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Information and communication technologies are measured as a significant technique which is used for any organization to maintain competitive advantage and perform their operation more effectively and efficiently, the importance of information and communication technology also accomplished by the successful implementation of ICT. In education sector, information and communication technology also perceived as the vital tool to provide superb quality of education and organize the students to achieve the information from many resources. In addition to that, computer systems are the part of ICT which helps to establish the educational system.
Furthermore, many limitations arise for instance computer may minimize the teacher's efforts to convey information and knowledge but on the other hand, the computers provide enhanced visualization and it also enhances the motivation of students. However, with the implementation of ICT in education system because they deliver complex ideas about the education in such an easy so everyone can understand the concept of idea.
Additionally, like other developing countries, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia did not have the appropriate informational and technological framework like other residential developed countries. Consequently, the KSA needs effective strategies which improve the usage of ICT in KSA secondary school system effectively. In addition to that, by improving the utilization of ICT in secondary school of KSA the students can accomplish the better educational information. On the other hand, there are some limitations which cause some problems in the implementation of ICT in KSA secondary schools.
In the similar way, it required an analysis to analyze these problems in the implementation of ICT and also recognize how tutors and students utilize the ICT. It is very important for both to understand the impacts of coaching and knowledge development in the classroom because it helps in the development of strategies which helps to find out the solution of different problems. A concentrated evaluation of ICT usage in the secondary schools of KSA and the aim of evaluation should be based on identification of constructive strategies which suitable for the KSA secondary schools.
Implementation of ICT in Western secondary schools
The performance of ICT should be improve and expand education and knowledge capabilities which includes extensive range of courses which proved to be demanding to many secondary schools of KSA. In addition to that, it is very important to have better understanding about the concerns for instance; encouragement, support, and infrastructure these concerns are very important because these issues are establishing to be very difficult. In addition to that, there are few schools where teaching staff nearly accepted the ICT and they can use into working exercise, by accepted these active strategies to training and knowledge which also helps to build up new ones. Moreover, in the other similar schools with almost same strategies used for the implementation of ICT and also use same resources and they also achieved the same results. In addition to that, this research also supports those strategies which are used to understand the implementation standards of ICT in secondary schools of KSA. Furthermore, the research objectives of this research help them develop the suitable support and help which provide the better and effective implementation plan for schools.
ICT implementation in schools
Additionally, several researchers found that, is directly focused on ICT standards used in the different schools. This direct focus helps to understand the needs and demands of tutors and different matters which are related with the operations of school. The major issues which a cuase problem in the implementation includes, management, and tutors focus on studies and framework of technology. To overcome this problem management and tutors of school should use the technology in effective way and also teach others how to use the technology. This strategy is very useful to overcome the issues which cause trouble in the implementation of ICT. Moreover, for better and effective learning outcomes, tutors should enhance their teaching skills and also improve the learning capability which helps them to work with the technology.
In addition to that, the literature about these researches is divided into two parts:
Overall and individual attitude towards ICT
The expression practical factors are used to cover up the physical issues which can be taken as important in terms of tutors skills and usage of information and communication technology. The important issues are highlighted as practical factors are listed below;
Accessibility of technology
Sustainability and guidance
The first issues is very important because it's directly linked with the number, kind and dependability of computers it also includes the right to use plan and place of technology equipment. Furthermore, the significance of personal computers access is recognized internationally at workplace and home as well. The access to computers for the purpose of teaching is obviously very important because it enhance the learning skills. The developments are not only linked with the acquiring adequate number of computer but it the success also depend on the place where computers are located and right to use the equipment to gain knowledge.
Overall and individual attitude towards ICT
The overall and individual behaviours are important collectively when reassess the change management literature. In addition to that, many researchers use precise orientation for the usage of ICT in schools because it provides sharing culture and skills among different schools which provide greater adaptability towards the ICT. If ICT is implemented for the change management then the school management should focus specialized strategies which will be helpful for the successful change within the school or organization.
Utilization of ICT
In the west, the tutors in primary and secondary school represent the usage of ICT in schools as supporting tool & training which provide many learning skills and ideas which are very important for the personality development of students. The use of assistive technology provides many benefits which include superior competence in school operations, communication within the organization is increase, and it provides motivational influence on the learning of students. The utilization of ICT in western schools also provide many benefits to teacher as well which involves sharing of skills and resources, it provides flexibility when operations are conducing, it helps to learn the literacy skills and it also enhance the professional skills of teachers.
In addition that, these benefits mixed up together and give birth to effective e-learning ideas such as, give laptop to teachers, provide projectors to class rooms for better learning, interactive white boards, fully developed computer labs which helps the students to polish their individual and team skills. Furthermore, the Government of United Kingdom aims to establish 6,000 UK online centres by 2015, these centres provides internet access to everyone. However there are many barriers in the implementation and usage of ICT which create many difficulties in ICT development in schools.
There are many barriers which cause many problems; the one of the significant barrier is the physical access of ICT centres. The United Kingdom Government has trying to highlight this issue and develop many online ICT centres and other wired up social programmes which provide access of ICT services from home and other work places. In order to minimize the effect of this barrier the higher authorities should develop comfortable environment so that physical access to IT services will be easy. The other barrier which cause problem is lack of professional skills to use the ICT. To overcome this problem the western government now establishing new training centres which helps the tutors and management of school to learn new skills and which are useful for the better understand of ICT standards. Moreover, other barriers include lack of confidence, tutors are not willing to change their attitudes towards the ICT implementation, and tutors are not recognizing the advantages of ICT. However, the government and higher authorities of western countries are taking initiatives to solve these issues because the ICT is very help for the overall growth and development of the country.
The implementation of the ICT tackles approaches mentioned above are recognized none. In the figure 1 shows that the (TAM) Technology Adoption model approach based on Technology, Organization, and people that is also known as TOM. the imperatives of the organization such as; enjoying the appreciation by the management, alignment of the objectives of business and delivery of services, appointments of champions all these are driven by the model.
The website usage and wider dissemination will depend on the participation on bottom-up level and huge extent in ongoing terms of updates from the staff or people. The strength of mind and identifications are essential for the imperatives in technology to diffuse the aids in more effective and simple way. Technology, organizational and people are the three forms of change diverse or imperatives. the aspect of technology takes an audit of the model and it also help to set the plan that will be effective and efficient way to implement ICT including that architecture, content, specification monitoring of technology and installation of effectiveness of the technology. Second aspect of the model is people, that undertake the audit skills of ICT, locate the champions and it also help to adopt the significant knowledge for volunteers as well as the key staff to promote and specify the continuous ways of professional development. Third aspect of the model is organizational, that occupies the starting stages of the organization and find out such effective strategies to implement the optimistic arrangement for the ICT to achieve the goals, team structure, culture, resistance to change, issues about funding and budgetary, relationship and attitude as well. The changes in the indicators such as, information access through the web sites and huge usage of emails.
TAM and TOP imperatives along with the references, socio-technical interactions within the model ground discerned the various relationships. The nature of technical and social interaction can be identify by the features of TOP that will be mentioned in the paper later and will be categorized in the below pages. For example, under the imperatives of the organization there is possibility for some people to arguably include and do report.
Figure 1 the TOP-based Technology Adoption Model (TAM)
Vision of strategy of ICT in Saudi Arabia in secondary schools
The strategies that were adopted by the several countries and they recommend their specific perceptions and recommendations at KSA.
Create a Suitable ICT Infrastructure Environment
ICT is based on the communicational technology such as; software, hardware, and the people who use any media of communication like internet and other Medias. In KSA the usage of communicational technology has been improved by providing the facility of internet in the class rooms of ordinary schools. These schools also teach the ICT usage and these projects increase the equipments in the hardware and software through installation of new networks. Moreover, the integration of ICT required huge money to buy all equipments and to support the ICT project. Consequently, the improvement in ICT the gradually planning of integration and providing the infrastructure in the medium classes of every initial school. ELearning can be performed and increased by the enhancing the internet access at the primary level schools and for this purpose the infrastructure can be used. For instance, to provide the facility of internet access in the primary level there should be collection of funding to bear the cost, and it will enables to provide facility to the students in the computer labs and through this access the students can get amazing visualization and process of nature, as well as this will also encourage the students to get independent and develop their learning skills through ICT familiarity.
Training for Ministry of Education Staffs
This is recommended to the Ministry of education to develop the ICT project and its control also. The ministry should also hire a competence staff for this purpose that will integrate the sustainability of this project and the concept of ICT planning along with its design. The ministry staff should also focus on the trainings of ICT that will help them to carry out the important and essential part of this project.
Developing ICT Training Program for Teachers in
The trainings of ICT should also be provided to the teachers to develop their careers. The teachers should have all the equipments of training such as 'technology-maintenance pedagogy information' that will be required during the lectures in the classrooms. This training system will increase the confidence of the teachers and enhance their knowledge to teach the students in more effective and efficient way. This will support the individual learning program in which the students can develop their interest regarding the study and these trainings will be done according to the subjects that will be required by the schools.
ICT in the Saudi Educational System
In 1985, a Saudi special secondary advanced school introduced a subject of ICT through three parts such as; an introduction to computer science, BASIC programming and programming system, use of information as well. These programming subjects encourage the ministry of education during the year of 1991, and he announced the computer studies subject as part of the syllabus in the boys school and later in girls school also.
What is the definition of ICT in education? And what are the different types of ICT and for what they used?
ICT in education
ICT is abbreviation of Information and communication technologies and these terms defined for the primer purpose, to diverse the technology set and tools to communicate and make the store, disseminate and manage the information, In these technologies, internet, computer radio, television and broadcast technologies.
In recent times, the government realize the benefits of ICT, how computers and internet are the best factors which enhance the success and effectiveness of teaching in all sectors of educations in prescribed and comfortable ways. In addition to that, ICT's is much greater than the formal technologies like radio, television, and telephone. The use of internet and computer are very beneficial for the development of the country.
Information and communication technologies are defined as techniques which are used for any organization to maintain competitive advantage and perform their operation more effectively and efficiently.
Types of ICT
There are different types of information and communication and technology which are useful for the individuals, organizations, and business to enhance communication process.
Email or electronic mail, is used to send and receive the digital information within the organization. It is most easy and general way of electronic communication, this is the most secure way to send important information, files and pictures as attachments.
Facsimile is long form of Fax it was most common and famous form of digital communication before email. In the similar way, faxes are still feasible and workable way of communication for instance different financial transactions. This is most secure and preferred way of communication within the organizations.
Video conferencing is the most ultimate tool for the business communication, when a different individual wants to contact with other business personnel's. This type of communication needs camera, microphone, monitor, speakers, and reliable internet connection. These entire things work together and allow everyone to contact with each other and they can share what they want to share.
This type of communication allows different people to connect with each other at anytime. This communication type is widely used by many organizations when they want to connect with each and other. Telephone conferencing only allow voice communication.