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Education is essential for an individuals success in life. Education grooms people mentally, physically as well as socially for the world. Education usually perceives as the basis of society that produces social prosperity, political stability and economic wealth. Education is key feature of growth of any modern society as if there is a scarcity of educated people then the further progress of society will stop.
For the growth and development of the society and country, the finest investment is an education because educated people can contribute more effectively to the cause. Nowadays increasing numbers of people mostly are not satisfied from basic education. Therefore, they are trying to get higher education to compete with the demands of modern society.
Importance of higher education: Professor Walter J. Kamba
University of Zimbabwe,
Education in broad-spectrum and higher education in Specific, are fundamental component in the progress of societies. All contributors to, and participants in, higher education are consequently engaged in an endeavor which is vital to co-operations, societies, exchange of experiences and ideas between all those engaged in higher education are of greatest importance, if education is to compete with the challenges of vibrant societies in which the constant variable is change. As scarce resources diminish, co-operation assumes greater and greater significance.
Impact on Higher education:
of Higher Education in
Quality and Pertinence
2nd UNESCO- Non-Governmental organizations
Collective Consultation on Higher Education
Paris, 8-11 April 1991)
Professor Eduardo PORTELLA
Deputy Director General for
The main problems and challenges of higher education today are discussed in the second meeting of the Collective Consultation. According to Professor Eduardo Portella, higher education has been facing profound crisis. On one end, higher education institutions particularly universities, are required to justify their intellectual duty as the centers of learning and research; on the other hand, its find itself stuck in a worldwide crisis distressing all areas of society but particularly economic conditions. This certainly clarifies that why national authorities and decision- makers have turn into more demanding in relation to the education and social rationale of higher education. Resources are scarce everywhere and these restraint threaten to become even more rigorous.
In addition, it is extremely expected that current problems will continue. Latest events have revealed us that, as long as the aim of world peace carries on eluding education and global problems remain unsettled. Therefore, we can imagine all areas of society to suffer. It is not an exception that higher education will have to struggle hard to sustain its excellence although assuring an appropriate education for its consumers.
Rationally, if we can identify the major problems and challenges of higher education, then it is best time to build up innovative approaches for higher education cooperation ventures.
In different words, the essential question is that What is the social role of higher education today?
The Social Role of Higher Education and Cooperation:
According to Professor Eduardo Portella the true basis of higher education is knowledge: its creation via research, its communication via teaching, its acquirement and use by students.
Consequently, excellence should remain the primary objective of institutions for higher education furthermore, it is reasonable to set knowledge at the service of society in order to create a better world. This can be attained in numerous ways through the training of best minds competent of inspiring and leading society. Major progressions in science and technology can significantly transform daily life for better or worse; or, through the capability to quickly respond to the instant needs of national work force.
UK EDUCATION SYSTEM:
Same innovations in almost every discipline have been done by UK education system to prove its higher education system as one of the best in the world. The education system in UK has been changed from last few decades. The education sector has seen degree of expansions. The counting of students from 200,000 in 1967 reaches up to 2.4 million at present. (Higher Education Statistics Agency [HESA] 2008).
The performance of higher education in the UK is extremely superior. Evidence shows that four universities of UK are include in the top ten international university rankings. Indeed, UK is the only other nation, besides the USA. This makes UK as a popular place for foreign students for higher education. In UK Currently, there are 168 higher education institutions, from which 106 are universities. All universities are publicly funded institutions. Except the University of Buckingham, all other universities are purely public and come under government control. Therefore, it is obvious that the UK higher education policies are deciding the fate of not only UK local students but foreign student as well.
An immense number of initiatives have been taken that focused on related issues on higher education. As in the year of 1996, the Dearing Report, which created certain controversial policy to stop higher education becoming an election issue (Watson2005). On that point, higher education was considered to be reaching near catastrophic point, mostly due to its financial supports, Along with by drastic decline in funding. As the number of students increased, but the element of funding had nevertheless kept low. As Lord Dearing himself stated: Very swift expansion in Student numbers results the crisis in 1996, In 1997 When the report turned up, Tony Blair's and his new government, had transformed education an election matter, coining the phrase, 'education, education, education ' at his first term in Government (Blair1999).
The report, Higher Education in the Learning Society, is a notably significant document or, indeed, chain of reports running to almost 2000 pages. 93 recommendations are in report; the majority of recommendations were towards government. It is governed by the problem of funding and he was essential in its proposal of initiating tuition fees, recommending students who benefit most from higher education has to pay towards education.
The major recommendations were:
All undergraduates studying full time basis must contribute £1000 per year of study after graduation On an income-contingent basis, along with the introduction of means-tested contribution
the outstanding reputation of UK degrees should be protect with firm strictures on system-wide
Standards and Quality
Make larger utilization of technology in higher education
enhance government funding for research
enhance professionalism in university teaching
build a stronger societal and regional role for universities
Evaluate working practices and pays of all staff.
Most of Dearing's recommendations were ultimately approved. While then Secretary of State for Education, David Blunkett, accepted the opinion of students paying. The government at the same time carried through with a conventional policy of substituting all maintenance allowances with loans. Hence, it grasped one-half of Dearing's funding proposal although ignored the other recommendations, provided the reasoning that the system recommended by Dearing would not elevate adequate funds. The idea of tuition fees had reasonably unchallenged (Grace and Shepherd 2007).
However, the eradication of grants led to considerable anger and aggression among students. The consequences were tense and drastic conflict over the Higher Education Bill some six years later. From 1997 a full time undergraduate contribute £1000 reached up to £ 15000 pay back after earning.
The Future of Higher Education White Paper
The Secretary of State for Education, Estelle Morris, declared in 2001 a Strategic Review of Higher Education. There were four vital objectives of the Review. Higher institutions UK should continue producing excellent research. Ensuring that universities work hand to hand with industry and community. Exceptional teaching should be the basis in UK higher education institutions.
Key recommendations of the Future of Higher Education White Paper
Enhanced investment in research along with offers to invest more in the very good institutions for research, allowing them to compete successfully with the world's finest universities.
Raise focus on the significance of teaching. The Government proposed in developing Centers of Excellence so for the purpose it granted the funding of £500,000 per year for five years to academics rewards, finance additional staff and broadens high-quality teaching practice.
Education, education, education - but will government policies produce "an excellent higher education system"?:
Impact of Government Policies INAUGURAL PROFESSORIAL LECTURE, 3 MARCH 2005 PROFESSOR ROGER BROWN, PRINCIPAL, SOUTHAMPTON INSTITUTE
Nevertheless the actual problem with the Government's approach to broadening
Participation towards higher education is that most of governments other policies oppose it.
As Professor Roger Brown (Principal of Southampton Institute) said in the inaugural professional lecture on 03 March 2005 that variable fees within higher education would certainly generate or reinforce the current chain of command of institutions. There is apparent proof that the continuation of such a hierarchy is itself a considerable barrier for participation (Archer, 2000).
Hannan and Silver few years ago identified several major obstacles in appraising innovation in learning and teaching as he says that there is less appreciation towards learning and teaching in comparison with research. There is lack of acknowledgment or importance by colleagues and by authorities. Institutional and other policies are set very directive. (Hannan and Silver, 2000)
Introduction of OBU: http://www.brookes.ac.uk/
As mentioned above, the government policies related to education does have an impact on not only universities' own policies and regulation but also it is affecting the lives of people that are related to those institutions, which includes students both local and foreign, teachers, administrators and parents. Let's take an example of Oxford Brookes University and see how these government higher education policies is affecting that institution's learning objectives, teaching methods, curriculum delivery, values and ethics.
Oxford Brookes University was founded in the 18th century with the discipline of arts only. However, later on in 1865, Oxford Brookes University started as the Oxford School of Art, at that time it was located in Taylor institution at the center of the city, occupying only single room lying on the ground floor. After Five years the School of Science was integrated, which was offering a broad range of scientific and technical courses. It also had evening classes in the University Museum. In 1891, Oxford City Council's Technical Instruction Committee taken over oxford school and renamed it by Oxford City Technical School.
Oxford City Technical School
In 1928, John Henry Brookes designated as the Vice-Principal of the Oxford City Technical School and the Head of the School of Art. Throughout next 30 years, he put a dominant influence on the improvement of the institution. During his whole life, He was dedicated to the objective of making education accessible to all. In 1949, a 25-acre site was available in Headington and six years later Lord Nuffield put the foundation stone.
Oxford College of Technology
In 1956, the institution became the Oxford College of Technology. HRH the Duke of Edinburgh visited the new place in 1963 at Headington to chair at its inaugural ceremony. Four years later, in 1970, the Government declared its decision to create polytechnics, and it became Oxford Polytechnic. Six years later, it obtained a new campus just outside the city centre at Wheatley, when it merged with Lady Spencer-Churchill teacher training college, and in 1988 it built-in the Oxford School of Nursing.
From Oxford Polytechnic to Oxford Brookes University
In 1992, under government legislation Oxford Polytechnic became a university therefore it decided to honor its founding Principal, John Brookes, in its new title Oxford Brookes University. Oxford Brookes is currently enlightening over 18,000 students, with 17,223 on-campus students. The majority of them that is 84% are from the UK, 5% are from the European Union and 11% of the contribution is by the international students. The almost 70% of them are full time students whereas, the rest 30% of them are part-time.
Oxford Brookes University has motivated a growing number of foreign students to arrive Oxford. Taking a approximate value the Oxford Brookes impacted on the UK economy is used up to £100 million in a year. This are well researched facts. In general, almost £3.3 billion is the contribution of international students in the UK economy every year. From the year of 2001 to 2007, there was a 2/3 increment in the income of full fee-paying students at Brookes from nearly £10.5 million to £17.4 million.
The university offers extraordinary opportunities to student to grow. Their opening into the higher education has led the university to charge £9,000 a year for tuition costs from September 2012. This decision was not just taken by the administration only. The consensus of the students' union was also taken into consideration and finalized this decision to improve and invest in all areas of student life. The President of Oxford Brookes' Students' Union, Lucie Acraman, further elaborating the reason of opening to the higher education,
"This university has for a long time prided itself on its values and commitment to ensuring higher education is available to people on the basis of ability rather than finance. I believe, given the context, this decision lives up to those values. Many of our students did not wish for the changes the Government is making but we are pleased with the overall decision the university has made. We are particularly reassured by the emphasis on both continuing to improve the student experience and the demonstrable commitment to widening access to higher education."
Moreover, it was also added in the decision that there will be introduce £3.5 million financial support scheme of £2,000 and there will be a reduction of up to £2,500 in the fees for poor students. After this, the university will also reduce the on-campus undergraduate students by 10 to 15% to provide better quality interaction time between students and staff. This cutting will also allow Oxford Brookes to extensively increase the amount of foundation degree programmes presented at other educational institution that primarily pull students from low social class and traditions that do not usually have excessive involvement in higher education. The expenses will be only £6,000 a year.
According to the Vice-Chancellor Professor Janet Beer of Oxford Brookes University,
"I firmly believe this is the right decision. It will lead us to focus even more on improving the qualities of a Brookes degree. We have made this choice in what we believe is the best interests of our students and the region we serve."
Oxford Brookes appreciates the academic donation of foreign students and the importance of a diverse student body. Let us discuss the issues and policies influencing on teaching and students in a cultural, moral and ethical context.
International students, similarly like all students, sharing ideas, experiences and assumptions. In order to learn new concepts, students should promptly pick up hints that their believes are not up to the mark. Oxford Brookes teachers assist them by explaining rather than involving what they expect.
In oxford Brookes, teachers simplify the criteria that they exercise while grading students. Teachers are precise regarding the format they expect form students submitted works and share ideas that students can read and perceive. International student often miss judge the impact of language problems and made mistakes by using incorrect grammar and sentence structures.
Mostly International students might obtain much longer time then native students to generate work and to learn what teachers wish students to learn. Teachers in Oxford guide students to formulate outline that how students are likely to utilize their time.
About interpersonal relationships
In oxford, if students offer teachers gifts, demanding rather than requesting teachers' attention moreover accept an invitation to a discussion which strongly opposing to teachers' point of view. At Brookes, it is surprising and offensive behavior. Teachers will guide international students that what is the expected behavior in class, throughout office hours, and within group based coursework. Many academics are agreed that they would try to help students more but they are facing a fear of being impolite or arrogant.
Safe practice and feedback
Several students starting Higher Education require learning new ideas, approaches of learning. Most of the students find this challenging although for few international students also feels wrong. Brookes' behavior might contradict some of they have formerly employed or experienced for instance judgmental and critical evaluation of an argument rather than looking for a holistic perceptive of the subject. In addition, the framework inside which it is sited. Conforming to Brookes' customs may confront deeply held point of views, for instance, harmony or respect. International students are possibly eager to change nevertheless; they decided to come and knew things would be difficult although they will not get it a simple or speedy route. In Brookes, Formative evaluation, peer review, clear and rapid feedback and many illustrations of fine practices are appreciated.
Lighten the cognitive load
Students required time to grasp rather than understand quickly that what teachers' are saying. This is fact for even the students who are native and have relatively better English. In oxford Brookes, it is considered that it will help when teachers use simple English by avoiding difficult terms. Moreover allowing silence and repeating the words would do better. Several international students will have had a slight exposure to the British academic principle of 'mining' texts for constructive ideas, quotations, or perspectives rather than reading it for recalling afterwards.
Increase your cross-cultural sensitivity
When questioned to academics, experienced academics almost constantly state that the most significant approach to advance your teaching of international students is to know them as people. Moreover, try to know something regarding their lives before Brookes. Trough questioning and listening to the response allows teachers to evaluate assumptions to enhance their cultural awareness. It is not about making teachers expert in several cultures and countries from which their students belongs. It is just about to help teachers to indentifying their own approaches and assumption by exploring what others do and think.
A final word
There is emerging proofs that are not giving the second thought to the exceptional requests of foreign students as students may have severe cost. The changes in the education policy do have an great impact on the lives of all those people related to it. The increment in the fees or cutting of grants by government are actually the hindrance in students' learning and growth as this cause them stress and many students drop out in the mid degree. Therefore, the government should apply the cost-benefits assessment on their policies, as a nation without higher education is nothing. Increasing dropouts may discourage the international student to stop apply for higher education in UK which will in turn led to lower economic growth in UK.
http://www.heacademy.ac.uk/assets/York/documents/ourwork/tla/internationalisation/lit_review_internationalisation_of_uk_he_v2.pdf pg pg 41-43, 50-52, 53-69 (go through)