Improve Morale And Organizational Commitment Education Essay

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The present chapter makes an attempt to bring together by way of summing up the relevant observations made in the previous chapters in the course of the study. It also draws a few conclusions and suggests measures to improve morale and organizational commitment among the college teachers.

The research questions framed for this study are:

What are the current perceptions of the teachers relating to morale and organisational commitment in their organizations?

What are the factors influencing morale of teachers?

Is there a significant difference between the perceptions of the teachers of Government, Aided and Self financing colleges regarding morale and organisational commitment?

Is there a significant difference between the perceptions of the teachers regarding morale and organizational commitment, when they are classified according to their socio-economic characteristics?

Is there any association between morale and organizational commitment?

To bring out suitable suggestions for improving morale and organisational commitment.

In order to fulfil the objectives of the study, the teachers working at colleges in Madurai city were selected through stratified proportionate random sampling technique. The sample size for the study was scientifically determined as 320 with five per cent level of significance. It includes 30 teachers of Government, 142 teachers of aided and 148 teachers of self financing colleges. The required data have been collected with the help of a structured questionnaire prepared for this study (Teacher Morale) and a pre structured questionnaire (Organisational Commitment). The questionnaire consists of three segments which include the profile of teachers, morale inventory and organisational commitment inventory. A pre test was conducted among 40 teachers proportionately selected from the three categories of colleges namely Government, aided and self financing colleges. Certain modifications were carried out in the questionnaire based on the feedback of the pre test. The final test was administered to 320 teachers and the collected data was processed with the help of appropriate statistical analysis. The results and interpretations have been discussed in the previous chapter. This chapter presents the summary of findings, conclusions and suggestions.

SUMMARY OF FINDINGS

7.1.1 Sample profile

In overall sample, the majority of teachers are in the age group of 25 to 35 years and secondly 36 to 45 years in all the three categories of colleges namely Government, Aided and Self financing colleges. But, in Government colleges majority lies in 36 to 45 and secondly 46 to 55 age groups.

The analysis of individual characteristics of respondents shows that Government college has large number of age old teachers. Self financing colleges have got a large group of young teachers. In aided colleges the teachers are distributed with young and age old teachers.

Female teachers are higher than male teachers. The majority of teachers in all the categories are married. Teachers with Master of Philosophy (M.Phil.) qualification are the highest and lesser number of teachers is only with Post Graduate (P.G.) qualification. The number of teachers with NET/SET qualification is lesser. In all the three categories, majority of teachers' family structure is nuclear family. In all the three categories, very meagre number of teachers' spouse is home makers. In case of Government college, large number of teachers' spouse are in Government jobs. In case of aided and self finance colleges, highest number of teachers' spouse is in private jobs and the second highest falls in government jobs. Government and aided colleges consist of higher number of assistant professors where as in self finance colleges associate professors are the highest number. The highest number of teachers in Government and aided colleges are teaching Post Graduate (P.G.) courses but in self finance category the highest number is teachers if Under Graduate (U.G.) courses. In aided college a good number of teachers are teaching Master of Philosophy (M.Phil.) courses when compared to Government and self financing colleges. Majority of Government College teachers have long tenure of experience with 11 - 15 years. Whereas in aided and self finance categories majority falls within below 5 years and 6 - 10 years. In all the categories, research and industry experience is found to be very low. But, in research experience teachers of aided colleges are better than the teachers of Government and self financing colleges. The higher number of teachers is working under autonomous system of management.

The status of religion shows that the majority of teachers are Hindus and the second major group is Christians. The gender wise analysis of teachers shows that majority of the teachers are female and only 22% is male. The analysis of marital status shows that majority teachers are married and 23% is single and a 2% is widow or separated.

The major level of education of teachers is Master of Philosophy and the second major level is Doctor of Philosophy and only 8% is Post Graduates. Majority of the teachers have not passed NET/SET examination and only 19% have got through this qualifying examination.

The major family monthly income of the teachers is less than Rs. 30,000 and Rs. 30,000 to 60,000. The least per cent falls in above Rs. 90,000. Majority of teachers of Government college fall in the income group of Rs. 30000 - 60000 and Rs. 60000 - 90000 whereas, in case of aided and self finance categories the majority falls in the group of less than 30000 and 30000 - 60000.

The dominant family type of the teachers is nuclear family type. Major occupation of the spouse is private employment and the second is Government employment and only meagre per cent is home makers.

The analysis of scale of pay reveals majority of the teachers are in management's own scale of pay and the second majority is getting AICTE/UGC scale of pay. Out of the teacher getting other than AICTE/UGC scale of pay majority is getting less than AICTE/UGC scale of pay and only 5% is getting more than AICTE/UGC scale of pay. Majority of the teachers of self finance colleges and fifty per cent of the teachers of aided colleges are getting salary lower than AICTE/UGC scale of pay.

Government and aided colleges consist of higher number of assistant professors where as in self finance colleges associate professors are the highest number. The highest number of teachers in Government and aided colleges are teaching Post Graduate (P.G.) courses but in self finance category the highest number is teachers of Under Graduate (U.G.) courses. In aided college a good number of teachers are teaching Master of Philosophy (M.Phil.) courses when compared to Government and self financing colleges.

The major work experience range of the teachers is below 5 years and 6 to 10 years. Majority of Government College teachers have long tenure of experience with 11 - 15 years. Whereas in aided and self finance categories majority falls below 5 years and 6 - 10 years. In all the categories, research and industry experience is found to be very low. But, in research experience teachers of aided colleges are better than the teachers of Government and self financing colleges.

The dominant category is teachers of self financed colleges and the second category is teachers of aided colleges whereas the number of government college teachers is limited because the number of aided and self financing colleges is higher than the number of Government colleges in the region. A larger group of teachers are those working in autonomous colleges because the number of non autonomous colleges is also limited.

7.1.2 Factors influencing morale:

The dimension wise analysis of morale shows that all the three categories of teachers have rated attitude and interest, self efficacy, personal performance satisfaction and teacher status highly when compared to other dimensions. And moderate ratings were given to career growth opportunity, and parents support. Facilities and systems of Government colleges are rated lesser than aided and self finance colleges. Personal performance satisfaction is higher among self financing teachers than aided and Government college teachers.

It is found out that there is a high positive correlation between Personal Performance Satisfaction and Self Efficacy, Management Functioning and Facilities and Systems, Rapport among Teachers and Management Functioning, Teacher Motivation and Rapport among Teachers. And further it reveals that affective and normative commitments are positively correlated.

7.1.3 Level of Morale and organisational commitment of teachers of Government, aided and self financing colleges

The analysis of mean values shows that there is a high level of morale among the teachers of colleges in Madurai city. The overall morale is higher in Government colleges than the aided and self financing colleges. The second highest mean rank is obtained by the teachers of aided colleges. The level of morale of self financing teachers is the lowest of the three categories.

The overall level of organisational commitment of teachers is also high. The analysis of organisational commitment shows that teachers of self financing colleges have got higher level of commitment than that of Government and aided colleges. The lowest commitment is found among the Government college teachers. But, there is no significant difference found among the groups of teachers in their organisational commitment.

7.1.4 Morale and organisational commitment and Socio-economic profile compared

Morale is higher among the teachers falling in the age group of 56 years and above and secondly teachers in the age group of 46-55 years. Teachers in the age group of 25-35 years have the lowest level of morale. The analysis of organisational commitment shows that organisational commitment is the highest among the teachers of age group 46-55. The second group with highest level of commitment is teachers of the age group 36-45. Teachers of age group below 25 have the lowest level of commitment.

The level of morale is highest among teachers whose spouse is professional and the second major group is home maker. The lowest morale is found among the teachers whose spouse is also a teacher. The level of commitment is the highest among the teachers whose spouse is Government employee and the second major group is professionals. The lowest commitment is found among the teachers whose spouse is also a teacher.

The level of morale is the highest (200.23) among teachers with the family monthly income of above Rs. 90,000. The second highest mean value is found among the teachers with family monthly income of Rs. 60,000-90,000.The lowest morale is found among the teachers with family monthly income of less than Rs. 30,000. The level of commitment is the highest among the teachers with family monthly income of Rs. 30,000-60,000. The lowest commitment (152.57) is found among the teachers with family monthly income of less than Rs. 30,000.

The level of morale is the highest among teachers with Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) qualification. The second major group is teachers with Master of Philosophy (M.Phil.) qualification. The lowest morale is found among the teachers with Post Graduate (P.G.) qualification. The level of commitment is also the highest among teachers with Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) qualification and Master of Philosophy (M.Phil.) qualification. The lowest morale is found among the teachers with Post Graduate (P.G.) qualification.

The level of morale is the highest among teachers whose designation is 'Professor and head' and secondly 'Associate Professor'. The lowest morale is found among the teachers falling in the category 'others' i.e. teachers working as honorary professors and working on hourly basis. The same result is seen in case of organisational commitment also.

The level of morale is the highest among teachers teaching Master of Philosophy (M.Phil.) and secondly teachers teaching Post Graduate (P.G.) courses. The lowest morale is found among the teachers teaching Under Graduate (U.G.) courses (150.79). The same result is found out in case of organisational commitment also.

The level of morale is the highest among teachers drawing UGC/AICTE scale of pay and second major group is teachers getting consolidated pay. The lowest morale is found among the teachers getting management's own pay scale. The level of organisational commitment is the highest among teachers drawing UGC/AICTE scale of pay and secondly among the teachers getting management's own pay scale. The lowest level of organisational commitment is found among the teachers getting consolidated pay.

The level of morale is the highest among teachers having teaching experience of above 20 years. The second major group is teachers with 16-20 years of teaching experience. The lowest morale is found among the teachers with below 5 years of teaching experience. The level of commitment is the highest among the teachers with 16-20 years of teaching experience. The lowest commitment (143.66) is found among the teachers with 5-10 years and secondly above 20 years of teaching experience.

The level of morale is higher among the female teachers than the male teachers. The study reveals the same result in case of organisational commitment also. The level of morale is higher for married than that of unmarried teachers. The analysis of commitment also shows that married teachers are more committed than unmarried teachers.

The level of morale is higher among teachers living in nuclear family system but organisational commitment is higher among teachers living in joint family system than those living in nuclear family system. The level of morale is higher among the teachers who have passed qualifying exam (NET/SET) than the teachers who have not passed. The analysis of level of commitment shows that teachers who have not passed the qualifying exam are more committed than those who have passed the exam.

The level of morale is higher among teachers working in autonomous colleges than teachers working in non-autonomous colleges. But, organisational commitment is higher among teachers working in non-autonomous colleges than teachers working in autonomous colleges.

The morale of teachers significantly differs with respect to age, religion, institution, designation, educational qualification, teaching experience, nature of pay, family monthly income, teaching level and autonomous status of the teachers. There is no significant difference found between morale and passing of qualifying examination (NET/SET), type of family, marital Status, gender and spouse occupation.

And the organisational commitment of teachers significantly differs with respect to age, designation, nature of pay and spouse occupation. But, there is no significant difference found between organisational commitment and gender, religion, marital status, educational qualification, institution, teaching experience, teaching level, family monthly income, type of family, passing of qualifying examination and autonomous status.

The normative commitment is higher, in all the three categories of teachers, than the affective and continuance commitment. Secondly, affective commitment is higher. Affective commitment is the highest among government college teachers whereas continuance commitment is the highest among the self financing college teachers.

Teachers' opinion vary significantly in self efficacy, facilities and systems, management functioning, rapport among teachers, work load, teacher motivation and parents support. Facilities and systems, management functioning, rapport among teachers and parents support are highly rated by aided college teachers. But, self efficacy, work load and teacher motivation are found highly rated by government college teachers. All these dimensions are lower rated among self financing college teachers.

The three categories of teachers' opinion significantly differ in continuance commitment. Affective commitment significantly differs across different age and gender of teachers and also the occupation of spouse. Continuance commitment significantly differs across teachers with different pay, teaching experience, autonomous status and spouse occupation. Normative commitment significantly differs across teachers with different age, designation, nature of pay, autonomous status and spouse occupation.

7.1.5 Impact of Morale on Organisational Commitment

The structural equation modelling shows a significant relation between morale and organisational commitment. 30.2% of organisational commitment is explained by morale and the model has its validity and reliability also. Among Government college teachers around 40% of organisational commitment is determined by their level of morale. And in case of aided and self financing college teachers around 30% of organisational commitment is explained by their morale.

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