Implementing E Learning System In Indian Secondary Education Education Essay

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1. Introduction

"It has been argued that computer-based communication is the most fundamental change in communications technology in the last 150 years "(De la sola Pool, 1984). The propagation of the computer along with internet has fashioned many changes in all walk of life, especially in education. This transformation has changed the way we learning and reshaping the traditional education system into a newer system called "e-learning"

E- learning is defined as "instruction delivered on a computer via internet or CD-ROM" (Clark & Mayer, 2007). Nowadays, e-learning is done by Internet in which training (or) teaching methods comprises of power point presentations, videos, chat devices and online websites.

E-learning is based on the principle that "Every human being must be able to learn through alternative means, to have equal opportunities for training, independent of physical or time constraints, to be able to choose what and how to learn, and to be the focal point of the learning process"( Bilalis et al, 2002).

The research aims to focus the impact on implementing e-learning system for students studying at a secondary and higher secondary levels in Indian schools. The children from grades 6 to 12, aged between 14 and 18 are considered for research. The research is proposed to be done by collecting data through diaries maintained by teachers and questionnaires from various categories such as teachers, students and parents. It represents a mixed approach including both Qualitative and Quantitative Methods.

The learning process through e-learning may change the school students approach towards their studies. By e-learning today's children may be allowed to develop self concept; make learning independent, sustainable, ever growing and develop basic decision for making skills. Students require higher level of education to success in the new, knowledge based society.

This research mainly scrutinizes the benefits, reflections, issues and approaches to e-learning in India secondary education system. It also highlights e-learning's applicability and recognizing in developing country like India.

1.1 Aim of the research

This research aims to explore the benefits of implementing e-learning in Indian secondary education.

1.2 Rationale for the research

To encourage the student -driven lessons, where the students take the most responsibility for their learning.

To show the importance of enhancing the present learning system with e-learning tools( eg -personal computer, CD-ROMs, audio visual aids and Internet)

1.2 Objectives of the research

A comparison would be carried out between the traditional educational system and e-learning system two methods.

E-learning will be implemented in anyone the Indian school for small period , and the performance of the students is recorded in the form of diary

A questionnaire will be framed to get the feedback from the school pupils

The outcome of the research will create the awareness among the Indian education system in implementation of e-learning.

1.3 Research Question

The research as proposed in the aims and objectives above will attempt to answer the following research questions

Could e-learning be a change agent in the Indian education system?

What are the benefits and problems in implementing e-learning in Indian education system?

2. Literature Review

2.1 Introduction

"To meet the demands of Indian global economy, there must be corresponding adoptions of e-learning in child education to develop 21st century skills. Computers are reshaping children's lives, at home and at school in profound and unexpected ways" (S.K. Nayak et al, 2010).For transforming the India into developing nation, it has to increase the literacy from 66% to the ideal .But, it is difficult to achieve the education for all goal, burdened by high number of illiterates and deep gap lies between urban and rural areas. Even though the government introduces new schemes like National Literacy Mission, Sarva Siksha Abhiyan and cooked mid day meal programme, the improvement has been slow.

Finally, the education system should be changed. The substitute for the traditional education system should be implemented. This research aims to explore that; e-learning is the changing agent for this scenario. There are many studies that stress the advantages of the e-learning over the traditional education system.

The similar research is done on the topic Traditional Education vs. E-learning in the vision of Romanian students reveals the following results that, "the e-learning platform increases the flexibility of students study program. The permanent access to courses, possibility to have quick feed-back from teachers and reduced time for study determine the positive influence of the platform on the students" (Tutunea.M et al, 2009).

In addition to these, the following lines emphasis more on e-learning "The old rules no longer apply. Traditional approaches to training the corporate workforce are time-consuming and excruciatingly slow. Old-style, trickle-down training with its one-style-fits-all approach simply cannot keep pace. That is what makes e-learning so exciting to so many people" (Cross.J et al, 2002)

2.2 Definition

There are too many definitions of e-learning. The definition provided by the vendors is doubtful and the academic definition provided by governmental and professional bodies are more reliable, but still varied. The American Society for Training and Development (ASTD) is the world's biggest professional body for learning and development. This makes it arguably better placed than most to define what e-learning is.

The ASTD originally defined e-learning like this:

"E-learning covers a wide set of applications and processes, such as Web-based learning, virtual classrooms, computer-based learning and digital collaboration. It includes the delivery of content via Internet, intranet/ extranet (LAN/WAN), audio- and videotape, satellite broad-cast, interactive TV, and CD-ROM" (Fee .K, 2009).

C:\Users\VIMALKUMAR\Desktop\Desktop files\Research files\e-learning1.jpg

Fig1. ( Spinello,S . Online)

2.3 Why does e-learning matter in secondary education?

E-learning offer new openings for the school pupils. It will support them from the early childhood education in many aspects such as

A chance to support and develop the children's learning and plays experiences

A possibility to enhance the intellectual level of the children, by make them understand the basic concepts clearly

Opportunities to strengthen the teacher professional learning and conceptual level

Opportunities to support and strengthen relationships and communication between school pupils, teachers and parents.

2.4 comparisons between Traditional and E-learning approaches

The difference in the table clearly explains the significance of the e-learning over the traditional educational system.

Menu

Traditional Approach

E-learning

Class room

-Physical - limited size -Synchronous

-Unlimited -Any time , any where

Content

-PowerPoint/transparency/etc - Textbooks/library - Video -Collaboration

-Multimedia / simulation -Digital Library -On demand -Syn & Asyn Communication

Personalization

-One learning path

-Learning path and pace determined by user

2.5 E-learning environment followed by primary School

"Our pupil can now see almost anywhere in the universe at any moment in history, and where the only limit to what they can learn is their own imagination. Our children are absolutely enthralled" (Archer.M, 2007) this is the statement given by the head teacher, Mr. Hicks of Broadclyst Primary School, UK.

The Broadclyst Primary School (1810) in Devon have implemented e-learning by adding new ITech suite in their classroom. Every pupil have continuous access networked PC with broadband internet connection. This single classroom aims to revolutionize the way teaching and learning takes place in the 21st century.

These kinds of e-learning system will create a curiosity towards their studies among the school pupil. The student exposes their opinion that the classroom are like heaven. If, we implement the same kind of system in India, the students will get more fascinated towards the school. It may decrease the drop out of the school pupil from the school.

Benefits of e-learning

The e-learning creates more responsibilities to the students. The students have to set their own goals and learn the subjects by themselves

It allows access to educational resources from outside the book through internet.

It allows students to come in contact and to work in collaboration with students from other countries and cultures

The learning materials such as course notes, diagrams and reading list are available to students at any time.

E-learning tools facilitate both teachers and students with innovative, creative and sharing ideas.

E-learning delivers learning faster.

Utilize the learner's enthusiasm for digital technologies.

Save on cost

E-learning -Learning anytime, anywhere

E-learning allows the students to understand the concept in greater detail and increase depth of learning.

2.6 Challenges and opportunities in implementing e-learning

Intensive training to school teachers - Before implementing the e-learning, training should be given to the teachers in order to create a learning environment.

Awareness and Workshops- while implementing the e-learning in rural area, the students and parents of that locality should be give awareness about the e-learning. So the demonstration, seminars & workshops needs to be conducted for society in order to understand the importance of it.

Bandwidth limitations-The internet connection should have high bandwidth, or else it will lead to slower performance for sound, video and intensive graphics. It also takes long time for download.

Effect on teachers-Web based learning will lead to reduction in manpower as per as teachers are concerned. This will lead to oppose by teacher's organization.

Access-Every school will not have equal opportunity to information because of access issues. The schools with fewer budgets will always face this problem. This is the major problem as per as India is concerned, as there is big gap between poor & rich communities in India.

Research Methodology

"All research is a practical activity requiring the exercise of judgement in context; it is not a matter of simply following methodological rules" (Hammersley, M. et al 1994).The research paradigm identified as most appropriate for this study was an qualitative (or) ethnographical approach, the data to be collected during the research process has to be carefully considered.

According to my analysis, it is clear that a single methodology cannot be used in this particular area as data's validity and reliability may be quite low. Therefore, the triangulation approach, combining both qualitative approach and quantitative approach is used to proceed with the research.

Qualitative research, as utilised in this study, is useful for the "generalisation of concepts and relations that have been found in the sense of an analysis of the domains for which they may be applicable" (Flick, 2002)

The quantitative approach used in the research is the experimental study. In this the e-learning is implemented in an Indian school and the feedbacks of performance are collected. In this case the implementation of E-learning in the school is the experimental study. The ethnographical method of qualitative approach is used in this proposed research.

3.2 The Sample

Access to pupils in this age group was discussed from one school, resulting in a sample of 58 students. Three classes were employed to achieve the planned number for the sample; Year 7(age 12), Year 8(aged 13) and Year 9(aged 14).

3.3Methodology structure for the research:

Analysis of the collected data

Literature analysis

Outcome from the Data Analysis and Validation

Diary

Data Collection

Questionnaire

The plan and the structure for the research will proceed as per the diagram depicted below.

3.4 Diaries:

3.4.1 Definition

A diary is a way of collecting information about the way individuals (or) groups spends their time on professional activities. Diaries can record either quantitative or qualitative data, and in the research they can provide information about work patterns and daily activities

3.4.2 Maintaining Diaries

Diary is used to record the details of daily activities happening in the class room. For this research 3 diaries are maintained for three classes. In this research, after implementing the e learning in the Indian school, the diary is maintained to record the performance of the pupils in school every day.

3.4.3 Sample of information collected through dairy

Student interest in the class

Pupil Understandability of the major concepts

Marks obtained in the test

The student attendance

Creativity of the school pupil( any improvements)

3.4 Questionnaire

3.4.1 Definition

Questionnaires are a popular means of collecting data, but are difficult to design and often require many rewrites before an acceptable questionnaire is produced

3.4.2 Questionnaire

The questionnaire given to pupils first will ask the basic classification questions, which concerned their gender, age and year group.

The questions that followed were properly designed to get the feedback of the students. Questions in each section used a rating scale, asking for boxes to be ticked to rate statements on feedback (strongly disagree, disagree, neutral, Agree, strongly agree)

3.4.3 Sample Questionnaire

About yourself

How old are you? ----------------

What year group are you in? ----------------

Are you a boy or girl? ----------------

Strongly disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree

1. E-learning is better than old

education system

2. I can understand the concepts very well, while comparing with the old system.

3. Interest on the subject is increased, while comparing the old one.

4.1 Data Collection

Questionnaires:

The questionnaires were distributed, completed and retrieved in the same sitting by the classroom teacher, thus avoiding any loss or possibility of non-returns. In all, three classes were successfully involved in the study. On average, participants took about 20 minutes to complete the questionnaire.

Diary:

The diary is given to the class teacher, and he/she is asked to note the daily performance of the school pupil. This observation is made for around three Months. Finally all the information is analysed and examined.

In this data collection qualitative approach is adopted to collect the primary data. Diary and questionnaires will be the method to collect the primary data. The quantitative approach is adopted to collect the secondary data. Literature review will be used to get the information to support the data collected through diary and questionnaires. Existing literature will form the base for the research because it will provide the well defined theories and concepts to understand the research.

Data will be collected from the existing literature and the experimental study. The data collected will be under the examination. The information gathered will be stored. The process will repeat until a definite and satisfactory outcome of the research is obtained.

4.2 Data Analysis

The data obtained from diary and questionnaires can be called as the "representational" and it is considered as the first data. The data obtained through the literatures can be called as the "presentational" and it is considered as the secondary data. The representational and presentational data complement each other (Freeman, 2000, pg.295). The combination of the two will give the deep knowledge in the data analysis. The data obtained through the qualitative method will be enormous (Creswell, 1997).

5.1 Reliability and Validity

Questionnaire will be reliable and valid only through the value of the data obtained and satisfaction of participants. Dairy will be considered reliable and valid if the feedback got from diary gives the requested information. "Presentational approach" validates the data and the "Representational approach" helps the researcher to trust the data collected through the "presentational approach" (Freeman, 2000). According to Guba (1985, cited by Creswell, 1997), the success of the research is dependable on the data collected and it should be credible, transferable, dependable and confirmable.

6.1 Plan

Project Plan is the time framework for the research methodology. The researcher would be successful in the proceeding of the research if the time frame is followed properly. The project plan for this research has four sections. They are designing dairy & Questionnaires, Data collection, Data Validation, Research outcome and conclusion

Designing Dairy & Questionnaires : June 2010

Data collection : July 2010- Sep 2010

Data validation : October 2010

Research outcome : November 2010

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