Ict In English As Second Language Esl Education Essay

Published: Last Edited:

This essay has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers.

Computers have been used for language teaching ever since the 1960s. It has played a crucial role in human daily life in both academic and business matters. With the rapid development of emerging technologies, the integration of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has increasingly attracted the attention of teachers (Wang, 2008). Traditional approaches to language teaching and learning have been challenged by new and innovative approaches based on the latest advances in computer and internet technology. The vast resources and opportunities that computers and the internet provide have brought about new tools, approaches, and strategies in language teaching and learning (Arkin, 2003).

The use of information and communication technologies (ICT) in English as Second Language (ESL) education is often seen as a tool to promote the development of language proficiency and as a teaching aid to achieve certain educational goals. Undoubtedly, technology may offer to provide access to new activities and materials, and may increase students' interest and motivation, making learning more effective (Tour, 2010). In view of these benefits the , United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) have given a high priority to the use of ICT for expanding access to quality education. The Dakar Framework for Action also states that the potential of ICT should be used to help achieve Education for ALL (EFA) goals (Hwang, Yang, and Kim, 2010).

Understanding the beneficial influences of computers in education , many countries in South-East Asia such as Malaysia, Singapore, and Thailand have actively planned to develop students' skills in technology in education in the 21st century (Yunus, 2007; Chen, 2008; Choy, Wong, & Gao, 2008; Teo, 2008). They have spent a great amount of their educational budget to develop and incorporate ICT policies into their national curriculum and integrate computers into classrooms as an assisted teaching and learning tools because they believed in the positive benefit of technology.

Unlike those countries, Cambodia which is also located in South-East Asia seems to run behind them. This is due to the generally accepted reason that Cambodiasuffered through the civil war for almost thirty years which devastated all sectors of society and infrastructures. When the civil war was over, the Royal Government of Cambodia (RGC) began trying to rebuild the country by paying attention to developing human capital and they put capacity building and human resource development into one of the national four rectangular strategies. The Cambodian government in conjunction with international governments and other aid agencies has been working to rebuild the school infrastructure and a number of innovative and mutually reinforcing programs have contributed to the reconstruction of the education system during the last decade (Virak, 2007). Moreover, the Cambodian government has privatized the education system by providing opportunities to the private sector to participate in building the human resource capacity in the country in order to speed up the development of human resource and to compete regionally and internationally (Vong, 2010).

In recent years, the Cambodian government realized that using ICT can assist in promoting and improving the education quality especially for increasing the use of distance learning in both secondary and higher education. The Government of Cambodia established the National Information Communication Technology Development Authority (NICTDA) and the Ministry of Education Youth and Sport (MoEYS) also formulated the ICT policy in education in 2005 (Virak, 2007). Furthermore, article 21 of Cambodian Education Law also emphasized the role of technology. It stated that the state shall pay attention to equip appropriate and modern techniques of teaching and learning to ensure its quality and efficiency (MoEYS, 2007).

Moreover, the uptake of ICT as a classroom educational tool in Cambodian government schools is much slower than in neighboring countries. The Ministry of Education, Youth, and Sport ICT policy developed in 2005 and have committed to promoting its use in their system. However, there are challenges that the Ministry needs to overcome in order to equip its students to be able to compete with today's era of globalization (MoEYS, 2004).

Due to budget and human resource constraints, the Ministry of Education, Youth, and Sport cannot implement the ICT policy within the set timeframe. The private education sector has moved one step ahead the government. They are the front-runners in information technology implementation in the Cambodian education sphere. Many private schools have integrated technology into their curriculum. Likewise many private schools have provided many computers into their classrooms in order to take advantage of positive effects of computers as teaching and learning tool and this is especially the case for teaching the English language which is considered to be the most popular foreign language in Cambodia.

Statement of the Problem

The area of ITC as a teaching and learning tool has caught the interest of many scholars around the world; however, most of those papers seek to find out the view of teachers rather than students (Sadera, 1997; Yunus, 2007; Klimova, & Semradova, 2012). Researchers seem to have ignored students who are the beneficiaries of the use of computer in classroom. In the event that students feel negative toward the use of computer in classroom it would be meaningless to expend an institution's financial resources to implement this new pedagogy (computer use in classroom)..

Because students have the central role in the teaching and learning process, it is important to understand their perception about how they feel toward the use of computer as an assisted language learning tool in foreign language classroom; especially English which is the most popular foreign language in Cambodia. Therefore, research needs to be conducted to find out about Cambodian ESL students' attitude toward this new approach.

Research Questions

This research intends to investigate the perceptions of students in English as Second Language class regarding to the use of the computer as a supplementary tool of instruction. Specifically, this study aims to focus on the following questions:

What do ESL students perceive to be benefits and barriers to the use of computer in the classroom at one private school?

What are their suggestions for the use of computer as an assisted language learning tool?

Significance of Study

As this is new research in Cambodia on this issue, it would provide many benefits to relevant stakeholders in the education sector. First, by trying to identify students' perceptions of the use of computer in classroom, the results could suggest some better and more effective ways of integrating this assisted language learning tool. In addition, the findings of this study may reveal whether the use of the computer in an ESL classroom can actually motivate learners and assist them to develop a positive attitude towards learning English. It may show another effective way to motivate ESL students in language learning.

Secondly, schools, policy makers, the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sport, and development partners are spending a great deal of their budget and effort in integrating computer in their curriculum and classroom practice. This study is useful to find out whether the money, time, and effort invested is valuable or not​. Thirdly, if the result suggests that integrating computer into classroom really contributes to the success of students in learning, this study will provide valuable information for other schools or educational institutions as they inintegrating computers into their curriculum and classroom practice..

Fourthly, since this is a new approach in Cambodian teaching and learning environment, there is little work done related to this integration of technology in the classroom; there are not many schools or institutions in Cambodia that are aware of this new technology and its applicability to language learning. Therefore, this study could give an insight and provide some guidelines to integrate and promote this new pedagogy in language teaching and learning in Cambodia. Finally, the findings of this study can be served as a secondary data for later researchers and other development partners.

Chapter 2

Literature Review


This chapter discusses the various literature which is focused on the use of ICT in education. In identifying literature for this study, I reviewed both international and national sources that were available in the university library and online. Even though there has been a remarkable growth of interest in this field globally, it is still not easy to find information for this study locally since this topic is new in the Cambodian educational context. Due to the limitations of the relevant literature in Cambodia, most literature used in this study was obtained from sources in foreign countries through internet search engines such as Google scholar, Yahoo Search, and other well-known websites recommended by lecturers.

The keywords used for identifying relevant literature were ICT in teaching and learning, computer-assisted language learning, computer use in classroom, gender and computer usage, computer and motivation, and barriers to integrate computer into classroom. The literature in each theme was described in chronological order of the publications, starting from the earliest publications to the most recent publications.

Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL)

It is undeniable that computer is an important device in humankind in this information rich age. Since the 1960's, computers have been used in language teaching and learning processes. Within this period of time, computers have been evolved into three main stages namely behaviorist CALL, communicative CALL, and integrative CALL (Lee, 2000).

The first period of CALL was from 1960's to 1970's and it focused on repetitive drills. The second stage of CALL emerged in the 1970's and 1980's which rejected behaviorist approaches by paying attention on using forms rather than on the forms themselves. The last stage of CALL was when integrative CALL emerged after communicative CALL was criticized and teachers moved away from a cognitive view of communicative language teaching to a socio-cognitive view. This last period emphasized real language use in a meaningful and authentic context with the integration of various skills of language learning such as listening, speaking, writing, and reading. Even though the history of CALL is dated back to early 1960's, the major breakthrough in CALL occurred after the 1990s with the evolution and fast development of the World Wide Web (WWW) which enabled teachers and studentsto access millions of resources and vast bodies of information (Boswoodas cited in Arkin, 2003). According to Nwogu and Nwogu (1992), the computer is a medium for learning in almost all subjects in schools including ESL. As a result, CALL was generally accepted as an approach that is capable of enhancing the quality of language instruction in the ESL classroom.

Computer Use in the Classroom

With the present use of computers in schools, there were several studies conducted to explore or to describe how computers were used in the classroom. In their study, Nwogu and Nwogu (1992) found that computers could be used to teach various skills in the ESL classroom such as reading development, language development, social development, cross-circular activities, and pastoral development. Similarly, Boswood (1997) reported that there were many ways that teachers could use a computer device and resource to assist teaching and learning. For example, a teacher could use word processing programs to support students to develop their writing skill such as drafting and editing. In addition, teachers were able to engage students in collaborative learning activities outside the school campus with their friends or teachers by using e-mail and the Internet search engines. Moreover, by using multimedia CDROMs, students could reinforce language learning through practicing grammar and vocabulary exercises, pronunciation work, and games (as cited in Arkin, 2003).

Gender in Computer Usage

Several researchers have found that attitudes toward computer use differ significantly between males and females, with males indicating greater interest and knowledge (Boser, Palmer, & Daugherty, 1998; Silverman & Pritchard, 1996; Isaacs, 2002; Becta, 2004;). Other researchers found that female students perceive technology as more difficult and less interesting than male students (Hashim & Mustapha, 2004; Bain & Rice, 2007; Silverman & Pritchard, 1996).

The analysis in Boser, Palmer, and Daugherty (1998) suggested female students perceived technology to be less interesting than did male students and they thought technology was more difficult to use and understand than did boys. Similarly, looking at the findings of Silverman and Pritchard (1996) girls in middle school appeared to enjoy technology education and had confidence in their abilities; however, the positive aspects of their experiences in middle school do not lead most of them to take more technology education in high school. Isaacs (2002) noticed that girls had limited access to the school computer labs especially after school hours in some countries, particularly in Uganda and Ghana. Bradley and Russell (1997) also reported a correlation between gender and levels of computer anxiety, with females reporting a greater degree of anxiety than males (as cited in Becta, 2004).Vong (2011, p. 24) concluded that "In summary, with ICT technology, when compared to their male peers; female students have limited opportunities to use computers in school. Most of female students do not have a positive attitude to using the computer. Computer program and language instruction are further barriers for female in using ICT technology".

On one hand, many researchers reported different results which indicated that female respondents had more positive computer attitudes than males did (Hashim & Mustapha, 2004). Moreover, the majority of females do not perceive computers as being difficult for themselves, even though several males indicated they were better at using the computer than females (Bain & Rice, 2007). Silverman and Pritchard (1996) mentioned that while girls might come into class with less experience using tools and machinery than the boys, they learnt quickly and did not seem to be at a disadvantage. In their observation, girls did seem to have confidence in their ability to succeed in technology education and this was confirmed in focus group interviews.

On the other hand, other studies showed no difference in gender in suing the computer or ICT. Teo (2008) found in hd that the attitudes towards use of computers among 139 preservice teachers indicated no gender or age differences. Correspondingly, investigation of the influence of technology involved in teaching and learning reported that there was not a significant statistical difference between female and male instructors in respect to software knowledge, skill and attitude (Ahmadi, Keshavarzi, & Foroutan, 2011).

Computer and Learner Motivation in Teaching and Learning

Motivation is one of the key factors in language teaching and learning. There are numerous researchers who have reported on the relationship between students' and teachers' motivation toward the use of computers in language teaching and learning. Most papers I reviewed found that students and teachers had positive attitudes toward the use of computers in learning and teaching. For example, in a study conducted in 1992 by Nwogu and Nwogu they mentioned that students believed that CALL could contribute to the development and improvement of their English competency in ESL classroom and they preferred to learn by using computer than to be taught by teachers because they considered that learning reading and writing on the computer was more interesting than learning in classroom. Similarly, Lee (2000) also identified that students were interested in computers because computers were fashionable and associated with fun and games. This lead to the increase of motivation whenever there were varieties of activities that could make them feel more independent in their learning.

Likewise, in a literature review by Newhouse (2002) many studies had similar findings in that students liked to use computers and were likely to develop more positive attitudes towards their learning and themselves when they used computers. Correspondingly, Lasagabaster and Sierra (2003) concluded in their study to examine the insights and impressions of 59 undergraduate students toward CALL software programs that the students had a positive attitude toward learning language with computers. Yamauchi's article, described how technology can help teachers to organize different learning needs and get or keep students motivated. Yamauchitaught using , computers and the Internet were used in conjunction with computers. and after conducting an evaluation of the activities, the findings revealed that these activities helped students; especially the weaker or unwilling students, feel comfortable in using computers and the Internet, kep tthem actively engaged with the course and encouraged them to express themselves in a better ways (Yamauchi, 2009).

Moreover, Razak and Eswaran (2010) illustrated that most of the teachers and students had a positive attitude towards the use of computer in an ESL classroom and students had high motivation when computers were used.. Their study highlighted that the use of computers in an ESL classroom could motivate students and generate a positive attitude towards English language learning. They suggested there was a role to integrating computers into the language classroom. Another qualitative study on a class of international students studying a Computer Study Skills Module showed that the use of ICT in ESL education was a tool to promote the development of language proficiency and as a teaching aid to achieve certain educational goals. Technology offered students and teachers access to various activities and materials and could increase students' interest and motivation thereby making learning more effective (Tour, 2010).

In a study on the effect of ICT and e-learning on educational advances among the students of Peyam-e-Noor University (PNU) researchers reported that

the average of educational progress variables, self-regulated learning, and educational stimulation among the students who engaged in learning through ICT was by far greater than that of students who learned through traditional method. It can be concluded that ICT is a powerful tool for training and developing the abilities, as well as bringing up the human being talents and a suitable mechanism to create educational stimulation. (Samari & Atashak, 2011, p. 464)

In another recent study to review the effects of ICT on learning and information literacy of 1450 students in Iran researchers found that classroom use of ICT had a significant effect on the learning rate of students (Maleki, Majidi, Haddadian, Rezai, &Alipour, 2012).

It is quite clear from the studies described above that there are strongly positive educational benefits from computer use in the second language learning classroom, few disadvantages to computers as educational tools were found in my review of the literature.

Barriers in Using Computer in Classroom


Availability of computers to teachers

Technical support in schools



Prior training


Systems within the school

Support from school leadership for IT implementation and use

The act of integrating and using computers in a classroom for language teaching and learning is a complicated process and challenged by numerous difficulties or barriers. Those barriers were classified into different categories by researchers and educators. Some studies have classified the barriers into two major categories: extrinsic and intrinsic barriers. The study conducted by Ertmer (1999) defined extrinsic barriers as first-order and described them as being access, time, support, resources and training, whereas intrinsic barriers were described as attitudes, beliefs, practices and resistance. Whilst, Al-Alwani (2005) defined extrinsic barriers as barriers which were related to the organization or institution rather than individuals and saw that intrinsic barriers pertained to teachers, administrators, and individuals.

Some writers divided barriers into teacher-level and school-level barriers. The most cited literature for this classification was Becta (2004) who referred to teacher-level barriers as being individual difficulties experienced as shortage of confidence, lack of time, and resistance to change whilst school-level barriers were related to lack of training to deal with technical problems and, lack of access to resources.

Balanskat, Blamire, and Kefala (2006) classified barriers into three categories: micro level, meso level, and micro level. Micro level was what they described as being teachers' attitudes and approaches to ICT use in the classroom, meso level was used to describe the institutional context such as ICT infrastructure and access, and the last level sometimes called system-level barriers were referring to the wider educational framework.

Another group of researchers considered obstacles to classroom ICT usage as pertaining to two types of conditions: material and non-material. The material conditions referred to the shortage of computers or software programs and the non-material included teachers' knowledge and skills about ICT, obstacles in integrating ICT in teaching, and shortage of teaching time (Pelgrum, 2001).

Evidence from the finding of Nwogu and Nwogu (1992) illustrated two major problems militating against the use of computer in ESL classroom. The first obstacle was lack of qualified human resources. In their study they visited a number of schools and revealed that only one teacher involved in the project had two years' experience with CALL while others did not have appropriate training or experience with CALL. The second problem they identified was the type of software or programs. They reported that none of the programs used in the ESL classes they observed was user friendly and could help the less able child to talk though the program. Furthermore, none of the programs provided data base systems which enabled students to organize and manage information and resources relevant to their learning.

In a study with 279 preservice teachers enrolled in an introductory instructional technology course several factors emerged that significantly affected preservice teachers' ability to conceptualize advanced ways of using the computer in the classroom. These factors included : computer attitudes, computer proficiency, and beliefs about knowledge acquisition (Sadera, 1997). Cox, Preston and Cox (1999) , in a meta- analysis analyzed a number of previous studies and theories about motivation and attitudes and behaviour and found a range of factors were reported which could contribute to teachers' motivation to use ICT. These factors included a teacher's attitudes to ICT, their beliefs in the value of ICT for teaching and learning and, their perceptions of whether or not they can use it themselves and use it effectively in their teaching. Motivational factors for using computers in the classroom identified in the review included making lessons more interesting and more fun, contributing to pupils' learning, improving the presentation of materials and, making the lessons more diverse (Cox, Preston, Cox, 1999).

According to Mumtaz (2000), a number of factors that influenced teachers to use computer in classroom were access to resources, quality of software and hardware, ease of use, incentives to change, support and collegiality in their school, school and national polices, commitment to professional learning and, background in formal computer training. Also, Issacs (2002) mentioned that in general the main barriers to ICT access were related to the small number of computers with the large numbers of teachers and students per school, the high cost of Internet access and the dearth of technical skills to assist with trouble shooting maintenance when computers broke down.

Changing Teacher's Attitudes towards using computers in the classroom

From questionnaires distributed to 97 teachers in an English-medium university statistically significant differences were reported between teachers who have undergone computer technology training and those who have not in terms of their attitudes toward computers and the use of computer technology resources in language teaching. This revealed that training had an impact on attitude change towards and perception of computer use in language instruction (Arkin, 2003). Becta mentioned in the report conducted in 2003 that the key barriers to using ICT were lack of access to appropriate ICT equipment, lack of time for training, exploration and preparation, lack of models of good practice in ICT, negative attitudes towards computers in education computer anxiety and a lack of confidence, fear of change and a lack of personal change management skills, unreliable equipment, and lack of technical, administrative and institutional support (Becta, 2003). Comparatively, Aduwa-Ogiegbaen and Iyamu (2005) identified several impediments to the successful use of ICT in secondary schools in Nigeria. These were cost, weak infrastructure, lack of skills, lack of relevant software and limited access to the Internet.

In a study to identify the general barriers faced by K-12 schools in the United States and other countries, Hew and Brush (2007) found a total of 123 barriers from the review of past empirical studies; they divided them into six main categories, namely: resources, institution, subject culture, attitudes and beliefs, knowledge and skills, and assessment. Likewise, the findings of a study of ESL teachers in Malaysia pointed out that one of the main challenges to ICT integration perceived by the ESL teachers was teachers' low level of access to school computers, which may have played a role in teachers' modest computer competence, so essential to future computer use. The second and third challenges stressed in the interviews were lack of time to use computer skills and lack of training (Yunus, 2007). Another study investigated teachers' use of computers in teaching English as a second language (ESL) in a public school in Malaysia showed that most of the teachers rarely used the computer to teach English. One major reason was lack of confidence because many teachers were not adequately trained to use the computer to teach. This made them feel that they were incompetent and uncomfortable using the computer in the classroom. Because of this, some of them had a negative attitude towards the use of computer in the classroom especially among teachers who had lower perceived abilities of handling the computer. Another reason for these teachers' attitude was there were no guidelines provided to them. All of these reasons made teachers quite unmotivated to use ICT in the classroom although they knew very well about its advantage. In addition, teachers also faced with other challenges such availability of limited software in the school and lack of knowledgeable personnel or technician on-site for computer maintenance as well as provision of technical support to teachers (Darus & Luin, 2008).

Bingimals (2009) and Salehi and Salehi (2012) found much similarities about barriers to the use of ICT in science education. While Salehi and Salehi noticed that shortage of technical support was the high test obstacle to prevent teachers' use of ICT, Bingimals also reported the lack of teachers' support under school-level barrier in his/her paper. In addition, lack of access and shortage of time were also presented in both papers as the factors that prevent the successful integration of ICT. However, there is one point which is showing a difference of these two papers. In the article written by Salehi and Salehi (2012), there were three barriers seem to come from outsider (extrinsic factor) such as society views, colleagues' views, and school views. Unlike Bingimals (2009), he/she looked into factors inside teachers which we can call "intrinsic factor". Those factors were lack of teacher confidence, lack of teacher competence, and resistance to change and negative attitude of teachers. Identically, in the study examined ICT implementation of the national reform by Hu and McGrath (2012), the findings indicated a number of constraints that hindered the smooth process of ICT implementation reform. Those barriers were insufficient ICT facilities, teachers' limited ICT skills and pedagogic expertise, lack of effective communication networks and inadequate technical support and ICT-related training.​ From the analysis of questionnaire in the study of Kiasari (2012) illustrated two point of views toward the barriers of using ICT. From the perspective of professors, the barriers were technical and physical barriers, financial barriers, human barriers and cultural barriers, respectively and from students' point of view were human barriers, financial barriers, technical and physical barriers, and cultural barriers.

Chapter 3

Research Methodology

You need an introductory paragraph outlining WHAT is in this chapter - tell the reader what is ahead for them

Sampling Method

How is the site to be chosen? Why, what kind of sample method is this, strengths and limitations

How are students to be recruited? Why? What kind of sample method is this? Strengths and limitations

A permission letter for Director of Royal University of Phnom Penh will be asked and one school will be chosen to be the site for this research because this school has integrated computers into their ESL curriculum recently and there will be enough students to respond to the research objective. A number of students who are studying in ESL class will be chosen to be the population with voluntary. This population will be chosen in different levels ranking for level 1 to level 12. Moreover, purposive sampling method will be employed in choosing these students. 4 students from each level will be selected and among these 4 students, the researcher will choose the top achieving 2 and another 2 students who got the lowest mark in the class according to their final academic records in the last term.

To avoid making students feel under pressure to agree to participate in the research, their class teachers will be asked to stay outside the classrooms when the researcher tells them about the purpose and ask them to participate in the research. In addition, when filling in the questionnaire, the students will be asked to tick whether they are willing to join in focus group discussion or not. So, in focus group discussion the researcher will invite only the volunteers students who ticked in the agreed box. This ensures the ethical issue that this research will do no harm to the participations.

The reason purposive sampling is employed in this research is that it is one of the most common sampling strategies in research and the sample sizes can be flexible as it depends on the objective of the study, resources and time available. Moreover, this method is appropriate when data review and analysis are done along with data collection (Mack, Woodsong, Macqueen, Guest &Namey, 2005). In addition, Lincoln and Guba (1985) wrote that purposive sampling can help researchers to discover full scope of issues (as cited in Cohen, Manion & Morrison, 2007). One of the limitations of this method is that it requires special knowledge or expertise to select some groups to represent this population. Sometimes, "purposive samples are selected after field investigations in some group in order to ensure that certain types of individuals or persons displaying certain attributes are included in the study" (Berg, 2009, p. 51).

Data Collection Methods

In order to meet the research objectives and answer research questions, the data collection in this study is conducted using Mixed Method. First, a questionnaire will be distributed to all population, after the researcher has explained the reasonsfor this study and explain to participants how to fill the questionnaires. Moreover, to reduce errors, the questionnaires will be pre-tested with 10 students and their feedback used to refine the instrument. The reason for doing this pilot is because the researcher wants to make sure that the questions in questionnaire are understandable and the participants have enough capacity to answer the question. After that, Focus group will be processed with 24 students who are from different level. Furthermore, they will be informed about research objectives and their responses will be kept confidential and served for research purposes only.

Data Collection Methods

Two methods will be used to collect the data for this small study, a researcher designed questionnaire will be used and focus group interviews. Both these methods are described in further detail below.


Questionnaire is an important data collection tool for in this research. It will develop based on the research objectives with the aim to answer research questions. Vong (2010) indicated that a researcher can use questionnaires to gather information from a large number of respondents highly efficiently. Questionnaires an also provide the researcher with ease in data recording and analysis through counting the boxes or doing content analysis of respondents' ideas (Hannan & Hanthaway, 2002). Furthermore, questionnaires can be used to enable individual respondent to give comments and perspectives in their own words (Anderson & Arsenault, 1998).

Some limitations to this data collection method are that it is possible that some respondents may not understand the question, so this can lead to response bias (citation). Secondly, when using an anonymous questionnaire is impossible to contact the respondent for clarification of any unclear responses after the questionnaire was given back (Vanna, 2011). Finally designing a questionnaire is time-consuming,to construct a good questionnaire, can take 10 to 50 hours, including pilot-testing, revision and formatting (Anderson & Arsenault, 1998, p. 179).

Focus Group Discussion.

Focus group discussion allows the researcher to gather a large amount of information from potential respondents in time-consuming manner. Moreover, this method "uses groups' synergy to maximize recall and highlight the diversity of perspectives" (Anderson & Arsenault, 1998, p. 177). In addition, Berg (2009) showed that focus group discussions allow more flexibility in terms of number of participants, groups, costs, duration, questions to be asked, etc. On the other hand, the quality of the data is collected will depend on the skill of the facilitator to motivate and maintain control over the group discussion and to transcribe or take notes where there are a number of voices (Anderson & Arsenault, 1998; Creswell, 2005; Berg, 2009). A further limitation of focus group discussion is that a participant may not be willing to provide any information related to their personal life of speak about a topic of a controversial nature; therefore; only group opinions are obtained in the results (Creswell, 2005; Berg, 2009). A further possible limitation can arise with attendance as it is voluntary so an insufficient number of participants to conduct discussion may occur (Berg, 2009).