The purpose of the study was identifying the impact of employees motivation factors toward job satisfaction in Universiti Teknologi Mara Perak, Kampus Seri Iskandar. Due to the importance of employee motivation, it is necessary to make sure that the employees have high job satisfaction towards their job. In our study, we focus on the theory of Maslow Hierarchy Needs which contain physiological needs, safety needs, belongings needs, esteem needs and self actualization
According to Robbins (2005), motivation can be defined as the processes that description for an individual's strength, direction and determination of effort towards achieving a goal (Pei, 2007). Lai (2011) stated that, motivation involves a collection of closely related beliefs, perceptions, values, interests and actions. She also stated that motivation refers to reasons that underlie behavior that is characterized by willingness and desire to do something (Lai, 2011).
Besides that, Van Niekerk (1987) saw work motivation as the formation of work circumstances that manipulate employees to carry out a certain activity or duty and responsibility of their ownself-control, in order to accomplish the visions, missions, goals and objectives of the organization, and at the same time satisfy their own needs (Nadia, 2010). According to Pinder (1998), work motivation may be regarded as a set of intrinsic and extrinsic forces that initiate job-related performance, and determine its form, path, passion and interval.
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Based on Luthans (1998), motivation is the process that stimulates, strengthens, directs, and maintains behavior and performance (Tella, 2007). One of the techniques in inspiring people is to occupy with valuable motivation, which makes employees more contented with and dedicated to their jobs (Tella, 2007). Olajide (2000) said that, motivation is a goal-directed, which is cannot comes from outside organization for both public or private.
2.1 Maslow Theory
Lombok (n.d) stated that, Abraham Harold Maslow (1908 - 1970) was an American psychologist that also recognized as one of the originators and principal advocates of humanistic psychology, a psychological present that advocates the continuation of a essential human tendency toward mental health, which would observable as a series of ongoing processes of self-actualization and search self-realization and he is considered as the father of the Humanistic Psychology. According to Sarma & Hoek (2004), Maslow studied human subjects (typical people creature Albert Einstein, Jane Addams, Eleanor Roosevelt, and Frederick Douglas) rather than mentally ill or obsessed people, which was absolutely different from the Freudian and Skinner schools of psychology.
Woolridge (1995), stated that Maslow theory is attractive because it provides a realistic and clear picture. Maslow (1998) understood that his theories might be useful to business and management and not only to educational backgrounds or spiritual endeavour. According to D. Martin and K. Joomis (2007), individuals must meet the needs at the lower stages of the pyramid before they can successfully be motivated to engage in the next stages.
Maslow (1943) organized his perception of how humans categorize their needs for continued existence by pre-potency into a five-stage hierarchy. The most vital or primitive needs needed is physical survival and then safety are general to all living beings, followed by a need to belong to a family, group or society, and ego and esteem needs come after which should be assemble before self actualization is possible (Maslow, 1943).
Maslow believed that humans are motivated to meet their more basic needs physiological and safety before they can attempt for self-actualization (Maslow, 1943). Maslow (1943) believed that individuals are motivated by wants and desires. His theory of pre-potency asserts that a person is unable of moving on to the next highest level until the lower needs were met (Maslow 1943).
In the diagram below show the hierarchy needs of Maslow Motivation Theory:
Figure 2.0 Maslow Hierarchy Needs of Maslow Motivation Theory
2.1.1 Physiological Needs
According to Sarma, et al (2004), physiological needs are the most necessary needs which is these needs consider to be the lowest level needs that let an organism to survive including air to breath, water to drink, food to eat, sleep, shelter and many more. They also stated that, if the employees do not satisfy the needs at this level, they may be unwell, in pain or in distress. For example, a working person will not be satisfied with the present pay check. Instead, he will be focusing on the next pay verify in order to satisfy his needs to guarantee his income (Azizi, n.d.). If any of these physiological necessities is missing, people are motivated above all else to meet the missing needs (Joomis, 2007).
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According to Udechukwu (2009), employees whose physiological needs are not be fulfil, may not be motivated by things such as advanced salary and he also believed that the primary level of needs are not being met if the employees are not receiving sufficient amount of salary to pay for those basic needs such as shelter and food. Udechukwu explained that employees who were not getting these basic needs met through their effort would be more likely to leave their work than employees who were getting their necessary needs met. Pink (2009) showed that people at lower pay levels were more motivated by financial rewards than employees at higher levels who were being paid more than adequately to meet their basic needs.
According to Ellis (1984), physiological need have engaged in priority over than other needs when dissatisfied. As a result, employees who are lacking everything in life are most likely has been motivated by physiological needs. The individual is conquered by these needs until contented. When the physiological needs have been met, other higher order needs come forward and dominated. As the after higher order needs are satisfied, new and still higher needs come out (Ellis, 1984).
2.1.2 Safety Needs
When the entire physiological needs such as needs for food, drink, shelter and other are fulfilled which is no longer controlling view and behaviors, the needs for security and safety can become priority (Azizi, n.d.). Meaning that, needs for safety and security only can be achieve or attain if the lowest needs which is physiological needs has been fully satisfied by individuals or employees itself (Boeree, 2008). Safety can be defined as a people's reaction when they know nothing harmful things will happen to them including mentally, emotionally, physically or and security is the reaction of people when their worrying and uncertainties are low (Joomis, et. al, 2007).
According to Sarma, et al (2004), safety needs allow an individual to establish consistency and stability in a messy world. They also stated that needs that can be classified into several layers which are stability, protection, security, dependency free will from fear, worries, and confusion; need for structure, law, order, and limits, strength in the protector, and others (Sarma, 2004).
Davy, Kinicki and Scheck (1997) stated that, job security can be described as individual's opportunity regarding their stability in a job position, and extends to fear on losing of promotion opportunities and working conditions which is the most job desirable that wanted by every employees in the organization. The degree to which people are motivated by related factors, such as enjoyable working conditions, lower stress on their job and job security give huge impact on their job satisfaction (Wanda, 2005).
Sidhu (2007) stated that, safety needs such as feeling protected and free from coercion in their fundamental survival can be observed through a balancing of ethnic or society between the diversity of ethnic groups, in continuing and keeping with the policies setting down by the government. According to Roos (2005), most of the employees who are bounding with their personal value will force them to maintain their principles and match with quality standards and high ethical especially in the working environment. Hoole and Vermeulen (2003) said, by having negotiation with these principles at working environment, for instance producing work of substandard quality, not staying with the adequate safety standards, will reduces employees the satisfaction on their experience.
2.1.3 Self belongingness
According to Gouws (1995) he stressed that belongings needs is refer friendship, love and social acceptance and support which is they feel belongingness towards environment or people (Roos, 2005). According to Shoura & Singh (1998) this needs is important to all social grouping in human creature regular life. It relates to professional grouping at work for example at office, with co-worker, professional, and also personal relationships for instance relatives, contacts, partner, and neighbours that are near. The lack of satisfaction on the people could lead people to become antisocial and could not get along with the people. According to Maslow as cited in a Heylighen (1992) he stressed that ''belonging'' is essential in a profession for those in expertise area which is, belonging is crucial since work is often done in teams and they should to cooperate together in order to achieve organizational goal.
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According to Maslow as cited in Amaratunga, Baldry (2002) he stressed that the belongingness or love needs people is really need act that related to people surrounding with them or class within in a cluster, it means that they really want to feel belonging of the group or organization if they work in a team. Based on Maslow (1970) he believe that belongingness is defined as need to be one of the members also need to the need to love and to be loved (Kimberly, 2004). According to Maslow as cited in Shoura, (1998) he stressed that a achievement of this needs provides man with an essential element of his human being attributes towards daily life. Based on Rapoport & Rapoport, (1971), he consider that those person who is workaholic views work as a developmental job series with obviously formulated goals and time frames for getting definite milestones (Poduska, 1992).
Self esteem is involving a person's desire to be respected by others and get some appreciation by him or herself (Gouws, 1995). The self esteem means that the people who has one's expertise, skills and capabilities towards certain area and who respect those qualities. For those who have lack of satisfaction actually it could cause humiliation and they could feel down. In the professional side, this translates as ineffective leadership for the leader, and little respect by others for one's opinion and expertise advice.
Shoura (1998) supervisors or expertise employee they should to encourage their employee by give chance, concern, and value the contribution through experience and expertise by members of the group. According Poduska (1996) to meet one's love desires, a person must first feel protected enough to care for without trying reciprocation.
According to Dima, Man (2010) the needs of affiliation, which take into relation the fact that the human living being is a group being and feels the wish to be with a new colleague human being. It is more encourage people on how they could to maintain and try to survive in smaller or greater groups and get along together with other people sharing a vision and certain mutual objectives. According to Maslow, as cited in Kimberly (2004), he stressed that esteem needs define as alert the need to feel excellent about oneself, one's abilities and individuality.
Heylighen (1992) stated that persons also want to be esteemed, by the people they are in contact with and they also well by themselves and they want to know that they are capable of achievement and success in the future. Poduska (1996) he stated that by developing individuals talents, a person becomes more capable in making contributions and it also achieve a sense of significance and relevance as a consequence, which is person seem to experience a sense of self-respect and self-confidence. According to Shoura (1998) she stated that esteem need is as much an earned position as an exerted that one's talent, knowledge, and mastery over others who respect those behavior and how the organizational settings if a position is regarded with prestige, reputation or extraordinary power and adds to the private esteem of the person that fit for the position.
2.1.5 Self Actualization
According to Heylighen (1992) stressed that the word derives from the idea that each individual who has a lot of hidden potentialities which is their talents or competencies could develop in performing their task daily life, but which have as yet not come to the surface. Gouws, 1995, he stated that self-actualization occurs at the top of the needs hierarchy as it shows that on how a person motivated towards their full development of his prospective which is really never completely (Roos, 2005). According to Maslow as cited in Heylighen (1992) he stressed that self-actualization relates to ultimate psychological health. According Maslow self-actualization is reached when all the lowest needs are fulfilled. People should to fulfill the lowest needs which are more important in their life so that by slowly they could achieve the highest need in hierarchy Maslow.
Self-actualization shows that these potentialities of the self are made real, and it is also actualized in a continuing process of describing (Heylighen, 1992). According to Maslow as cited in Ross, (2005) he stressed that people always assume what they do not nonetheless have. Besides that according to Maslow as cited in Heylighen (1992), he stressed that all the lower level needs have been satisfied, but the highest need, which is self-actualization, has not achieved yet. As it is difficult to define this limit, the need of self-fulfillment is too deeply to be impossible to satisfy, being that part of determining us to continuously be open to new, to accept challenges and progress.
According to Frame as cited in Kimberly (2004) he stressed that they are independent and they also could define which one that is different with others. According to Schultz and Schultz (1998) they stated that those needs actually have already been satisfied and it is no more provide inspiration for them (Roos, 2005). According to Maddi (1977), he stressed that as a person self-actualizes, he or she becomes more difficult, differentiate, and professional (Kimberly, 2004). Majority people in some important way but that they can relate to and recognize with the common of people.
2.2 Job Satisfaction
According to Sempane, Rieger and Roodt (2002), job satisfaction can be determined when people concerned to make their own assessment about their jobs against other important issues that is related to them. Job satisfaction is seems to be important towards the employee and organizational outcomes which the results can be found from the job performance to the health and longevity of the person (Spector, 2003). Usually, organizations recognize that having the employee that is satisfied with their work would give highly contribution towards the organizational effectiveness and ultimate survival (Roos, 2005).
Based on Hadebe (2001), the person's feelings and behavior about the job can be influenced thoroughly by the environment outside the job. Schultz and Schultz (1998) held the observation that job satisfaction would results as the positive and negative feelings and attitudes people hold about their jobs and these not only rely on numerous work-related uniqueness, but also on individual characteristics such as age, gender, healthiness and public relationships.
2.2.1 Definition of Job Satisfaction
There are many definitions of the concept of job satisfaction which have been found over the time. Based on Arnold and Feldman (1986), they defined the word of job satisfaction as the total overall effects that individuals have toward their job. Hence, high job satisfaction would means that an individual likes his or her work in general, appreciates it and feels positive about the job (Roos, 2005). McCormick and Ilgen's (1980) also said the same thing when they believe that they regarded the job satisfaction as a person's attitude towards his or her job and that attitude is an emotional response to the job, which would results from positive to negative. Based on the said of Schneider and Snyder (1975), they have regard job satisfaction as a personal assessment of situations and conditions that is obtainable in the job or outcomes that take place as a result of having a job. Then, people will evaluate their jobs against the aspects that are important to them (Sempane, Rieger & Roodt, 2002).
According to Locke (1976), he seized that job satisfaction is simply a pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of job experiences. In the other words, the work that has been done is satisfying or can be rewarded if it completed the persons' personal desires and needs (Roos, 2005). Megginson, Mosley & Pietri (1982) stated that people would have experience of job satisfaction when they feel good and satisfied with their jobs and this feeling often relates them to do their jobs well or they become more expert in their professions which will lead them to be recognized for good performance by their management.
Employee motivation and job satisfaction match each other and act in response to different organizational variables such as efficiency of production and working conditions but they cannot be cut off (Nadia & Shagufta, 2011). According to Hoole and Vermeulen (2003), they initiate that the degree to which employees are motivated by using the external signs of situation, position and due look upon for rank is definitely interrelated with their understanding of job satisfaction. Certain motivational factors that can contribute to the job satisfaction are predicted (Chess,1994).
2.2.2. The Effects of Job Satisfaction
According to Arnold & Feldman (1986), nowadays managers would feel very responsible for maintaining high levels of job satisfaction among their staff especially for its impact on efficiency of production, absenteeism, staff turnover and also through the merger activity. There will be some main impact on the employees' personal, social and work lives when there is involving the employees' emotions and feelings which is known as job satisfaction (Sempane, Rieger & Roodt, 2002). The impact that happened on the employees possibly will influence the performance of employees such as absenteeism (Locke, 1976; Visser, Breed & Van Breda, 1997). The causes of job satisfaction will consist of position, management, co worker relations, job satisfied, compensation and external rewards, endorsement and material circumstances of the work surroundings as well as the organizational structure Schermerhorn (1993).
Schultz and Schultz (1998) stressed that people spend one third to one half of their waking hours at work within a period of 40 to 45 years and this is a very long time to be discouraged, disappointed and discontented especially when these feelings are bring forward to the family situation and social life which will affect the employees' physical and emotional health. According to Nadia and Shagufta (2011), the pressure will not let the individual to show the full potential and thus will be stressed out and the organizations efficiency will be affected by this individual.
2.3 Summary of Literature Review
Based on the literature review above, basically it is about the impact of employee motivation factors that can results to the job satisfaction of the employees in the entire organization. According to Robbins (2005), motivation can be defined as the processes that account for an individual's intensity, direction and persistence of effort towards attaining a goal. As we know, every employee has their own goals that need to be achieved to fulfill their needs and make them feel satisfied with their job that they have been assigned by their organization.
We have selected Maslow Hierarchy Needs Theory as our independent variables which is consists of physiological needs, safety needs, self belongings needs, esteem needs and self actualization. As we know, in Maslow hierarchy needs, we need to satisfy the lowest needs which are physiological needs such as need for food, shelter, drink, breath and so on before we can move to the next higher stage (Sarma, et al, 2004).
The employees would be motivated to perform their work and this will results in the job satisfaction. According to Megginson, Mosley & Pietri (1982), they have identified that employees would face job satisfaction when they feel good and satisfied with their jobs and this feeling often relates them to do their jobs well or they become more expert in their professions which will lead them to be recognized for good performance by their management.