High Social Status And Power Education Essay

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According to Government of Pakistan (1948) there were five levels of educational system in Pakistan. Pre university education consists of four levels: Grade one to Grade five (the primary level), grade six to grade eight (middle level), grade nine and ten (the high level, culminating in ninth and ten) and grade eleven and twelve, it leading to diploma in science or arts (the intermediate level). There is also a university level which leads to graduate and postgraduate degrees from recognized institute. Educational system in Pakistan is highly centralized. Up to the intermediate level The Federal Ministry of education facilitate all institutes involved in technical and academic education. Institutes awarding high education at postgraduate and graduate level conduct exams and coordinate instructions. During the last four years enrolment of the children in the primary school has been increased from seventy one percent to eighty six percent, these are the changes that are taken place can be gauged from the fact. Literacy rate has been increased from forty five percent to fifty three percent, where as literacy rate of males has become sixty five percent during the time period of last four years. Vey soon most of the children in the country will go to school and the genius of the nation will not be wasted. (Item no 26, Federal budget speech, Pakistan,2006) ( Page 183)

Ahmar mahboob (2009) on the point of literacy policies of former president Pervaiz Musharraf giving output now, This area needs to be conducted to investigate additional research. The focus here is not on the policies of education but the focus of English language on primary schools course. Here the story of a school at Karachi gives an idea about the improvement in the strategies of primary schooling in Pakistan. The story of Tay school is a very good example to explain this point. If we provide healthy environment at primary level to the teachers, this will result better opportunities for teachers as well as students. If provided the said environment to teachers they will be motivated to go school and teach students instead absentees and demonization. Proper training to the teacher about the course outline of class one to class five will provide better chances for the improvement of course outline for the students. This training and motivation will increase the morale of teachers and they will feel capability of doing other things that they could not do before. This environment and motivation should also be provided at the private sector schools, then the teachers will redesign lower primary classes on the basis of new teaching practices and concepts. With the training of teachers it would be possible to study the updated version of course outline of class one to five by the students. A question arise the minds, how can be primary schools in Karachi be reformed to further enhance and sustain teachers professionalism. By focus on theories it can be understand that teachers professionalism can be developed when the teacher are provided the professional skill and knowledge to improve their capabilities in both the school and class related task, and chances to translate professional skill and knowledge in school and class room activities to make the most of their capabilities. The strength of these relationships between teacher professionalism and school reforms depends on how successful the strategies of reform manager have been in creating positive relationship with the teachers. How the teachers are involved the reform initiatives about the course outlines of primary schools, how hybrid the sport structures in the schools and how enlightened are informed the school principal is?

Foreign transcript evaluation explains that primary schools in the world vary but the age limit of the students is six to twelve year of age. Age limit of the middle school students is twelve to seventeen years. Grading scales vary from state to state and country to country but are often posted on the transcripts of the students. Going toward the students of primary school grading system is being used in English medium schools and schools working as foreign affiliated schools. At the level of middle class this grading system is also applied as well as in primary schools but going towards the primary schools of government sector there is still an old syllabus for primary and middle class being taught. Here a gap is neglected for more than two decades in the most advance cities of Pakistan like Karachi, Lahore and Islamabad. Private schools used to teach the syllabus of foreign institution like Howard and Oxford but the government institutes are still carrying on the old syllabus and exam systems. Foreign transcript evaluation reveals that there are four types of educational systems in United States, British system, French system and the soviet system but not hundred percent exact but helps to understand the school system which come in front of us.

Peggy Bell Hendrickson describe the approaches to school health education on primary school level focus on the participatory action research study with the teachers of the primary school to explore the potential of active learning approaches. This study was taken in school of Port Loko district of Sierra Leone between May and November 2001.the context of the research was post emergency situation in the primary schools: as precarious peace prevailed after 10 years of civil war. Managing public health projects in the area the researcher was working for Oxfam GB. The study was supported by the local inspector of school from the Ministry of Education Science and Technology.

Going towards the study of the types of the education systems in the world four types are most common these are the British system, the French system, the U.S system and Soviet system to understand the systems of these four types will go a long way towards making sense of the vast array of working papers that may cross your desk. Daniel and Joseph (2006) describes the procedure of publishing the text book at primary school level in the Kenya as the publisher is also responsible for the evaluation, publisher is responsible to pay about the 50 Euro to KIE for a set of approval procedures documents and evaluation Another payment to the Director, KIE about 75 Euro per class and subject by the publisher. The above two authorities receiving the non refundable payments are legally registered and incorporated in the Kenya. Three phases of new text books had been completed by 2005 since the implementation of the new curriculum in 2003. Twenty six publishers submitted their text books for evaluation and vetting in the first phase. In the recommended list nine firms managed to get at least one title. Standard one and standard five, in that first phase for these two classes' total approved titles were about sixty three. Some subjects had less than six titles recommended to school due to the short time given to the publishers to prepare the textbook materials. Rehman (2003) discuss the importance of the English language in the primary schools of Pakistan, education is a global interrelated and nation building activity that leads toward the modernization' door. It is important through the non formal informal and formal ways; there should be interaction between the students, study material and teachers for this purpose. Mother tongue or national language is used in the educational system at primary level. There is a restriction on the study of the English as compulsory language in the education system from K.G to graduation level due the reasons below:

To understand the foreign and higher educational work English is international source.

At international level English is being used as source of communication for commerce, research, aviation, source of technological and scientific advancement and diplomacy.

English is symbol of high social status and power.

Mansoor (1993) focused on the arrival of British in the sub-continent, languages such as Arabic, Sanskrit and Persian replaced by the English for the purpose of education and learning. Lord Macaulay' decision to favor English and bring an end to the Anglican and Oriental controversy in 1835 was a turning point in the socio-political history of sub continent. In 1854 when eligibility to government service was also restricted to those who had English education, this increased the need for English.

Govt. of Pakistan (1947) In the first all Pakistan Educational Conference Quid e Azam declared that Urdu would be the national language but the importance of English could not be ignored. According to him, "As regard English, while the injurious effect of making an alien language the medium of instruction has been widely recognized , it must, for some considerable time to come, retain its pride of place both in the share of our university education and as a means of international communication". Govt. of Pakistan (1959) Commission on National Education 1959 observed that English must continue because the effective way of communication with the world was only English. This was also the source of information on the development in science and technology. So all educated persons in Pakistan must have the sound grip on the English language. Govt. of Pakistan (1979) constitute of Pakistan says that the English could also be used as the official language as well as Urdu is official and national language until arrangements are made for replacement by Urdu. Govt. of Pakistan (1998) as per the National Education Policy (1998-2010) teachers must be subject specialist at intermediate level. Lecturers and teachers must have postgraduate degree in the subject they teach. Same rule was not necessary for the teachers of ninth and tenth class; it means that the teachers teaching at that level are not specialist in their English subjects. So this thing shows the actual situation at class four and other primary classes.

Graves (1988) discuss the situation about education system in Pakistan, two systems have their own controversial arguments to stand upon, these systems are functioning parallel, SSC and GCE O-level. Education Act 1902 in the United Kingdom introduced the reform in the truest sense as educational reforms. Local education authorities were authorized to provide secondary education of academic or grammar type. In 1944 the control of central government was established on the local education authorities and they were bounded to follow the National Education Policy under the Education Act. The idea of secondary education for all in the Education Act 1944 was the fundamental principal which inspired the education system. Whitaker (1999) General Certificate of Education was replaced by the prevalent nomenclature GCSE, this was the major change took place in the British education system. The British Council (2002) Ordinary level (O-level) and Advanced level (A-level) are two main levels that are being conducted in the United Kingdom since 1951. Since 1959 these programs are offered in Pakistan. O level examination is no more being held at all in the United Kingdom. However students outside the United Kingdom still follow the O and A level scheme of examination. There are one hundred and eighty recognized institutes for GCE o level in the British Council but there are many institutes which offers GCE o level to the students. The GCE O level programs is world level recognized programmers. Through the SSC and GCE O level are running parallel in the country. It is assumed that they are creating discrimination among the elite class and common people. It is assumed that the persons qualifying from these two systems have different performance. There is no research work still have done on the comparative analysis of GCE O level and SSC education in Pakistan with the special reference to English language. This research may show the basic difference from primary level of education, it is commonly understood that English medium and Urdu medium students at primary level could not be compared for English learning at primary level. Govt. of Pakistan (1948) from 7th of June to 9th of June 1948 the first meeting held by the Advisory Board of Education, in favor of mother tongue a consensus was developed, Urdu as medium of instruction at primary stage. The question about the place of English was raised and decided by the Inter University Board. It was the decision of Inter University Board about the English that it should be ceases to be the medium of instruction at University level. Some selected school were permitted to run the parallel with English as medium of instruction including pre cadet schools for preparing the students for higher appointment in the civil services and commissioned in the armed services.

Rahim (2000) the education system prevailing in Pakistan at higher secondary level consists of twelve years of education containing the primary level, the middle, the secondary and the higher secondary level. Owing to the lack of government attention, policies and poor examination system substantially damaged the education system. In the said examination system students study the whole year and appear in examination on yearly basis and promote to next level. Till nineteen seventy, this system was totally owned and controlled by the government, later on the same system was adopted by private schools in the country. Normally the private sector copies the government system in the country therefore the primary level examination system is also the same. French (2000) learning of a new language prevails over the learning of description of it because it involves reproduction and practicing including memorizing, listening, interpreting reading, writing and speaking etc as well. He further said that the word groups should be introduced to teaching and making learn new language to students. The pattern of phrases and sentences plays important role in this connection. He says there are three principles in this connection: first, order of words; second, structure of words and the third is inflexions or changes and differences in form of words.

Larson (1986) explained the importance of grammar-translation methods: according to him students are made learn new words in grammar-translation methods. So it is clear that the said methods also assist in improving vocabulary. The primary skills of a language are reading and writing which need to developed strongly to enable the students to understand the literature in the required language. The grammar plays an important role the language in the world at all levels. Teresa Welsh (2008) explained that there is strong need to evaluate and investigate the forms and contents of course outlines to increase the quality and usability because more academic course develops an online presence. To evaluate the syllabus a parameter or instrument was developed that synthesizes website design criteria with syllabus development criteria.

Textbook is an important resource in the hands of students and teacher for the implementation of curricular objectives in the education system. The curriculum 2006 was fundamentally process-oriented and there was a need to shift from fact-based learning alone. So the prime responsibility is shifted to reviewers to see the manuscript if any manuscript encompasses learning process. Further is mentioned that the developers of textbook ignored the general pedagogical scheme and focused on only students learning outcomes explained in the curriculum. True objectives of the curriculum are totally impeded by this approach. With the help of illustration of academic values evaluators need to ensure that thematic improvement from helping concepts to basic concepts are logically developed in this process. Its strongly important to deal in a child friendly manner to make sure it in engaging for students and creating interest so that children can learn through reading and performing themselves too. (Textbook evaluation proforma for reviewers 2006)

According to the report by the website of Punjab study (2011) The Punjab Text Book Board is working by leaps and bounds to design the syllabus book for educational year 2012 to 2013 from grade one to grade twelve. By providing the syllabus books the board meet with its last year target, a press release by a spokesperson of Punjab Textbook Board said, the books are to be prepared according to the Chief Minister Punjab's Educational Reform Program these books would be provided to Government schools from class one to ten. These books are in the process of preparation and publishing and this task was assigned to number of teams. He further informed that publishing book for private institutes also in process.

Farago (2007) discussed in his article that "English in the Primary Years: A Holistic Approach" the learning of language is an organic and gradual process that could not be entirely controlled but if we try to organize to present the learners as rich a language program as they deal with it. We can provide a number of opportunities to recognize the language features and experiment with them so that they may be able to put their limited language skills to genuine use. In this way a successful language career can be developed in future by us if we establish a firm foundation.

Textbooks have substantial influence on what is taught and how it is taught it in primary, elementary and secondary classes. Jhon (2001) said that textbooks are used as principal curriculum guide and source of lessons by majority of teachers. Tyson (1997) found that inexperienced, untrained or new teachers having lack of time for proper lesson planning may actually teach form the first page to the last page without skipping little or nothing. Sheldon (1988) believes and identified teachers use textbooks because of three reasons: first, it is very difficult process for teachers to prepare own material for the class;, second, impossibility of developing new material because of lack of time; third, developing new material may be challenged and external pressure is to be faced, which restrict to develop own material.

Government of Pakistan Ministry of Education Curriculum Wing (2006 ) Textbooks become part and parcel of education system for proper implementation of any school curriculum. It has been the continuous practice especially in developing countries to consider textbook as the only source of teaching and learning process in schools. Textbooks are considered the most authentic source by most of the teachers and are presented to class and it has been the practice of the student to be burdened with a bag packed with their prescribed textbooks on their way to school. Textbooks are the one and only source of material in most of the schools in Pakistan because the extra and additional material likes supplementary reading material, teaching aids and school libraries are virtually non-existent.

Government of Pakistan Ministry of Education Policy and Planning Wing (2006) graded vocabulary should be used while developing textual material. The language should be clear, logical and simple. It is to be considered that the course shall be completed within time limit. During developing of textbooks it should be considered that unnecessary details must be avoided and the material should teacher centered as well as student centered. It should kept in mind the sequential steps of topics as suggested in the curriculum. Teacher shall be provided proper guidelines and activities at proper places. The textbooks shall contain glossary at the end of book to clarify the key terms.

Govt. of Pakistan (2002) Textbooks are written by experts with the assistance of publishers and these books are evaluated by the government agencies in most countries of the world but the development of textbooks in Pakistan are developed by the provincial or regional Textbook Boards and Private Publishers. The said Board and private publishers do work on the guidelines provided to them according to the national curriculum as per the Curriculum Wing of Ministry of education. The said wing performs the function of evaluation of textbooks to ensure that the textbook are published in accordance with the directions and guidelines provided to the boards and publishers. Khalid Mehmiood, Zafar Iqbal and Muhammadf Seed (2009) to ensure the objectivity and quality in the process facilitate evaluation processes rubric are considered as vehicle. More over a rubric is an indicator to check the quality of the text book; the more useful is the publishers or evaluator writer. The descriptors related to the criteria should reference the important requirements of quality of work and quality of text book clearly describes on the rubric. the criteria which is used to evaluate the textbooks should be shared with the publishers because such guidelines are introduced to assist the publishers from start with the end. As authors and publishers need to revise their work therefore while textbooks is completed therefore rubrics and models should also be referenced. Which should also be used even after the completion of the textbook to engage the publishers or authors in reflection on the work they have done instead of limiting to only to evaluate the product.

National Institute for Education Development (NIED), ministry of Namibia provides guide lines for textbook approval and evaluation in the country. Title of the text book contains the "catalog" which is the approval of the Ministry of Education; title of the book includes the proof of approval on the cover page. "Textbook catalog" is the official document containing all approved title of the printed textbook and learning and teaching material to be used in the schools of Govt. for Grade one to twelve. The catalog provides the teachers with material on affordable, relevant, learning material and educationally sound working. NIED (2005) check the approach and its consistency in the book with syllabus to the extent of a) relevant skills, knowledge and and objective are catered for in the textbook, b) the contents contains the reflection of current knowledge and culture, c) contents must be accurate relating to the factuality of book, d) text book is free of bases that are unrespectable to teachers, communities and the policies of Ministry of Education, e) the material should reflect the perspectives of various cultural and ethnic groups and contributions, f) it should encourage positive attitude towards the genders an free of sex stereotypes, textbook must encourage a positive behaviour towards the population and environmental issues. Hussain and Mahmood (2002) discuss the intensive utilization of textbook that results in impressive expectations from the utilization of material in the books specially with respect to: (a) comprehension in terms of pedagogy and contents ; gradually ascending vocabulary; ambiguity free structure of sentence (p.63); (b) attractive relevant and self explanatory illustrations; pleasant and natural design; vertical and horizontal coordination (p.37) these things make surety about the key features of quality textbook. Donovan and Smolkin (2001), Peacock and Gates (2000), Shymansky et al (1991) there is also a common perception about the selection of textbook usually on the basis of their easily approachable surface feature.

Garvin has written a lot on quality products and quality (1985, 1986, 1987, 1987b, 1991, 2001, 2005) he proposed well known structure for thinking about the product quality that depends on eight dimensions; (a) performance, (b) features, (c) conformance,(d) liability, (e) serviceability, (f) durability, (g) perceived quality and (h) aesthetics considering the English textbook as a product this paper indicators that explains the quality of textbook are explained in Garvin's (1988) eight critical dimension of quality that were considered by the authors of book as well as structure for evaluation of textbooks.Garvin (1987) explains eight dimensions of quality product and these are discussed with the textbook experts and curriculum. After the meeting detailed list of indiactors about the quality of textbook with detail of these indicators were finalized. This step was called the description and finalization of the identified indicators.

Cohen, Manion and Morrision (2008) using the Delphi technique consensus on recognized list of the indicators about the quality of textbook were sought during the meeting. The experts were free to delete or add from the prepared list. Consensus among the experts and key stakeholder was necessary in order to finalize the indentified indicators. For this purpose all three member recommend the Delphi technique. They have the view, "this technique is particularly important to use in institutes where work is required in very little time and difficult to arrange a whole group meeting with in the given time. These techniques evaluate the material of textbook on the basis of consensus. (p.309)

The American textbook council (2009) evaluates the educational material for the studies in the America, they review the educational material for the classes from Grade one to Grade twelve and higher level of education. General review guidelines are often requested by school boards, teachers and curriculum supervisor and in charge of selection of textbooks. Some reviewers seek exact reading ability gauges and scientific formulas and fully quantifiable standards. However some fundamentals are kept in mind while evaluating and review of textbook. Rehman (1996) explains the situation on the educational environment that reflects the general feelings of govt. towards Urdu. The govt. desire Urdu to make the language of education. As early in 1948 Urdu was declared as the primary education' language but the rule of Urdu was not specified. At that time it was decided that Urdu would replace the English in the institutes and Urdu would develop to take over the functions that English fulfill it was also decided that Urdu will replace the English within the 10 years. The argument that before vernaculars could be used in education or in official capacity was not a new one but there was a need for corpus planning. The above implementation of Urdu was also followed by the educational institutes in the country. E.C.Bayley had also used this approach being a Secretary of Govt. of India. He started that the required material was not available in the vernaculars to be used in higher education, and their role should be restricted to the sector of primary education. Ahmar Mahboob (2003) explain the situation in which the English subject was introduce in the province of Sindh and Punjab. In 1994 the government of Sindh adopted English as compulsory subject in the primary schools this step was taken upon the decision of the central Govt. this step was very quickly followed by the Punjab the government reintroduced the English on the primary school level of education. Fatima Riaz the advisor to the chief minister of Punjab in 1993 said the government provide the same opportunity to the 'poor' that was available for the privileged class only. However the success of providing the equal level education in the country had been questioned. One major reason of these types of questions was the non availability of the teachers that were required in large number at same time. Another reason was that the introduction of English was implemented from the class one not the class six, before this English was introduced only in the English medium primary school not the Urdu medium school. So both sides of the decision were important if it implemented the other problem was desired result, if the new system failed to provide the results the can affect the future of English subject in the primary level. But the decision was taken and step by step all the govt. schools adopted the criteria. Now a day all the government schools providing the coaching of English as a subject from grade one in the country.

Ahmar Maboob (2003) Pakistan army removed the elected government in 12 October 1999 and it was to announce its educational policy. Although Urdu is our national language and a native Urdu speaker, General Pervaiz Musharraf gave his first press conference in english and responded in Urdu only if any question is asked in Urdu. By this conduct of Musharaf it was implied that the status of english will be developed in his government. He took over the government by giving justification that the economy is going down badly and corruption is at the peak and it is necessary to save Pakistan. Therefore soon after taking over he tried to improve the economy as primary goal. The new government has stressed on the development of information technology and other related sciences specially computer sciences. To achieve all these goal in country literacy rate was need to be increased because good English is a tool in the world economy. For the required level of English language necessary arrangements were need develop in the country at all levels of education.

People perceive reality in three basic ways called perceptual modality: first, the visual (viewing and reading); second, the aural (speaking and hearing) and the last is psychomotor (doing and touching). Different people have different modality strengths. Some have people have one modality and some have two and some having all three. But all are comfortable. The visual and mixed strengths are the most frequent modality and about to thirty percent. About twenty five percent are auditory and fifteen percent are kinesthetic. Surprisingly auditory is more than visual and at primary grade children with least kinesthesia having well developed modality. A shift to visuSal and kinesthetic strengths occurs between kindergarten and sixth grade and somewhere such shift occurs between junior high school and adulthood and there is another type of shift in which audition becomes more important than kinesthesia having the vision the dominant modality. However, any individual at any age will have his or her own modality strengths.

According to an action plan (2010-2015) of The Government of Pakistan, the government tries to reduce the illiteracy and increase elementary education across the country. All education policies and plans have been agreed on agenda to remove urban and rural disparity, improve quality in education, enhance access for out of school children, improve management and supervision, and expand building capacities, institutional development and financially stability at both individual level and in collaboration with other foreign agencies. Unfortunately due to many reasons the government is unable to achieve its targets and goal which it sets in all subsequent plans and polices from time to time.

Mohtama gandihi in the epco-maiking event of the period (1937 to 1947) introduced an education system. Due attentions paid by congress ministers to the expansion of primary education. However they said scheme remained under trial for a decade and the expected results were limited to preliminary learning but it was proved to be a dynamic in concept and processed the substantially for the management and growth according to the needs of hours and situations.