In language, literacy and communication children will be able to talk with confidence, sing songs, be able to write and read some words. The guidance believes that learning in this area involves "communication, speaking and listening in different situations and for different purposes, being read a wide range of books and reading simple texts and writing for a variety of purposes". http://www.preschool.me.uk/goals.php
In Mathematical development children will learn math throughout games and stories and they will be more comfortable with numbers. According to foundation stage guidance, learning in mathematical development area is made up of "counting, sorting, matching, seeking patterns, making connections, recognising relationships and working with numbers, shapes, space and measurement" http://www.thevillaschoolandnursery.co.uk/school2.htm
In Physical development children will become more skilled at motor and movement of their body. Furthermore, in creative development children will discover colours, texture and shapes and creating things such as making music.
Science contains appreciation and knowledge of the world's region in the early year foundation stage.Â According to foundation stage guidance this learning area must include "activities based on first hand experiences that encourage exploration, observation problem solving, prediction, critical thinking, decision making and discussion" http://www.thevillaschoolandnursery.co.uk/school2.htm
The mathematical, science and language development areas will then be sorted into early learning objectives in order to justify that what the majority of children are expected to attain at the end of the foundation stage
The curriculum support is designed "to help practitioners plan to meet the diverse needs of all children so that most will achieve and some, where appropriate, will go beyond the early learning goals by the end of the foundation stage".(Tassoni,P 2005)
In the early year foundation stage, the practitioner's main role is to encourage children to learn and achieve independence ,they must design significant activities and need make sure that every bit of activities are comprehensive to all children.Â
Acoording to Macleod-Brudenell,( 2004), everybody has to be included in the planning and work together. Parents/ practitioners must frequently get together and discuss to bring up to date every child's profile in order to give a distinguished and efficient curriculum to meet the various requirements of young persons.
The Curriculum guidance which links to the education period that shortly follows after the Foundation stage is the National Curriculum. The National Curriculum is aimed at children from the age of 5 to 16. It was first set up late in 1988 for primary and secondary schools. To begin with, the National Curriculum is a blueprint used by all schools that are run by the government in England, its goal is to certify that learning and teaching is well-balanced and reliable across the nation. The criteria of the National Curriculum is setting out subjects that are going to be taught within schools, the principles or achievement targets in every subject are what teachers use to gauge the child's improvement, and the methods in which a child's progress is assessed is through reports.
At key stages 1 and 2 in the national curriculum the statutory subjects that every students should study are design and technology, information and communication technology, art and design, history, English, geography, physical education , ,mathematics, science ,Religious education and music. However, Science, Maths and English are considered as the National Curriculum's main subjects.
The function of the Foundation stage Curriculum is support for the National Curriculum in the areas within the Foundation stage Guidance communication, literacy, language, mathematical enhancement, general knowledge and a good understanding of the world. These are all in line with the objectives inside the framework for teaching maths, literacy and science at level 1 of the National Curriculum.
Difference in EYFS and national curriculum
According to Macleod-Brudenell, (2004), the early year foundation stage concentrates on the process led model, however the National Curriculum concentrates on the Content Led model in order to encourage children to take an effective responsibility in society as well as providing them with skills, knowledge and understanding.
The structure of the National Curriculum is different to foundation stage. For example in the national curriculum, it's the decision of schools to choose how they want organise their school curriculum to include the programmes of study.
"The programmes of study ( the Education Act 1996),set out what pupils should be taught in each subject at each key stage, and provide the basis for planning schemes of work. When planning, schools should also consider the four general teaching requirements (use of language, use of ICT and health and safety and inclusion) that apply across the programmes of study". https://czone.eastsussex.gov.uk/sites/gtp/library/professional/Documents/induction/The%20Structure%20of%20the%20National%20Curriculum.pdf
In the national curriculum, national qualifications are the most important methods of clarifying achievements in National Curriculum subjects. Most of students will have to remain working at levels 1-3 in the first key stage and then achieve level 2 by the end of the key stage, at levels 2-5 in key stage students achieve level 4 by the end and levels 3-7 at key stage 3, levels 5/6 will be attained by the closing stages of the key stage.
In the national curriculum, teachers must make a plan of study and the capabilities of their students. And then they need to report once a year at the end of each key stage to parents to discuss the improvements of students.
the major difference in foundation stage and the national curriculum is that there are lots of activities that are available for children in foundation stage, mainly everything they learn is through activities and play, for example science at foundation stage is introduced to children throughout play and activities that encourage them what they need physically and what they need to do to observe in order to explore the world around them, this is called knowledge and understanding of the world. They will also be encouraged to predict, make decisions, solve problems and think.
Every bit of activities and play in foundation stage areas of the national curriculum helps children to develop physically and creatively. However in the national curriculum the study is getting harder and teachers are stricter about study towards pupils.
The most important focus of the foundation stage curriculum is to prepare students for the next level which is going to a primary school by the age of five. It observes the child as "active learners" and "becoming a pupil". Throughout the early year foundation stage the learner's achievement is measured all the way through formal observations, assessments and check lists. This is called the Foundation Stage Profile. There are no signs of particular testing in foundation stage in contrast the national curriculum which children have to be assessed for every subject at the end of each key stage in order to see how the child is progressing.
Â There are some changes that occur which children experience when they leave foundation stage and go up to key stage 1. These include distancing from play to work activities, they will also move from thematic to subject activities, and also they'll experience more formal method of teaching.
Importance of science as a national curriculum
The national curriculum promotes the significance of Science to help children to gain knowledge and understanding of the world around them. It is because of science that children find the reason for expected "phenomenon" that they see in their everyday life. It does have a massive influence on the world and it also helps maintain the healthiness of people.
Furthermore, Science teaches about cooperation and conflict managing, it helps people in having strong communication skills. For instance, when giving description on a research, students have to use appropriate research and communications skills. This afterwards will be functional, as it promotes personal relationships. It's also throughout science that children gain knowledge in relation to dealing with conflicting point of view, and also releasing when to cooperate with others and work on their own.
Furthermore, learning about science helps them to be more accountable and a more responsible society, this is because they'll learn how to think crucially and also they'll have a better understanding on how things function in the world; therefore, they would be able to make appropriate decisions and make a healthier and more secure environment.
The importance of ICT as a national curriculum
The National Curriculum also promotes the significance of ICT across the curriculum. Information and communications technology is generally anything that uses electricity. For example: computer, video, TV and etc.
Schools have a major responsibility in developing ICT ability. Numerous aspects of ICT are vital for all schools. These are include: the significance of expanding ICT skills to develop understanding of the individuals and the society as a whole, to be able to distribute thoughts and work as a team, the ability to gain skills and knowledge throughout a range of methods and techniques, and also to make the most use of ICT to maintain teaching and learning across the curriculum.
Nowadays in all schools Children of the young age need various knowledge of ICT if they want to be successful in their future life. The most important aim of national curriculum by putting ICT along nations is to develop children's skills, knowledge and attitudes in association to communications and information technology. It's also to encourage them to develop their self-confidence, self esteem and understanding in using ICT and provide them with quick and researchable access to great amount of information. Moreover, to help them to resolve problems, study on their own and to communicate and cooperate with other people and improve their communication skills.
For the topic of science I have done an activity with children aged 4 to 5 years old in reception class, to promote their understanding and knowledge of science, the World around them and how it works. 6 children took part in the activity.
The activity was based on mini beasts, which is a science subject within the foundation stage curriculum. Mini beasts include ladybirds, spiders, caterpillars, butterflies, etc. The lesson was in relation to what they eat, where they live and where we can find them.
This activity was based on science; however it supports children in developing their understanding and knowledge in other areas of the curriculum as-well such as: maths, art, ICT, communication and language.
Maths: I asked children to count mini beasts on the smart board and then I asked them to count how many legs they have.
ICT: I used Information Communication Technology to draw up mini beasts on the smart board and encouraged children to come and draw mini beasts on the smart board and then right their name next to pictures.
Communication: I encouraged children to discuss what they eat and where they live
Art: I asked children to draw mini beasts on a piece of plain paper and then use colour pencil to colour them in.
I feel that the children learned a lot from this activity as they hadn't yet done the science curricula; therefore they haven't got much understanding and knowledge on science and the world around them. I feel that this activity promoted the children's learning and development in the curriculum as well as promoted their communication, language and use of ICT. However, some of the children needed additional support. This activity was very educational for the children, taking part in it has supported them in increasing their understanding.
By creating this lesson I learned how to plan and apply activities for the right stage and age of the children that I will work with. I also gained knowledge of how to cooperate with children during the activity and how to assess their learning.
I've learned how to support the children who may need it and how to create resources and set up activities suitable for them. This activity also helped me in gaining confidence and improved my communication skills. Moreover, it helped me gain experience of working with children and acknowledging them.
Key stage 1 lesson plan
I also planned another science activity for children age 7 years olds within the national curriculum.
The activity involves physics which will increase children's understanding and knowledge of science, as well as gaining a good understanding of how conductivity and circuitry works.
What I'm going to do is to teach children that in order for a circuit to function properly there must be no gap in the circuit so the electricity can flaw.
For this lesson the children will have an independent choice on which the equipments they can guess that would conduct electricity.
According to national curriculum guidance "Children should be taught that it is important to collect evidence by making observations and measurements when trying to answer a question."
It is essential to educate children how to investigate and explore because it helps them to resolve problems and to have an answer to their own questions. It will also help them to solve any problems that they may face in the future.
For this activity I will take my laptop to the class and show children how electricity flows and then I will draw up the circuit on the smart board and explain to children that within the plastic coating there is a wire which conducts electricity. I will also give examples of other materials that can conduct electricity.
The next plan which I provided for children is a computer game, so what I am going to do is encourage children to take part in a computer game activity. The activity will be to ask children to press a button on a keyboard to move objects, and when they press the button the objects will move, by doing this they will come to know that electricity current passes through a wire which causes the object on the screen to move.
This activity will promote children's communication as they discuss and ask questions such as: why? How? What will happen if? And also encourage them to predict of what's going to happen before they do it. They will also recognise whether the test was fair or not.
By the end of the lesson children will be able to know that mainly metal items conduct electricity. They'll also gain knowledge that mostly all electrical conductivity is not linked toÂ colour, weight, size and texture.
By doing this activity I will learn how to cooperate with children and plan science activity to expand their understanding about physics .I will also identify the needs of the individual child, some perhaps will need extra support. Moreover, in the activity which I planned for children, I'll show good understanding of anti-bias practice and anti discriminatory.