Human resources management and applications

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The Human Resources management is a term which covers a range of applications that is different from book to book and organization to organization. In addition to ownership organisation can be distiquish on the basis of whether they are production or service oriented and whether they are public or private. They come in many different types, shapes and size, have various organisational and ownership structures.


Definition Of The Human Resources Management (HRM)

Administrative activities associated with human resources planning, recruitment, selection, orientation, training, appraisal, motivation. HRM aims at developing people through work.

History Of The Human Resources Management (HRM)

The Human Resources management has not 'come out of nowhere'. There were a many attempts to achieve an understanding of human behaviour in the workplace. All the way through the 20th century and earlier, practitioners and academics developed theories and practices to explain and influence human behaviour at work. The Human Resources management has absorbed ideas and techniques from a wide range of these theories and practical tools.

In the late 1800s and early 1900s, people problems were a very real concern in the workplace. For the average worker, most jobs were low-paying, and unsafe. Some industries experienced difficulty recruiting and keep some employees. As the production continued to shift from farmlands to city factories, the problems start grew because of the child labour, poor wages, poor safety conditions, and 12-hour workdays.

Workers began to band together in unions to protect their interests and improve living standards. For most workers, unions established strong roots in many industries and gathered political influence or power with Congress.

Government provide basic rights and protections for workers for example: new laws governing the work of children and workers' compensation laws aimed at protecting employees injured on the job.

Employers begin to understand the need for professionals who could stand up between employees and employers, the personnel manager's role emerged. It was during this first movement that employers begin to truly understand that employees were more than machines with interchangeable faces.

The Structure Of Human Resources Management

The structure of Human Resources management is every time different according to the type and size of the organization that they serve. In larger organizations with thousands of employees the Human Resources management function might be headed by employment relations or industrial relations managers which one spend most of their time with employment relations issues. These include large public sector organisations, local government and multinational organisations. The smaller organisations medium size organisations with fewer than 250 employees will have a middle-level manager as head of Human Resources management department he has support of key decision makers. Also on the lower scale are micro businesses. These are organisations with fewer than 10 employees.

Functions And Goal Of The Human Resources Management

The main goal of Human Resources management is to maximize the productivity of an organization, promote personal development and employee satisfaction. Other goals of Human resources management are to treating employees as valuable resources, improving the work life of employees also engage in a variety of activities in order to execute their human resource plans.

The human resource function (planning, recruitment, selection, orientation, training, appraisal, motivation) serves to make sure that the company mission, vision, values and the factors that keep the company guided toward success are optimized. Human Resource Management is the organizational function that deals with issues related to people such as compensation, hiring, performance management, organization development, safety, wellness, benefits, employee motivation, communication, administration, and training. Also include variety of activities which one are closely linked to people's attitudes about work, the evolution of employment-related laws and sociological trends. The human resources management functions and activities helps Human Resources managers decide whether to use independent contractors or hire employees (internally or externally) to feel company's needs and goals.

Arguably Human Resources management has become the dominant approach to people management. The human resource department is loyal to providing effective policies, procedures, and people-friendly guidelines and support within companies. The employee engagement refers to positive feelings held by employees about their jobs and also the motivation and effort they put into work. Engagement leads to positive employee behaviours that lead to organizational success. Also Human Resources management deals with that the employees display the highest level of efficiency and effectiveness in the performance of the organizational functions through providing basic conditions of work to the employees to ensure achievements of the highest levels.

Criticism Of Human Resources Management

According to the various authors they have identified factors, which act as barriers to effective HRM.

Some of the factors are:

  • Top management has a low priority, and often a short-term view, of what the real issues in HRM and the profession are”. (Purcell, 1995; Kane and Crawford, 1999; Parmenter, 2002; Burton, 2003).
  • HRM practitioners are perceived to lack sufficient knowledge and skills necessary to implement effective HRM practices at various levels in their organisations”. (Jayne, 2002; Burton, 2003; Nel , 2004a)
  • HR professionals have not been assertive enough to be present in the boardroom to guide HR programmes to achieve long-term impacts on such HR initiatives. This probably also points to a lack of adequate drive and communication to apply strategic human resources management”. (Kane, 2001; Glade, 2002; Birchfield, 2003; Du Plessis, 2004).
  • The strategic, international and political perspectives of HRM are pivotal areas, which the research and theory of HRM has developed over the last decade and which needs more research to deal effectively with it in future”. (Ferris , 1999)
  •  They argued that employees come to work ready to be engaged but organizations need to create the conditions that will release that energy. Also they believe that employees will feel and act engaged when managers create the right conditions that allow them to do so.(William H. Macey and Benjamin Schneider(August 25 2009):

The positive attitude of employees to HRM practices, such as promotion from within, staffing, equal employment opportunity, quality of training, reasonable compensation and paid vacation and sick days shows that productivity has been increasing while employee turnover, absenteeism, and grievances are low. However, the evidence also reveals that training was not integrated in a planned way to employee career development.


There appear to be conflicting signals in terms of what the research literature recommends should happen in practice, and what actually happens It is therefore clear that various approaches exist regarding the HRM profession's functions, and what the role and capabilities should be in the future (Storey, 2001; Becker et al., 2001;Kane, 2001; Jayne, 2002; Birchfield, 2003; Wright et al., 2005).


Human resources management and applications