History Of An Implemented System Education Essay

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Curriculum has some definitions according to its usage in the training program. Some authors define curriculum as an implemented system to describe the content of a course in the learning process in the classroom, which is also providing the measurement of the participants' knowledge (Sconce and Howard, 1994; Curriculum Evaluation Manual, 2011). It is often used to indicate a program, whether for a subject, grade, the entire subjects, or even the whole range of a program cycle (Lewy, 1977). According to Leathwood and Phillips (2000), curriculum aims on the outcome oriented approach that emphasizes the skill and capabilities in which students lead to become capable graduates and fully prepared for their future career. Therefore, the curriculum quality will not merely depend on the teachers' skills, but also on the teachers' commitment and competence in curriculum improvement (Shobokshi and Sukkars, 1988).

Curriculum is an implemented system which consists of four different elements. The first element is textbooks. Hoover (1999) states that curriculum consists of plan books, courses of study, and text books. Further, he also states that curriculum intends to have an outcome that matched between what should be learned and what the students really learn. A good curriculum should support and facilitate the participants' effort to achieve similar result as the intended goals of the training program. Altrichter (2005) agrees that curriculum should provide text books, computer software, teaching strategies recommendation and working material for students. Posner (2004) states that textbooks are important for the curriculum effectiveness. Textbooks are important parts in curriculum because it functions as a day-to-day guide during the learning process to ensure curriculum effectiveness. Lewy (1977) emphasizes the importance of the textbooks by stating that textbooks are parts of the curriculum that can be evaluated to maintain the effectiveness of a training program.

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The second element is course of the study. Course of study is important because it functions as a guide to view a curriculum as a series of courses that the participants must go through, which can ensure that they are not overlapping each other (Posner, 2004). Bokonjic, Steiner & Sonntag (2009) define course of the study as a subset of a program of study that should be designed through a very specific institutional procedure to ensure its effectiveness. Course of the study is also known as the essence of the curriculum, which should encourage and develop the critical thinking skills and problem-solving abilities of the training participants (Ashraff, 2011). Therefore, designing an efficient, effective and un-overlapping course of the study in a training program is crucial to create an effective curriculum.

The third element is classroom practices. Providing suitable classroom practices during the learning process could help to develop a better exploration and conceptualization about the course of studies (Langrange, 2005). Therefore, classroom practices indeed influence the improvement of students’ achievement (Welingsky, 2001). Together with appropriate textbooks and effective course of study, suitable classroom practices is proven to be able to improve the participants’ knowledge and skills in a training program.

The last element in the curriculum is the facilities in a training program. In a wider range, the curriculum involves infrastructure and learning resources, student activities, and supporting system around it (Verghese and Ponmudiraj, 2008; Cornbleth, 2012) that support the learning process in a program to achieve a better student outcome. In fact, training facilities have a direct effect on the learning process. Schneider (2003) states that poor training facilities cause difficulties for teacher to deliver an adequate education to the participants, which will influence the participants' knowledge and skills improvement level. A conducive classroom condition will help the participants to have a better performance and a better learning outcome(Hale, 2002; Hunter, 2006; Olson & Kellum, 2003; Bullock, 2007). Thus, good training facilities will support the effective curriculum implementation in a training program. To reach an effective training program, the administrator of a training program should implement all of the curriculum elements, since they influence one to another.

In general, curriculum is divided into three types that can bring a major influence on the students achievement. Those types are: intended curriculum, implemented curriculum, and attained curriculum. The first type, the intended curriculum, is the reflection of the institution's preference for teaching and learning. The intended curriculum is also known as the goal of learning, and it is usually written on a document and has an official status (Voogt and Pelgrum 2005; Martin & Kelly, 1996; Valverde, 2012; Johansson, 2005). The intended curriculum describes what students are expected to know and able to do, and under what condition these things will occur (Cuban 1992; Kissane, 2000; Plaza et al., 2007). Based on its function, the intended curriculum is placed at the educational level system, in which it "reflects societal visions, educational planning, and official or political sanctioning for educational objectives"(Johansson, 2005, p. 120) and intended to "directly influence teacher training and certification, school course offerings, instructional resources, and systems of accountability" (Valverde, 2012, p. 2).

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The second type is the implemented curriculum. This type of curriculum is also recognized as "curriculum in action" (Remmen et al., 1999, p. 600), since it is what is taught in the classroom that consists of teachers' intention and objectives, and classroom activities (Stevenson and Baker, 1991; Martin and Kelly, 1996; Plaza, et al., 1997; Johansson, 2005). This curriculum is the implementation of the intended curriculum in the classroom that is strongly affected by textbook and classroom practices (Cuban, 1992; Kissane, 2000; Voogt and Pelgrum, 2005). According to Kissane (2000), classroom practices involve the emphasis of practical view of the subject and the use of the helping tools during the learning process (e.g. calculator in mathematics). Since the emphasis on curriculum implementation in the classroom will be on the context, needs, perceptions, and reactions of users, especially teachers (van de Akker and Verloop, 1994), there will be some differences between what is stated in the intended curriculum and the real implementation in the field (school/classroom).

The last type is the attained curriculum. This curriculum type is what the students actually learn as the result of the learning process in the classroom (Cuban, 1992; Martin and Kelly, 1996; Kissane, 2000; Plaza, 2007). The result of this curriculum is the skills, knowledge, and dispositions that students gain after they follow the program (Valverde, 2012) and the learning outcome for the teachers (Voogt and Pelgrum, 2005). Therefore, assessment becomes a key to understand the attained curriculum (Kissane, 2000), since it is strongly related to the test and the participants' perspective about the curriculum. The attained curriculum is influenced by the implemented curriculum in the sense of the curriculum materials those are taught by the teachers during the learning process in the classroom (Kissane, 2000; Voogt and Pelgrum, 2005).

This study will investigate the attained curriculum from the DFP Tk. Pertama to answer the proposed research question. The investigation will be conducted through pre-test, post-test and reaction sheet (questionnaire). The questionnaire will measure the participants' perspective about the existing curriculum, and the tests will measure the participants' knowledge improvement which will reflect the effectiveness of the DFP Tk. Pertama.

2.3. Curriculum Evaluation

In order to investigate the effectiveness of the DFP Tk. Pertama, this study attempts to conduct an evaluation toward the existing curriculum of the program. A curriculum evaluation can be used to maintain or even improve the quality of the training program, and to detect the lack in the training program that is needed to be improved. According to Lewy (1973), curriculum evaluation helps the program administrator to maintain or reject a program, make some specific modifications needed, and helps to explain the best condition to implement the program. Further, Jacob and Koehn (2004) agree that a curriculum evaluation is essential to maintain a program to prepare competent and high-quality practitioners. Therefore, curriculum evaluation can be used to control the quality of the training program by maintaining its effectiveness. In a broader scope, curriculum evaluation is conducted to improve the quality of education through the information collected during the evaluation implementation. In other word, the art of curriculum evaluation is to collect and spread the information than can be used to improve the quality of educational practice (Norris, 1998).

To evaluate the effectiveness of DFP Tk. Pertama, this study uses Kirkpatrick model. Kirkpatrick model was introduced in 1959 and represents some levels to evaluate a training program, in which each level influences the next level (Indira, 2008). The Kirkpatrick model has four level, those are: Reaction, Learning, Behavior, and Result (Kirkpatrick, 1967; 1975; 1994). Level 1 is Reaction, which measure the participants' satisfaction toward the program through a reaction sheet (Kirkpatrick 1975; 1994; 1967; Kirkpatrick & Kirkpatrick, 2009). The reaction evaluation result can be used to determine the effectiveness of a training program and how to improve it (Kirkpatrick, 1994) based on the reaction of the participants toward the program. The training program can be considered effective when the participants present their satisfaction toward the program. The feedback from the participants can also be used to improve the training program by improving the points in which the participants give the low mark. Therefore, the evaluation should be given during the program, so the evaluation result can be use to improve the last section of the program (Kirkpatrick, 1967).

Level 2 is Learning, which can be evaluated from how far the participants improve their knowledge and skills level after following the training program (Kirkpatrick, 1967). Unlike Level 1 evaluation that can be measured through reaction sheets (e.g. questionnaires), Level 2 evaluation is usually measured from the different score between pre-test and post-test that shows the learning outcomes (Chyung, 2009). Learning level is meant to measure the participants' knowledge, skill, and/or behavior before and after the training by using pre-test, post-test, and performance test for skills (Kirkpatrick, 1994; Kirkpatrick & Kirkpatrick, 2009). Further, Dick (2002) supports this statement by stating that pre-test and post-test was suggested in conducting the Learning evaluation to demonstrate the learning outcomes as a result of the learning process. To get the best picture about the participants' knowledge and skills improvement, the administrator should pay attention to the test materials. The test materials should cover the subject matters that have been taught in order to get the most reliable and valid result of how far the learning process has taken place (Kirkpatrick, 1994; Dick, 2002). Since the evaluation in the learning level is more complex rather than in the reaction level, it also requires more work to do. The Level 2 evaluation needs a lot of work to do from the planning of the evaluation procedure, conducting the evaluation, analyzing the obtained data result, and interpreting the result (Kirkpatrick, 1967). Alike with the Level 1 - Reaction, the Level 2 - Learning evaluation also takes place when the training program is still on progress.

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Level 3 is Behavior. The main goal of the Level 3 evaluation is to find out whether the knowledge and skills learned in the training program is transferred to the participants' job. Level 3 evaluation is usually conducted after the participants finish their training program. Kirkpatrick (1967) states that Behavior evaluation is conducted to measure to what extend the participants change their behavior after following the training program. It means that the participants' behavior should change after they follow the training program so that the training program can be considered as a successful program. This evaluation is recognized as the most difficult and probably the most important level. It is because based on this evaluation result, the evaluator will be able to see whether the participants' behavior has changed, or to determine the reasons why changes has not occurred (Kirkpatrick, 1994).

Level 4 is Result. Result evaluation can be defined as the final results that happens after the participants follow the training program, which are recognized by the production increasing, cost reducing, profit increasing, etc. (Kirkpatrick, 1994; 1967; Kirkpatrick & Kirkpatrick, 2009). In the end, these changes will influence the organization's existence. Therefore, this evaluation is conducted some times after the participants left the training program in order to see the real results of the implementation participants' knowledge and skills which are attained from the training program.

Kirkpatrick model can be presented in the model below:

Training Evaluation

Trainee Reactions

Learning

Behavior Change

Result

The ways which trainee behavior is different back on the job

What was learned in the training (i.e. the skills and knowledge acquired)

The trainees' views of the relevance, utility and value of the training

Improvement in result attributable to changed behaviors

(Fig. 1. The Evaluation View of the Kirkpatrick Model - Nickols, 2011)

The figure above gives a clear framework about the flow of the evaluation from reaction level to result level based on the Kirkpatrick model. In the reaction level, the participants give their opinion about the training program. Learning level evaluates how far the participants are able to gain knowledge and skills from the training program through the score difference in pre-test and post-test. The behavior level evaluates to what extend the participants' behavior change after they follow the program, and whether they can implement their new behavior in the work. The last level, the result level, shows the final result in the organization scale that happen after the participants follow the training program (Kirkpatrick, 1967).

Due to the limited time in doing the research, this study will only employ level 1 and level 2 evaluation to answer the research questions. The investigation of Level 1 will be conducted through the questionnaire, which will measure the participants' reaction toward the effectiveness of DFP Tk. Pertama. The Level 2 will be investigated through the score difference between pre-test and post-test. This score difference is used to find out how far the effectiveness of DFP Tk. Pertama is able to improve the participants' knowledge and skills after they follow the training program. Level 3 and 4 will not be investigated in this study because these level could takes months or even years before the result can be observed.

2.7. Summary

This study will focus on the curriculum effectiveness as one of the effectiveness indicators of DFP Tk. Pertama. It is because the curriculum consists of some crucial element in the learning process, such as textbooks, course of the study, classroom practices, and training facilities that support the program. The curriculum effectiveness in a training program influences the participants' ability to improve their knowledge and skills. In order to maintain the effectiveness of the training program, a curriculum evaluation is needed. The reason is, from the curriculum evaluation result, the administrator will be able to distinguish the strength and the weakness of the curriculum that will affect the effectiveness of the training program. Thus, the administrator will be able to maintain or even improve a program that improve the participants' knowledge, or reject a program that will bring no improvement to participants' knowledge.

Based on the explanation above, this study proposed a hypothesis that the curriculum elements (text books, classroom practices, course of the study, supporting facilities) have a positive correlation with the training program effectiveness.

In order to have a better understanding to the variables of the study, the following keywords are defined:

Training program is a program that is conducted in different specification based on the purpose to improve the knowledge and skills of the participants

Curriculum is an element in a program that is used to describe and explain the content of the course of the learning process that can measure the participants' knowledge.

The conceptual framework model of this study is built as follow:

Curriculum :

text book

classroom practices

course of the study

training facilities

The effectiveness of the training program