Implication Of Change Of Management Or Leadership Education Essay

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Introduction

Brian J. Caldwell in his article entitled "Re- imagining Educational Leadership" argued that there is a need to change/improve/enhance the existing policies or approaches in the field of education. He has supported his argument by detailed reasons and full explanations: that education's need for reformation is based on the reality or the basic truth that the world is in a "fast forward" mode. That everything is continuously changing and improving in a fast manner. Thus, encouraging the need to improve further and reform the education through the following: the need for support for principals, the role for networks and professional infrastructure (2006). This has been further supported by the article of Fraser which states that there's a need to improve the quality of learning. Fraser has shown that the manner of improving or enhancing the quality of future education would include two spirits: innovation and creativity. Both of the articles have laid the truth and needs of educational system that have been influenced by various stimulus or factors which directly or indirectly affect the quality of education, thus there's a need to change the leadership or management in the field of education (2007).

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This implies that there is a need for reform or change in the management or leadership in education. The need for the change is not in technical but on adaptability of education in the future since the world has been continuously and rapidly changing. Furthermore, this is in order for education to be able to create or make a system for continuing improvement/development in the mode of supervision, instruction and instructional leadership (Wagner, 2005). This realization has lead the writer to conduct an in depth analysis on the implications of the changes in management/ leadership in the field of education.

The System of Change in Management of Education

Menchaca, Bischoff and Dara-Abrams made an investigation regarding a systemic model for the change in management in the education sector. It was concluded in this study that the model represents the implementation of eLearning along with the interrelations of educational system components (Suchman, 1972) and the change process that is part of the journey to implement eLearning. As a tool to discuss the change process which supports the implementation of eLearning in an organization, the model enables institutions: (a) to assess their state of participation and preparation for eLearning, (b) to analyze the requirements for the implementation of eLearning programs, (c) to plan necessary activities for the change, (d) implement the program, and (e) execute the program with the highest level of sustainability.

As demonstrated through two large-scale eLearning implementation projects (Bischoff & Granow, 2002; Gonzalez & Resta, 2002) and the successful management of systemic change, factors essential to the effective implementation of eLearning include: (a) transformational leadership and advocacy from top-level administrators, (b) regular communication among all institutional stakeholders, (c) professional development programs to help faculty incorporate collaborative and technology-enabled learning into their teaching methods, (d) robust technology infrastructure capable of supporting new learner-centered educational methods, and (e) training students on eLearning.

Perception on the Concept of Innovation and Change

Potgieter (2003) conducted an investigation regarding the perception of leadership and organization for change and organization specifically for the higher education. It was found out that policy changes are required to ensure good resource allocation at national and institutional level. But while this is under way, we recommended that institutions (especially ITPs) undertake more directed and coordinated intervention in order to change, innovate and improve where possible. Focus and action on both levels is necessary to improve the efficiency of the sector and enable more change and innovation in future. It was concluded that if change and innovation in higher education relies so heavily on creating the empowered environment for teaching staff, then both management and staff should know more about it.

In 2003 Borman, made a major review regarding the achievement outcome of the Comprehensive School reform (CSR). The bottom line of the investigation showed that CSR have an overall positive effect in terms of increased student achievement; it also appeared to be effective whether the school is lower or higher on poverty measures; its effectiveness also increases for an individual's school the longer that it is implemented there; it also includes a variety of models with a number of generating strong evidence of effectiveness over the years; and depends for its effectiveness more on program implementation than on whether it contains a predetermined set of federally required components.

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A meta-analysis on the impact of CSR was done by Borman et al (2002), it was concluded that the CSR's successful expansion have shown that the models can be brought to scale across many schools and children with a variety of context. There are other versions of the models such as the Éxito Para Todos, for English language learners-however the general model of the improvement includes a well founded and widely applicable components that are instructional and organizational. The important developments of the CSR are its increasing market and the replicability of many of its programs. It is suggested that to further enhance the advancement of CSR, policy makers and educators should demand that the reforms will indeed make a difference. Also, it was suggested that educators and policy makers should avoid promising the programs before knowing its potential benefits. Developers and educational researchers were then challenged in ensuring in the commitment in an educational reform that is research proven and the establishment of models that are scientifically based so that it can bring reform to the schools of the nation. Just like Donald Campbell's (1969) famous vision regarding the experiment in society, experimental approach to educational reform must be taken, an approach in which evaluation of new programs should be continued, in which we learn whether or not these programs make a difference, and in which we retain, imitate, modify, or discard them on the basis obvious effectiveness on the available multiple imperfect criteria.

Change of Management in Schools as Best Practice

Mitchell (1999) conducted a research regarding a change of management in a school setting. He found out that characteristic of the schools where change is well-managed is the presence of constructive leadership attitudes. Imaginative ways of implementing externally generated change are found. Furthermore, these schools have a relatively high incidence of internally generated change, such as fund-raising. Principals are more positive about the future than educators who feel pessimistic about most of the recent changes that have taken place. The continuing prospect of rationalization is by far the most mentioned cause of anxiety, which is understandable in a province such as the Northern Cape, where educator: learner ratios are relatively low. Educators in schools of the former Cape Education Department are the most pessimistic. Policy changes, particularly the abolishment of corporal punishment and greater learner diversity, are experienced by educators as increased workload, contributing to low morale. Under these circumstances school managers not only need to initiate alternative organizational systems, curriculum development and in-service training; they have to formulate strategies for improving staff performance. All stakeholders, principals, educators, parents and learners, are convinced that the moral integrity of managers is their most important contribution. It is the public expression of values that provides a measure of stability during times of social and organizational change. Interpersonal skills are always mentioned as a necessity. It is evident that there has been a significant shift towards a more democratic approach to school management. The principal is now part of a School Management Team, and needs to consult all stakeholders. The selected schools all had in place well-established structures and systems to facilitate decision making that is both participatory and efficient. Participatory management competence is therefore essential. The introduction of Governing Bodies is a significant innovation. Principals in the exemplary schools all co-operate closely with their Governing Body and view its contribution as crucial to the smooth functioning of the school. In certain situations School Governing Bodies have an extended role in attaining 'unpopular' objectives: for example, under-performing educators or parents not paying school-fees are reported to it. In one of the schools the Governing Body led a successful protest action against the Education Department. Socio-economic inequalities continue to be a distinguishing factor between schools. A principal of a former model-C school, charging fees of R3-4,000 per annum, is in a very different position to the principal of a former House of Representatives or DET school where it is a struggle to obtain R15 in annual fees from the parents. The range of managerial competencies appropriate in one setting could be very different to those in another. The current context of change requires of managers competencies in these roles: Beacon of moral integrity Driving force; Manager of crises; Multicultural manager; Facilitator of participatory structures; Pioneer of alternative organizational systems; Negotiator; and Manager of multiple roles.

Change and Innovation in Tertiary Education

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Afeti (2003) conducted a case study regarding the promotion of change and innovation in tertiary education as experienced in Ghana. It was concluded that Change and innovation in developing tertiary education establishments, especially those in Africa, are inevitable for institutional renewal and transformation. Often, it is how to change rather than what to change in the prevailing environment of limited resources and inadequate funding that presents the greatest challenge to the managers of change. Change managers therefore need to have a good knowledge of best practices in tertiary education management and some international exposure, a cultivated mind and a certain idea of what is good and beautiful.

Management of change in a tertiary institution is productive if the head of institution, as the principal change manager, is constantly driven by the institutional vision, has the right combination of knowledge and management skills to inspire staff and students, the right attitude, and the intellectual presence to implement the right actions in the right way at the right time.

Governments, Governing Councils and appointing authorities should therefore ensure that heads of tertiary institutions are hired from among the best brains and most competent hands available. Visionary leadership drives constructive change.

Change Management and the Integration of Technology

Most change models for the integration of technology and education are reactive: change management. While this is vital due to relentless change, it only deals with one side of the change story. Missing is change creation: a proactive approach to understanding and modifying educational and institutional cultures for the meaningful and successful integration of technology and education (Lick & Kaufman2000) Change creation, while including change management, moves beyond it while dignifying its importance.

Models for Change in Management in Higher Education

Dan conducted a case study for the development of a model in enhancing the effectiveness of the change in management for higher education. It was concluded in this case study so far the concept and feasibility for the enhancement of effective management have emerged in the school's climate. Can Thou University (CTU), in particular is in need of a model to develop the change in it's management process; to fulfill the educational roles in an environment that is Vietnamese as well as those in the Lower Mekong Delta region. This will allow the steps in the integration of Asian education a certain place in the global community. The proposed model is appropriate for CTU, which happens to be the leading public university that will have to play as significant role in the campaign for development. On the other hand, it is certain that other educational institutions can choose a model that will suit their educational goals in terms of their developmental and management processes.

On a similar study conducted by Scott regarding the importance of change in the higher of education, it was concluded that currently, the Higher Education Institution is at a watershed. In order to survive the faced uncertainty and challenges, the universities need not only identify the number of good and carefully formulated ideas that are achievable. They must act on this to make it happen consistently so as to remain viable. Therefore, the university's capability in bringing in the what of change and the how of change, will determine the university's future. Typically, change is a mixture of drift (the impact of forces that is beyond one's control) and individual action .

Analysis of the Implications of Change in Education

There are four recurring themes that underpin the effective change management in education (Scott). First, for all that is concerned, change is a complex and unlearning process. It does not account for an event. Second, there is a direct link between the organizational and individual capabilities to manage change. Organizations that are ready and capable for change are composed of these people. Third, change and progress have profound differences. Change is about being made different or becoming something different. Progress involves having a value judgment of the worth of each changed effort. Therefore, change management is heavily laden. Fourth, continuous quality improvement and strategic change are two sides of the coin. Strategic change is concerned with implementing and setting of new directions, while continuous quality improvement deals with ensuring that current practice is tracked regularly the key areas for enhancement are identified, and promptly and wisely addressed. Just having good ideas for both strategic change and continuous quality improvement will not make it happen. The nine management lessons needs to be addressed appropriately and effectively so that strategic change and continuous quality improvement can happen.

There are various key lessons in the change of management as follows:

Every relevant change idea that comes along cannot be addressed - There should be set priories. the process to be undertaken must be based on evidence, data for satisfaction and impact, strategic intelligence and ensuring that it is consistent with the university's core values, mission and its overall direction. The process and criteria to be used by the university should be transparent and accepted if the change agenda will be pursued actively by those implementing it. The aim is achieving a consensus around evidences on what needs to happen and not just consensus on the table.

Change is not an event but a learning process and the motivation of the key players in engaging and sticking with it is critical for implementation - Change in higher education is regarding the staff that will put the development into practice. If a staff doesn't do something new, there is no change. It is the motivation that drives the learning process. Staff will not be engaged in the process if they do not see that what they are doing is relevant, desirable, clear and most of all, feasible.

Motivation to engage can be both extrinsic and intrinsic. Extrinsic can be in terms of financial crisis, threat of a job loss, the prospect of financial reward, praise from one's boss, negative student feedback and pressure from colleagues. Intrinsic can be in terms of seeing what is proposed is consistent with one's moral purpose, having a sense of personal ownership, and the commitment of what is planned. There has always been both rational and emotional dimension in engaging in the motivation to change. This is the same flexible and responsive solutions being advocated in the higher education.

Effective solutions that are keys for development may be hidden in each individual university. Equally, there may be similarities in universities and institutions. This is where strategic networking and shared tracking system as well as working in ways that are reciprocal to address the effective changes in the Australian educational system.

Internationally, the leader of change in the higher education sector will be a main issue for the next five years. This is because we know that change does not just happen but must be led and in many countries, there will be a very large scale of baby boomers that is currently holding middle and senior management positions.

Conclusion

This research's implications are very profound. First, it was found out that emotional intelligence cannot be taught; however, it can be learned so long as the key elements that are accountable for the successful practice of each of the role are explicit. Second, it was found out that only a few leaders that are aware of this leadership research or of its general findings regarding the effectiveness of change management in the higher education. Third, it was found out that the senior staff affect and influence staff culture, morale, and the willingness in engaging and pursuing actively on projects regarding change.

The Higher Education Institution is at a watershed. In order to survive the faced uncertainty and challenges, the universities need not only identify the number of good and carefully formulated ideas that are achievable. They must act on this to make it happen consistently so as to remain viable. Therefore, the university's capability in bringing in the what of change and the how of change, will determine the university's future. Typically, change is a mixture of drift (the impact of forces that is beyond one's control) and individual action. The stakes of this are very high.

Effective solutions that are keys for development may be hidden in each individual university. Equally, there may be similarities in universities and institutions. This is where strategic networking and shared tracking system as well as working in ways that is reciprocal to address the effective changes in the Australian educational system.

Internationally, the leader of change in the higher education sector will be a main issue for the next five years. This is because we know that change does not just happen but must be led and in many countries, there will be a very large scale of baby boomers that is currently holding middle and senior management positions.

Motivation to engage can be both extrinsic and intrinsic. Extrinsic can be in terms of financial crisis, threat of a job loss, the prospect of financial reward, praise from one's boss, negative student feedback and pressure from colleagues. Intrinsic can be in terms of seeing what is proposed is consistent with one's moral purpose, having a sense of personal ownership, and the commitment of what is planned. There has always been both rational and emotional dimension in engaging in the motivation to change. This is the same flexible and responsive solutions being advocated in the higher education.

Change is not an event but a learning process and the motivation of the key players in engaging and sticking with it is critical for implementation - Change in higher education is regarding the staff that will put the development into practice. If a staff doesn't do something new, there is no change. It is the motivation that drives the learning process. Staff will not be engaged in the process if they do not see that what they are doing is relevant, desirable, clear and most of all, feasible.