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The history surrounding disability within children and young people sought to dehumanise and eradicate the strange, or anything that was different from the norm. Children were seen as weak and left to die, the rich would hide then away and placed then institutions, or sent away to live in monasteries. In this era of education children who's' ability to function and appeared normal is placed into education. The notions of a disability were looked upon as medical conditions and therefore a child or young person with a visible disability in the 1800's were classed as "feeble minded". Later disabled children were placed inside institutions, as if they were hidden by society. As children began to learn in schools it became evident that children were also suffering with other forms of disabilities, as children who appeared not to have a visible disability were seen as delinquents and unruly.
Later in the early 1900's those children with a medical or visible disability and were classed or called "idiots, imbeciles and feeble minded" were unable to work in the workhouse were left to fend for themselves on the street by begging. The Nazis sought to have a pure nation and so rounded up people who were not seen to fit into their ideal person and create a master race, children with disabilities were eliminated through mass killings. In our modern world, we abort pregnancies with disabilities, a mother can choose to elect for an abortion due to the progression of modern technology, which present parents with an option to choose between caring for a child with a disability or aborting and ending the life of the foetus. Under the Abortion Act 1967, this states, that a mother may abort a pregnancy up to week twenty-four of confinement, if the child has a significant risk of a mental or physical disability, (UK Health Centre, 2012).
The models of disability have developed and moved with the implementation of legislation, initially a child with a disability or medical model, is seen to be faulty, impaired, excluded or segregated from society and mainstream school, labelled. The social model can be best described as society places restrictions or limitations that may confine or hinder the disabled person by causing barriers, for example, a person in a wheelchair will struggle to climb steps into a building. The educational model looks to include everyone into an educational setting where everyone can access; this is called 'inclusion'. Figure one shows how teachers need to deliver their lesson using a variety of teaching methods in order to engage all children of varying levels of age and ability, meeting all the learning objectives overcoming potential barriers to the children's learning.
In Figure two, this show how the school set initiatives which focus on building an environment which promotes children's emotional health and welfare, thus developing social, emotional and behavioural skills, (DFE, 2010). Some children who experience difficulties in this zone, the SEAL programme uses the middle layer to help engage and teach these children, the plans maybe an individual plan with multi-agency support, with a more specific provision at the base. This framework aims to give a universal entitlement to learn.
In a person with a medical disability, it is seen that the disability is about the individual, and need to adapt to the surroundings. Whereas, social models of disability, is the barriers that society instils, and excludes the disabled person from participating, (Open University, Online, 2006).
Many acts have been passed through Parliament and have seen to improve the living, social and educational conditions of those individuals who have a disability. The laws are there to help protect and give guidance to those working, living and educating children. The Lunacy Act (1845), sought to bring proper care to those who had been placed in institutions, and living in degrading conditions, (Bewley, 2008). The Mental Deficiency Act of (1913), labelled people with 'deficiencies' and classed the disabled as "Idiots, Imbeciles, and feeble-minded, it also began to supervised the Mental Deficiency services run by the Local Authorities (LA), supervising this was the Lunacy Commission, later renamed The Board of Control, (The National Archives, 2012). There were no further developments until the 1923-1931 Hadow Report this sought to test children intelligence and diagnose mental deficiencies; it also, brought the school leaving age to fifteen years after the end of the Second World War where this was eventually implemented into the Education Act of (1944). Later the Educational (Handicapped) Act 1970 changed how we referred to children with disabilities and gave 'subnormal children' the right to education and training, thus transferring them from the mental health services into education authorities, (National Archives, 2012). Baroness Warnock sought to bring full inclusion; she was commissioned in 1973 by Margaret Thatcher, the then Secretary of State for Education and Science, to review educational provisions for children with disabilities, taking into consideration the use of resources and recommendations for improvement, (Crown Copyright, 1978).
The Warnock Report (1978) radically changed the Education Act (1981) in this country, although its effect was global. The Warnock report recommended changes to The Education Act that sought to provide for disabled children within the education system. The Education Reform Act, (1988), provided a national curriculum for schools and league tables. Schools then began to compete against each other and for children to attain high grades, children with SEN became a hindrance, as they are unable to achieve academic success, for the first time since the Warnock Report (1978), children with SEN became a liability to the newly introduced league tables, (Parliament Copyright, 2006). Again the Disability Discrimination Act (1995) brought changes to the Education Act (1996), the purpose of this act was provide greater powers to the disabled not allowing others not to "â€¦ discriminate against disabled pupils and prospective pupils in the provision of education and associated services in schools, and in respect of admissions" (Disability Rights Commission, 2002).
Since the Warnock Report (1978), society began to see people with disabilities and recognised them within society. Disabled people are now seen to be valued, strengths and weakness are addressed, where additional help or resources are required they become more readily available, and the availability of inclusion within mainstream education for children with disabilities.
The Education Act (1981) brought inclusion and definition of special educational needs to the forefront of educational services and enabled formally remedial children to access mainstream school. In 1994, the Salamanca statement set forth the right for children with special educational needs to be able to access mainstream school. The Code of Practice for SEN children gives schools guidelines and procedures for assessing pupils SEN and making provisions for them. Updated in 2001, and is due to change in 2014, this will bring a new single assessment process, called 'Education, Health and Care Plan'. The idea is to bring together the services children and their families rely on. To provide a service with a multi-agency approach, reviewed regularly to reflect changing needs of the individual. The new plan aims to replace a statement of SEN and provides the same statutory protection. A statement is a document that sets out the child's needs and provisions required to meet those needs. The plan includes a commitment from all parties to provide their services.
Using George's IEP which was developed from the case study (appendix), and in order to address all the needs of a disabled person or in this case George, the role of the SENCO is to oversee the day-to-day operation of the school's SEN Policy, co-ordinating provisions and services for pupils with SEN. This requires the SENCO to liaise with teaching staff and parents. Overseeing the records of pupils with SEN, contribute to in-service training, liaising with outside agencies to provide a wrap-around or holistic approach to each child, using resources and available funds. Depending on the severity of the disability would depend the agencies who are involved, thus providing a multi-agency approach in supporting the individual needs, and providing full inclusion for the student and eliminate barriers.
The key people within the school with SEN responsibilities are the following:-
All Teaching and non-class based support staff
Social Ecology, Human Ecosystem
The establishment of the roles of people who look after the needs of disabled children within education, looks to outside agencies to develop and provide a holistic approach as described by Bromfrenbrenner's theory on Bio-Ecological Systems, (figure three), this theory studies the child, its family and the environment as a whole, (Experimental Resources, 2008-2012). Pink (2001) cites Paquette, Ryan, (2001) suggests, it is a system where the environment is formed by the relationships that surround the child, (Pink, 2008). As a holistic approach that looks at the child, their home, family, education and community, how a child reacts within these areas, plus the child's receptiveness to diverse learning styles, teaching each child is an individual all with varying needs and abilities (Paths of Learning, 2012). Enabling a child to achieve autonomy, underpinning autonomy is legislation for the rights of a child, introduced by United Nations Convention on the Rights of a Child, under Article 12, (DfE, 2012), giving each child a voice and the right to be listened to, this also is reflected in the Every Child Matters Strategy (ECM, 2003); thus allowing each child to develop and progress through school, taking advantage of resources and funding available to address the individual needs, enabling the individual to achieve self actualisation as described by Maslow's theory on the Hierarchy of needs, Carl Rodgers Supported this theory, see figure four.
Maslow's Hierarchy of Need (1954)
The SEAL programme was to develop all children's behavioural, emotional and social skills at foundation stage and for children in the primary phase developing their understanding of health, personal and social education used within 'circle time', aiding foundation stage children by promoting the accomplishments of all, and reflects Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs, (1954). In using this programme to help George and children within his class to not exclude George by addressing subjects that will promote inclusion for all; thus aiding Emotional Intelligence as described by Daniel Goleman (1995), (Business Balls, 2012). The National Curriculum Inclusion Statement has three key principals, reflecting Maslow's (1954) theory, in applying these principles to an individual's IEP, helping them to achieve within education.
Setting suitable learning challenges
Responding to pupils' diverse learning needs
Overcoming potential barriers to learning and assessment for individuals and groups
The IEP helps to address needs and helps to deliver resources to provide full inclusion for each child, in identifying the risks involved, in understanding the health and safety factors and adhering to current legislation under the Health and Safety Act (1974). The Disability Act (2000), states when addressing risk factors and states "The risk assessment should set out any risks to staff and others, including pupils and users of services, and what control measures the employer will take to reduce those risks" (The Stationery Office, (TSO), 2002).
In conclusion, inclusion is about getting the right provision for a child, not getting all the children under one roof. The SENCO finds funds for resources, to help develop social, mental and educational skills. The funding may be used to train staff, informing of relevant information to understand a child's disability, and showing empathy and patience when teaching. The Plowden Report (1967), suggested that children are individuals, and teachers should provide "individual and different attention" whilst teaching (Infed, 2004). Plowden suggested using Piaget theory as a basis to learning sequence development, and "â€¦argues the existence of a developmental age" (Infed, 2004), at all times placing a child at the "heart of education" (Infed, 2004). The IEP below puts George at the heart of his learning, developing his social, emotional and development skills within the curriculum to provide the necessary resources to achieve self-actualisation as described by Maslow (1954), whilst looking their community or Ecosystem, a theory suggested by Bronfrenbrenner (1979). Adhering to legislation and statutory guidelines, promote a holistic approach to the learning experience, to provide for all development needs, and promoting inclusion within education and society as a whole.
Individual Education Plan (IEP)
Name: George Smith D.O.B: 10/09/2006 UPN: 0000012
Class Teacher: Mrs Jones
Area/s of concern: Speech Therapy Amount of support: Type of support: Year: 2 Class:
Support by: Alison Donnelly Support Began: 14/12/12 Start Date:
Review date: 14/12/12 IEP No: 001
Targets to be achieved
Possible class strategies
Ideas for support/assistant
Speech and Language
Name calling/Social skills
Improve concentration and attention span, possible Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD).
Speak clearly; improve language, grammar and vocabulary skills.
Stop soiling under clothes, and hiding soiled garments
Try to encourage good toileting habits, to avoid name calling and George acting out due to it
Improve performance on the task.
Bring glasses into school.
Improve reading and writing skills
Weekly visits to Speech Therapist, the class teacher to follow programme provide by speech therapy department. Foster carer to provide support and learning at home, engaging in ten-minute sessions per day.
A reward chart that is kept inside the reading folder, so-as-to not to draw any attention.
Discuss situation with Educational Psychologist.
Teacher Assistant to address toileting habits whilst in school.
Work in small groups to keep George focused.
Ask carer to provide a spare set of glasses. George to leave his glasses on the teacher's desk at playtime, lunch and whilst doing Physical Education (P.E).
Group work with peers at the same level. Using Read Write Inc, to promote phonetic awareness
Work within small groups whilst learning phonetics.
Encourage the class to ask to go to the toilet, so toileting can be monitored.
Ensure all teachers are aware.
Promote toileting within circle time.
Discuss bullying, name calling during circle time.
George to get involved within class discussions, use student names within his group to ensure George is able to maintain focused within the group and feel involved.
Reward/praise when George keeps focused with class and participates.
Praise when he places them on the teacher's desk.
Use audio visual aids, allow extra time to answer questions
Encourage the class to clap difficult words. To be able to make "ed" words. Increase vocabulary and grammar.
Work closely with foster parent for clear communication on habits.
Ask George if he needs to go to the toilet regularly.
Spare clothes and toilet wipes in his P.E. bag, ensure that Georges coat hook is close by the toilet door, to avoid embarrassment.
Address point 2 in order to avoid name-calling and improve social skills.
To promote participation, and involvement within class.
Promote short tasks, and build on them.
Monitor George Praise George when he put his glasses on in class without being told, and with his glasses, ensure George sits at the front.
Allow extra time to explain the work, and help with phonological awareness
Improve speech and language skills.
Improve toilet independence
Improve social awareness and emotional intelligence.
Improve concentration and enjoy full class participation.
Improve reading age
Parent / Carer contribution:
Carer to support George, complimenting the speech therapy work at home. Carer to ensure George has a change of clothes, and will monitor and have input on Georges reward chart for hygiene. Carer to provide a spare set of glasses.
Learner contribution: George to participate, to ensure concentration. Ask for help when going to the toilet. Always wear glasses in class and sit at the front.
YOU ARE HERE
In the ancient world, culturally they accepted that the weak die and the strong live; animals in the wild have the same prophecy and life expectations. Others societies' perceptions, sent away disabled children from their families and taught in monasteries, which probably saw these disabled children joining the church later in life. This provided for their development needs, although promoted isolation, exclusion from society, cultures and education, (Educational Bug, 2012).
How our children learn social interaction is firstly done at home, then at a pre-school age the child will learn social interaction with their peers, with teacher supporting and providing boundaries within the school setting, promoting individuality and learning to develop group skills, learning not only to share resources but also the teacher's time and attention
The World Health Organisation (WHO), developed a guide to help policy-makers at sub-national and national level, this tool guided them to implement and develop policies to promote physical
activity and healthy eating within the school setting by making changes in education, behaviour and the environment, (WHO, 2008).
1944 Education Act,
1996 Education act,
Carl Rodgers Humanistic Theory
Henri Tajfel & John Turner 1979
Alexander (2003) argues that pedagogy "is what one needs to know, and the skills one needs to
command, in order to make and justify the many different kinds of decisions of which teaching is
constituted. At its most basic and fundamental level this involves
children: their characteristics, development and upbringing
learning: how it can best be motivated, achieved, identified, assessed and built upon
teaching: its planning, execution and evaluation, and
curriculum: the various ways of knowing, understanding, doing, creating, investigating and
making sense which it is desirable for children to encounter, and how these are most
appropriately translated and structured for teaching" (p. 4).
ECM - Every Child Matters
SEAL - Social and Emotional Aspect of Learning
WHO - World Health Organisation
IEP - Individual Education Plan
PE - Physical Education
UNCRC - United Nations Convention on the Rights of a Child
SENCO - Special Educational Needs Co-Ordinator
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