 Standard deviation

The standard deviation measures the spread of data in relation to the mean value. That is how far any observation is away from the mean and to serve as a basis for the control of variability. It is the most commonly used measure of dispersion.

From the results it can be said that there is a range of approximately 32 months (37 -5) between the longer to shorter duration of months of unemployment.

The standard deviation (S) is 7.91.

0 5 19.19 37 80

0 11.26< 19.19 >27.09 80

Therefore if the mean is 19.19 and the standard deviation is approximately (+/-) 7.91, that means plus or minus eight recipients below, and above approximately 11.26 (19.18 - 7.91) to 27.09 (19.18 + 7.91) respectively. There are 56 recipients that fall within that range that is 70 per cent. Therefore about

68% of values lie within 11.26 and 27.09 from the mean.

95% of values lie within 3.35 and 35.0 from the mean [19.19 +/- 7.91(2)]

99.5 of values lie within - 4.56 and 42.91 from the mean [ 19.19 +/- 7.9 (3)]

4.0 Descriptive Statistics:

Histogram, polygon, ogive and whisker plot explanations:

A Histogram is a graphical presentation of a frequency distribution. The bars in a histogram touch each other, suggesting the continuous nature of data displayed. According to the graph (Figure 1) the majority of people unemployed are around 20 months and few above 35 months. The histogram shows a distribution of a right skewed.

The frequency polygon illustrates data in a line format. The frequency polygon (figure 2) is a right skewed which indicates that the mean is greater than the median and greater than the mode (Mode < Median < Mean).

An Ogive is used to estimate various properties of a frequency distribution. For example in figure 3 shows at 40, or half the values lies below 20 (median) which has been calculated to be equal 17.95 months

The box and whisker plot (figure 4) splits the data into quartiles, from the first quartile (Q1) to the third Quartile (Q3). It also contains the median (Q2) 50% of the data. The difference between the Q3 to Q1 is known as the interquartile range (11.07 months). It is useful because it illustrate both central tendency and dispersion. The box also represents the minimum and maximum data values.

5.0 Conclusion:

The values for measuring central tendency are generally well distributed. This can be shown by the values of the mean, median and the mode where they are slightly different. They are in the range of 16-19. However, the value of standard deviation is +/- 7.9136, in percentage is 21.38%. Which is a significant value deviated from the mean. From the histogram (Figure 1) the band (5-15) and (25-40) indicate that there are extreme values (outliers) that might give a false interpretation of data. Therefore, it is important to take this in consideration during the analysis and presentation

Suppose to be 600 words (858)

2. (C) A Report on the Qualitative and Quantitative Research

According to Bassey (1999), research is a systematic, critical and self critical enquiry which aims to contribute to the advancement of knowledge. Research is conducted by using two main methods. They are qualitative and quantitative methods. In attempting to provide a one word definition for the latter, this can be said to be 'numbers' whilst the former can be ascribed to 'meaning'. As is implied in the wording, quantitative research methods usually emphasizes on quantification and measurement in the collection and analysis of data whereas qualitative research methods usually emphasize words, its meaning and description bringing together and establish a relationship of the collection and analysis of data (Bryman, 2012; Morrison, 2002).

It can be argued that the two methods complement one another in the process and product of research but there are a number of differences between the two. The first of these is that quantitative methods make use of deductive methods and thinking. According to Walliman and Buckler (2008), this involves moving from the specific to the general. In other words, making inferences from specific observations and data and formulating a general theoretical understanding from these. In addition, Bryman (2012) points to the need for the researcher to formulate hypotheses and subject them to empirical scrutiny. Qualitative methods on the other hand make use of inductive thinking, which is moving from the general theoretical underpinnings and attempting to relate these to data and observations made. Bryman (2012) describes this process as the "...findings are fed back into the stock of theory" (p.24).

Quantitative and qualitative methods also differ in their objectives. The former aims to quantify data and generalize results from a sample to the population of interest as well as providing insights into the setting of a problem, generating ideas for later quantitative research and uncover prevalent trends in thought and opinion. The latter on the other hand aims for a deeper understanding of underlying reasons and motivations and attempts to measure the incidence of various views and opinions.

There are also contrasts with regards to sampling and data collection (See appendix 1) Quantitative studies usually involve large numbers of randomly selected participants representing the population of interest whereby structured techniques of data collection are used such as structured questionnaires and interviews. Qualitative studies by contrast are often associated with a small number of participants selected to fulfill a given quota. In terms of data collection, the use of unstructured, semi-structured, in-depth and focus group interviews are often used.

With regards to the presentation and analysis of findings, quantitative research involves the use of tables, graphs, pie-charts and calculations of statistical data and statistical analysis techniques whereby the findings are generally descriptive and conclusive in nature. Qualitative research on the other hand involves of non-statistical techniques in presenting and analyzing findings. The use of coding with interviews to generate key points is seen as good example of qualitative presentation and analysis (Cohen and Manion, 2008).

In differentiating their outcome, quantitative research findings are seen as being more conclusive given the wider spectrum of research participants and use of statistical techniques and by consequence seen as being more objective and reliable to recommend future actions. Qualitative studies however are seen as being inconclusive and cannot be used to make generalizations but its strengths lies in the fact that it provides a deep and rich understanding given the small number of cases under consideration. It is thus seen as being more valid and its richness lies in its subjectivity (Bell, 2009). Therefore it can be said that quantitative research is more outcome oriented and qualitative research more process oriented.

To conclude researchers ask a wide variety of questions and it is these questions that shape the methods researchers use in conducting their research. Both methods have their benefits and limitations and it is combining the two that most studies provide rich and conclusive data. There is the element of researcher knowledge which is crucial as this will depend if the researcher is more comfortable with analysing statistical data or generating meanings from views, beliefs and perceptions of participants.

688 words (suppose to be 600)

( Please see references on page nine)

References: (for Question ONE and Two)

Cohen, L, Manion, L and Morrison K (2008), Research Methods in Education (6th Edition) London, Routledge

Bryman, A and Bell, E. (2007), Business Research Methods (2nd Edition) Oxford University Press. New York

Bryman, A (2012), Social Research Methods (4th Edition) Oxford University Press. New York

Royse, D. (2008), Research Methods in Social Work (5th Edition) Thomson Brooks/Cole, University of Kentucky. Australia

Johnson, D. (1994), Research Methods in Education Management, Harlow, Longman

Institute of Public Administration, (2010) Research Methods. Dublin: Educational Programme of Institute of Public Administration

Tony Bush, (2007) Research Methods module, MBA in Educational Leadership, University of Lincoln. UK

Policy statement of the Ministry of Education Seychelles (2003).Education for learning Society: [Handbook]. Ministry of Education and Youth. Seychelles

Bell, Judith. (2009) Doing Your Research Project (4th Edition) McGraw - Hill. UK

Walliman, N and Buckler, S (2008) Your Dissertation in Education. Sage Publications Ltd, London.

Emerging Researchers Network. Preparing a credible Budget for your Research Proposal .By Claire Botha [Retrieved: on 21/10/2012] Time: 14:50

http//:ern.nrf.ac.za/control/viewblogArticle.

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