History of telecommunication

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History of telecommunication:

As early man started development they felt need of communication. Very beginning they started shouting and hand signs to communicate. Human communication was modernized with speech about 200,000 years ago. Symbols were developed about 30,000 years ago, and writing about 7,000.

The history of telecommunication, through the transmission of signals over a distance for the purpose of communication began hundreds of years ago with the use of drums and smoke signals in Asia and Africa. In the late 1830s the actual electrical telecommunication systems started to appear.

In the 1870s, the telephone was designed by Elisha Gray and Alexander Graham Bell, which could transmit speech electrically. Mr. Bell was the first person to get his telephone patented first.

The first regular telephone line was constructed from Boston to Somerville, Massachusetts in the year 1877. There were around 48000 telephones in the United States by the end of the year 1880.

Soon after telephone many facilities like ambulances, police and military needed a mobile telephone to stay connected with their main office from filed. In the beginning, two-way radios were used in vehicles such as police, ambulances and taxi, but they were not able to connect the telephone network. Users could not dial phone numbers from their motor vehicles. First, mobile two-way radios were permanently installed in motor vehicles, but later versions such as the so-called transportable or "bag phones" were equipped with a cigarette lighter plug so that they could also be carried, and thus could be used as either mobile or as portable two-way radios.

In 1910 Lars Magnus Ericsson installed a telephone in his motor car, although this was not like a mobile phone. While travelling across the country, he would stop at any place where telephone lines were available and using a pair of long electric wires he could connect with the telephone network.

Ericsson developed the first automatic mobile which was called as MTA(Mobile Telephone system A) and it was commercially released in Sweden in 1956. The disadvantage of this phone was that it weighed around 40 kg. At the same time this was the first system which did not require any manual control in the base stations.

Later in December 1971, a proposal was submitted by AT&T to the Federal Communications Commission (FCC), but the proposal was approved after many hearings, by the FCC in 1982 for Advanced Mobile Phone System (AMPS). Digital AMPS followed Analog AMPS in the year 1990.

In the year 1973, on April 3rd, a call was placed by Dr. Martin Cooper (an employee in Motorola) to Dr. Joel S. Engel (Head of research at AT&T's Bell Labs) in New York talking on the first the two-way radios for the taxi cabs and the police cruisers.


Growth in the Cell Phone Industry:

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The Growth in the Mobile phone industry can be seen transparently through the generations in the Mobile phone systems. The Mobile phone systems are divided as 0G, 1G, 2G, 3G and 4G. The growth in the technology can be stated through each of the generation in the Mobile phone industry. The generations in the Mobile industry started with the Zero generation- 0G.


0G System:

The Zero generation (0G) of mobile phones was introduced in the year 1945. The 0G mobile telephones were not actually categorized officially ass mobile phones, as they did not support the automatic change of channel frequency during the calls. This allows the user to move from one cell to another cell which is a feature called as "handover".


Analog Cellular Telephony (1G):

The first commercially automated cellular network was launched in Japan in the year 1979 by NTT. It was initially launched with a cellular network of 23 base stations which covered the full metropolitan area of Tokyo which has over 20 million inhabitants.

The second launch of 1G networks was the simultaneous launch of the Nordic Mobile Telephone system (NMT) in the countries like Denmark, Finland, Sweden and Norway in the year 1981. It was the first mobile phone network featuring international roaming. In the early 1980's the 1G network was launched in several countries like UK, Canada and Mexico. The first 1G network launched in the USA was Chicago based Ameritech in 1983 using the famous first hand-held mobile phone Motorola DynaTAC.

Bell Labs developed a modern commercial cellular technology in the year 1984, which employed multiple and centrally controlled base stations, each providing service to a small area. In a cellular system, a signal only need to be strong enough to reach between a base station(cell site) and a terminal(phone) so that the same channel can be used simultaneously for different conversations in different cells.

The first NMT and the AMPS installations were based on the Ericsson AXE digital exchange nodes.


Digital Mobile Communication (2G):

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Following the 1G standard was the second generation wireless telephone technology. 2G technology was divided into TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access) and CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access) based standards. GSM (Global Sysytem for Mobile Communications) is the most well known version of TDMA. The Americas have both TDMA based and CDMA based systems. The second generation systems use digital communications between the handset and the base station. This increases the overall system capacity as data can be compressed and multiplexed. They also emit less radio power from the handsets. This means more cells can be positioned in the same overall space. The more cells you have, the more capacity. The phone batteries also last must longer due to the use of lower power. Noise levels could also be reduced due to the digital encoding system which allowed error checking.

Digital handsets were also uses to transmit and receive digital data. This allows internet access through handsets and also the transmission of SMS (Short Message Service) and emails. Text messaging has begun the late 1980's by a European group who were trying to improve systems for the GSM. It was used by an Engineering student by accident in 1993. But the First commercial usage of text messaging has been implemented by Nokia in the year 1995, in China and Japan.

2G phones were far more secure than the 1G phones but nonetheless were not as secure as they could be, as there was a possibility of hacking.


2.5G Systems:

2.5G was not officially defined as they were introduced for the marketing purposes only. 2.5G systems have implemented packet switched domain in addition to the circuit switched domain. They can provide a few benefits of 3G systems and also use the existing 2G infrastructure in GSM and CDMA networks.

These networks support WAP, MMS(Multimedia Messaging Service) but they exclude EDGE (Enhanced Data GSM Environment) and GPRS (General Packet Radio Service) technologies. 2.5G is seen as a stepping stone to 3G networks.


2.75G Systems:

It is a term that was decided for systems which don't meet the requirements of 3G but are marketed as if they do (E.g. CDMA-2000 without multi-carrier) or which meet the requirements of 3G but are not strongly marketed(E.g. EDGE systems)


Wideband Mobile Communication (3G):

3G is a short form for third-generation mobile telephone technology. 3G systems provide the ability to transfer both voice data (a telephone call) and non-voice data (such as downloading information, exchanging email, and instant messaging). 3G has been standardized in the IMT-2000 standardizing processing. Originally, 3G was supposed to be a single, unified, worldwide standard but it broke down and several different standards have been introduced.

The first commercial of 3G networks was launched by NTT DoCoMo on October 1, 2001, with the use of WCDMA technology. The first 3G networks were launched by SK Telecom and KTF in South Korea, and Monet in the USA, in the year 2002 on the rival CDMA2000 1xEV-DO technology. Monet has gone bankrupt since then. By the end of 2002, the second WCDMA network was launched in Japan by Vodafone KK(now Softbank). There were 8 commercial launches of 3G in the year 2003, six more on WCDMA and two more on the EV-DO standard.

By the end of 2007, there were 295 Million subscribers worldwide on 3G networks. There were doubts about the success of 3G earlier, but by the end of 2007, 3G was a reality and was on its path of being a successful venture.


Overall Growth of the Industry as per Technology and Innovations in the Industry:

The mobile phone has come a long way from being a wireless radio telephone to the present advanced mobile phone. The first commercial cellular network was launched in the year 1979 in japan by NTT. The first digital cellular phone call was made in the United States in 1990.

Text messaging has been one the greatest inventions in the Mobile phone industry. The commercial usage of text messaging was implemented by Nokia in the year 1995. It is the most popularly used technolgy in the Mobile phone.

Motorola StarTAC was introduced in the year 1996 which was said to be "Ahead of its Time". Cell phones were all about function rather than fashion before the introduction of Motorola StarTAC. It was a tiny, lightweight phone which gave in the new concept that style was just as important as the functions of the phone. It was the smallest and the lightest phone of its time. It has created a trend of tiny cell phones.

Introduction of bluetooth technology was yet another sensation at that time. This technology was introduced in the year 1998 and its basic purpose was to be a wire replacement technology in order to rapidly transfer voice and data. This is a technology which is continuing to make strides and advancements everyday even after so many years.

The BlackBerry was introduced in the 1999 which supports push e-mail, mobile telephone, text messaging, internet faxing, web browsing and other wireless information services. It was a wireless handheld device. It was developed by the Canadian company Research in Motion(RIM). It delivers information over the wireless data networks of the Mobile phone services companies. The original BlackBerry device had a monochrome dispaly whereas the present models have color displays.

The Kyocera QCP6035 Smart phone which was introduced in the year 2000 was the first palm based phone which was widely available to the users. Though it included a small 8 MB of memory and sported a monochrome display, it paved a path for the future products.

Later in the year 2001, Handspring Treo 180 was introduced which is a combination of both PDA and phone. It came in two versions: one with a QWERTY keyboard for typing and the other that used Graffiti text input. It also featured a monochrome display but it had 16 MB of memory.

Another invention in the industry was the built-in camera in the cell phone.Today, most of the cell phones come with a built-in camera but a few years back it was very rare. Sanyo and Sprint introduced the Sanyo SCP-5300 PCS phone in the year 2002, which was the first phone available in America with a built-in camera. It captured VGA(640 by 480) images at its highest resolution. But,today's cell phones come with a 5-megapixel camera like Nokia N95.

Music in the cell phone was another unique feature added in the year 2005. The Motorola Rokr, which was released in September 2005, was the first music phone to incorporate Apple's music software. It allowed users to transfer the songs purchased from iTunes to the phone. Though this handset has only limited song transfers and slow rate of transfer, still it has provided the way for today's music phones.

These are some of the technologies which were helpful in the growth of the cell phone industry. The growth of the cell phone industry is not limited to these technologies. It is still in the process of many inventions and innovations which gives a great scope for the development of the industry.


Modern Day Inventions and Information of the Mobile Phone Industry:

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The growing trends in the Mobile Phone industry are very much visible. The Mobile Phone industry has come a long way from the "brick" model. In the present days, mobile phones are not just to serve the purpose of contacting a person. Consumers demand a very high standard of functionality in their mobile phones. The research and development in the industry has evolved the phone into a personal organiser, music player, camera and mobile entertainment centre. Consumers want to enjoy games, video clips and music from their phones and the mobile music industry in particular is going strength to strength. As a result, mobile phone giants like Sony Ericsson are exploiting demand with the coming up release of the W800i, an advanced walkman phone with CD ripping software. It will be interesting to see how such phone models will compete against the competitive and fashion-conscious portable MP3 player market. Products such as Apples iPod have taken off significantly and seem to be in everyone's pocket.

Image is very crucial for the mobile phone providers which they should take into consideration. Consumers are concerned about the way a product may reflect their personal identity. Therefore the design of a mobile phone is very important and these days the mobile phones come in all shapes, sizes and colours. Some businesses, who want to attract teens and the young children have extended their advertising campaigns with brightly coloured mobiles featuring flashing lights.

Consumers would like to upload the latest ringtones and screensavers up-to- date. Many websites now exist to cater to this need. The mobile industry is certain to evolve continuously. A research suggests that mobile phones will replace credit cards and remote control one day.

The development on mobile phones is just like the computers where the technology grows everyday. The various functions on mobile phones are creates and updated. The network system of mobile phones is developing further. The 4G (fourth Generation) system in the process of research and development by many companies, though it has only been a few years since the 3G system is launched.The 4G system is expected to release in the second half of 2010.

Mobile phone has become a multi functioned device. Mobile phone incorporationg with computing functions will be able to replace other devices such as laptop, PDA and even the entertainment device tools.


Cell phone projector

The new Era of smart and functional cell phone has just begun, by the introduction of the prototype concept projector cell phone to the world market. This concept by Stefano Casanova is a Windows based mobile phone that can project your desktop to an flat surface. The micro light projector is actually integrated into the LCD so in order to activate it, you have to flip the screen down. Conceptual but interesting. The design is extra slim, and is equipped with a rotating screen with a built-in projector, the ideal tool for presentations especially for those businessman, sales person or MLM junkies out there...Nice smartphone

Newest cell phones sometimes come from a open call submissions. In this year, Fujitsu did the submission. The results are futuristic (future) cell phones from some winners.

If you don't know the cell phones, here they are:

  1. Gesture

    The phone was designed by South Korean student Jin-Gwon Go and to be used with just one hand and many commands can be carried out with just gestures, hence the name. Though it may not look particularly futuristic, it does look like the most user-friendly among the winners.

  2. Soap

    This phone for kids and designed by Yan. The idea of the phone was to promote the belief that cleanliness and health are intimately connected. It's washable and designed to be washed when everyone returns home.

  3. The Fold-a-Phone

    The Fold-a-Phone from designers Hanna Sahlen and Sachiko Munakata does just what the name implies: it folds up. It's made of a super-thin material that allows it to be folded down to a small size to be carried in a pocket or purse.

  4. The Adjustick

    The Adjustick from Izumi Tanaka won a special judge's award, and it seems to be well deserved. This tiny little stick of a phone is very minimalistic, displaying only what is necessary. But when you lie it on its side, it projects a usable keyboard and screen so you can text in comfort.

  5. The Chamelephone

    The Chamelephone from Hiroyuki Tabuchi is one of our favorites, but it definitely falls into the "futuristic" category rather than "practical." It's designed to mimic the color and texture of whatever surface it's placed on. We can't find our phones now - this would make it utterly hopeless.

  6. The F-Circle

    The F-Circle was a crowd favorite because of its crazy retro-futuristic look. The designer, Yuji Ito, says that it's a "timeless" design. We don't know about timeless, but it is certainly different than every other cell phone on the market.

  7. Kaora (Tile) Phone

    Wataru Igarushi designed the KAORA (Tile) phone. It's another that is miles away from conventional cell phones, but its design is well thought-out. It is meant to be one of the most user-friendly phones ever, with a customizable configuration that you can change depending on what functions you need the phone to perform.

  8. The Amoeba Phone

    The Amoeba Phone from Kwak Yeon takes the prize from us, even though it didn't take honors from the judges. The entire surface is touchscreen-operated and the shape of the handset is meant to fit perfectly to the user's face. It's beautiful, but again we think we'd have troubles finding it in the morning.