Harvard Basic Order Of Information Education Essay

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This guide has been designed to meet the needs of the UH School of Education and offer a common reference for all of our Programmes. It is based on the Harvard Referencing Guide jointly produced by the Business School Academic Studies Unit and Learning and Information Services.

It is essential for you to reference your work thoroughly in order for the reader to be able to see which words are your own and which sources you have used as evidence to support your arguments. It is essential to remember that:

Your tutor must be able to check your source.

Other readers might want to follow up your work.

If you do not reference, you are likely to be stepping into the world of stealing work and ideas from others, and that this therefore becomes serious offence of plagiarism.

Harvard is a modern 'author-date' system and should not be used in the same document with the older footnote system ('historical' system), which contains numbers in the text and footnotes. The complete reference consists of two parts - the in-text citation and the final reference in the list of References, which has the following order:

Harvard basic order of information

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Harvard is an 'AUTHOR DATE' system, and (if known), you must record the information in this order:

Author (Year) Title. Place of publication: Name of publisher.

If you do not have any part of the information, you will have to leave it out or indicate you do not have it with 'date unknown' for example. You can reference any sources using the Harvard referencing guide - the rule is to keep the same order of information as above.

Who wrote the work?

When did they write it?

What is the name of the work?

Where can it be found?

References

References are not the same as a Bibliography. In the School of Education we only require a list of References. References contain a list of all the sources you actually used and 'cited' in the text, whereas a Bibliography contains all the sources of information that you used as 'background' reading for the assignment - but you did not actually cite these sources in the text.

14 Points to note

References / Bibliography must be arranged alphabetically, according to author.

A reference list must contain an entry for each in-text citation.

Other sources, not cited in the text, should go in a separate Bibliography.

Always note the full details of your references and quotes as you read and write, so that you do not forget your sources. It will then be easier to make the final list of references.

Include a page number if your citation is a direct quotation from your source.

Make a final check when editing your work that each in-text citation also appears in the References.

Do not mix Harvard with other referencing systems (i.e. do not use 'ibid', 'op.cit', etc.)

Harvard does not use numbering, footnotes and endnotes. Footnotes belong to a completely separate and older system so you cannot use the two systems together.

Even though there are slight variations of the Harvard format in use worldwide, the key issue is that you must be consistent and use the same style throughout. The format in this guide has been agreed by the School of Education.

Only reference the sources you actually use (see primary and secondary sources below).

Take careful note of the different use of italics, inverted commas, etc. between different types of sources (e.g. books and journals). Generally, the titles of books, journals and newspapers are put in italics. The titles of articles in journals are put in inverted commas.

If your source is an electronic version, rather than the paper copy of a journal, book, newspaper or report, then you need to state [Online] after the title to show that you read it online instead of in hard copy.

Use 'Available at' for URL (uniform resource locator) to identify a web address.

Always include the date that you 'accessed' your web reference source.

Primary and secondary sources

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Primary sources are the 'original' sources. Secondary sources are the primary sources referred to by other authors. This guide gives examples of both primary and secondary sources, but you must remember that wherever possible, you should always consult the primary source. However, whatever type of source you use, the golden rule is to only cite and reference the source that you actually use.

Attribution tense

If you use the present tense and say "Brown (1987) suggests …" you are telling us that Brown still holds this opinion, even though his book was published in 1987. If you are not sure that this is still the case, as a rough general rule, refer to anything that is more than five years old in the past tense and anything that is less than five years old in the present tense.

General Rule for References

Consistent punctuation and spacing are necessary in the References. Some general rules apply:

Authors' names:

Use only the initials of the authors' given names.

No spaces are used between initials.

Titles of works:

Use minimal capitalisation for the titles of books, book chapters and journal articles.

In the titles of journals, magazines and newspapers, capital letters should be used as they appear normally.

Use italics for the titles of books, journals, and newspapers.

Enclose titles of book chapters and journal articles in single quotation marks.

Page numbering:

Books: page numbers are not usually needed in the References. If they are, include them as the final item of the citation, followed by a full stop.

Journal articles: page numbers appear as the final item of the citation, followed by a full stop.

Use the abbreviations p. for a single page, and pp. for a page range, e.g. pp.11-12.

Whole citation:

The different details, or elements, of each citation are separated by full stops.

The whole citation finishes with a full stop.

Contents

Books

1 One author

2 Two authors

3 Several authors

4 Chapter in an edited book

5 More than one book by the same author in the same year

Journals

6 Author unknown

7 One author

8 Two authors

9 Author citing another author

Electronic Information

10 Electronic book

11 Electronic journal

12 Internet page - author known

13 Organisation website

14 Information databases - citing a journal article

15 Information databases - citing a report - author unknown

16 Discussion group/bulletin board/ blog

17 E-mail

18 Virtual learning environments (StudyNet)

19 Conference proceedings (published on the Internet)

20 Electronic magazine or newsletter

21 Multiple references to the same website

22 Reference to a website using an acronym (short form of organisation/institution's name)

Other sources

23 Two articles by same author in same year

24 Images

25 Photographs

26 Graphs, tables and diagrams

27 Newspaper or magazine article - unspecified author

28 Newspaper or magazine article - author known

29 Corporate author

30 Lecture notes

31 Research conversations

32 Audio visual material

33 Film (DVD)

34 Full conference proceedings

35 Government/EU publication

36 Reports

37 In house publications

38 Thesis/dissertation

39 Translation by translator

40 Translation by student

41 Encyclopaedia entries

42 Dictionaries

43 Exhibition catalogues

44 Acts of Parliament (UK Statutes)

45 Legislation

46 Case law

47 Television

48 Radio

49 Quotations

50 Quoting other students

Books

1 One author

In-text citation

Medwell (2007) advises that when working with teaching assistants one needs to communicate, very precisely, their role in each lesson.

References

Medwell, J. (2007) Successful teaching placement. 2nd edn. Exeter: Learning Matters.

2 Two authors

In-text citation

Price and Maier (2007) recommend that poster presentations should tell a story.

References

Price, G. & Maier, P. (2007) Effective study skills: unlock your potential. Harlow: Pearson Longman.

3 Several authors

For more than two authors, use 'et al' in the text. In the References, list them all in the same order as they appear in the original work.

In-text citation

It can be argued that 'design and technology is citizenship education' (Howe et al, 2001: 136).

References

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Howe, A., Davies, D., Ritchie, R. (2001) Primary design and technology for the future: creativity, culture and citizenship. London: David Fulton.

4 Chapter in an edited book

In-text citation

It is not easy for people to see the links between creativity and mathematics (Hanley, in Jones & Wyse, 2004).

References

Hanley, U. (2004) 'Mathematics'. In Jones, R. & Wyse, D. (eds.) Creativity in the primary curriculum. London: David Fulton. pp. 31-48.

5 More than one book by the same author in the same year

In-text citation

As Stevens suggests (2001a & 2001b) e-commerce business models must realise that initially, transaction security is more important than market exposure.

References

Stevens, J. (2001a) E-commerce - the future of selling. London: Sage.

Stevens, J. (2001b) The online market place. New York: Randall.

Journals

Only the title of the journal is put in italics. The title of the article is put in inverted commas.

6 Author unknown

In text citation

A recent British Medical Association (BMA) article (2007) highlights the economic impact of the problem of obesity.

References

BMA (2007) 'The impact of obesity on UK health care funding'. British Medical Journal. No. 10057. 28th June. p. 13.

7 Journal article - one author

In text citation

Merchant (2008) describes an innovative project which takes Year 5 children into a virtual world.

References

Merchant, G. (2008) 'Out of the classroom and into the world'. English Four to Eleven. (32) Spring. pp. 12-14.

8 Journal article - two authors

In-text citation

Learners' perceptions of literacy and its teaching can radically affect the outcomes of literacy instruction and teachers of literacy need to take some steps to understand these in their own instructional contexts (Wray & Medwell, 2006).

References

Wray, D. & Medwell, J. (2006) 'Pupils' perspectives on literacy teaching'. Education 3-13. 34(3) October.

pp. 201-210.

9 Author citing another author

In-text citation

The decision to work and study (through formal participation or self-directed forms of participation) is an understandable response by adults to their experience of changing socio-economic conditions (Field, 2000, in Fuller, 2007).

References

Field, J. (2000) Lifelong learning and the new educational order. Stoke-on-Trent: Trentham Books. In Fuller, A. (2007) 'Mid-life "transitions" to higher education: developing a multi-level explanation of increasing participation'. Studies in the Education of Adults. 39(2) Autumn. pp. 217-235.

Electronic Information

10 Electronic book

In-text citation

Bowell and Kemp (2005) stress the importance of developing critical thinking in academic writing.

References

Bowell, T. & Kemp, G. (2005) Critical thinking - a concise guide. 2nd edn. New York: Routledge. Available at: http://www.HERTS.eblib.com/EBLWeb/patron/?target=patron&extendedid=E_13 [Accessed: 18 May, 2007].

11 Electronic journal

In-text citation

There was a focus on English and mathematics as a result of the government emphasis, leaving less time for other subjects, which was also suggested by Boyle and Bragg (2006).

References

Boyle, B. & Bragg, J. (2006) 'A curriculum without foundation'. British Educational Research Journal [Online]. 32(4) August. pp. 569-582. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01411920600775225 [Accessed: 3 February, 2008].

12 Internet page - author known

In-text citation

Zaccheo (2008) states that coaching is proving to be the best and most effective approach to employ when offering help to AD/HD sufferers.

References

Zaccheo, D. (2008) What is coaching? Available at: http://www.addiss.co.uk/whatiscoaching.htm [Accessed: 20 May, 2008].

13 Organisation website

In-text citation

There is an ever-increasing emphasis on seeking and using the views of children and young people in research, evaluation and consultation (National Foundation for Educational Research, 2007).

References

National Foundation for Educational Research (2007) Participation under the spotlight: defining future directions. Available at: http://www.nfer.ac.uk/research-areas/listening-to-children-and-young-people/spotlight-on-participation.cfm [Accessed: 22 May, 2008].

14 Information database: citing a journal article

In-text citation

Bridges (1999) questions whether or not educational research is concerned in some sense with the truth in relation to the matter(s) which are the focus of its enquiry.

References

Bridges, D. (1999) 'Educational research: pursuit of truth or flight into fancy?' British Educational Research Journal. [Online]. 25(5) December. pp. 597-616. JSTOR. Available at: http://www.jstor.org/stable/pdfplus/1501686.pdf [Accessed: 20 May, 2008].

15 Information database: citing a report - author unknown

In-text citation

The Mintel Report (2008) states that teenage magazines have lost close to 60% of total volume sales since 2002.

References

Mintel (2008) 'Teenage magazines - UK - March 2008.' [Online]. Available at: http://academic.mintel.com/sinatra/oxygen_academic/my_reports/display/id=280162&anchor=atom#atom0

[Accessed: 28 May, 2008].

16 Discussion group/bulletin board/blog

In-text citation

Whitehead (2007) proposes 'An individual's attitude to learning, to computers, to anything, in fact, can be coloured by their first experiences in that domain.'

References

Whitehead, H. (2007) What was your first experience of computer technology? Discussion. http://elesig.ning.com/forum/topic/show?id=2007026%3ATopic%3A184&page=3 [Accessed: 2 June, 2008].

17 E-mail

Usually, this reference is only included in the text, but you can put an entry in the reference list if you wish.

In-text citation

According to an e-mail received on the 21 March, 2006, Professor Candlin said that the issues had already been resolved.

References

Candlin, C. (2006) Issues resolved. E-mail to Mike Courtney. 21st March, 2006.

18 Virtual learning environments (StudyNet)

In-text citation

Bryant (2006) stresses that you should not rely too heavily on only a limited number of sources for your essays.

References

Bryant, T. (2006) UHBS ASU guide to essay writing. [Online]. Available at: http://go.herts.ac.uk/bs.academicskills [Accessed: 21 January, 2007].

19 Conference proceedings (published on the Internet)

In-text citation

Langley (2007) states that blended learning strategy can lead to increased social interaction and social learning, more so than with an e-learning only approach.

References

Langley, A. (2007) 'Experiential learning, e-learning and social learning: the EES approach to developing blended learning'. Fourth Education in a Changing Environment Conference. 12-14 September. Salford: University of Salford. Available at http://www.ece.salford.ac.uk/proceedings/2007 [Accessed: 20 May, 2008].

20 Electronic magazine or newsletter

In-text citation

The Disability Rights Commission (DRC) has taken a close look at the barriers that disabled people (including people with long-term health conditions) face when entering teaching, nursing, and social work. (ESCalate News, 2007).

References

ESCalate News (2007) Maintaining standards: promoting equality [Online] (9) Autumn. Available at: http://escalate.ac.uk/downloads/4245.pdf [Accessed: 20 May, 2008].

21 Multiple references to the same website

In-text citation:

As can be seen, Nokia is still in a dominant position in relation to other foreign entrants to the Chinese telecoms market (Nokia, 2007a). It has maintained this position through continued product innovation (Nokia, 2007b) and aggressive use of Special Economic Zone concessions (Nokia, 2007c).

References

Nokia (2007a) Business solutions. Available at: http//www.nokia-asia.com/nokia/0,1522.html [Accessed: 15 March, 2007].

Nokia (2007b) Phones and more. Available at:http//www.nokia.co.id/nokia/0,52246.html [Accessed: 15 March, 2007].

Nokia (2007c) Culture of mobility. Available at: http//www.nokia.co.id.nokia.com/fashion/culture.id05674.html [Accessed: 15 March, 2007].

22 Reference to a website using an acronym (short form of organisation/institution's name)

In text citation

VLEs have been available for use in higher education (HE) since the mid 1990s, though not all of them were web based (Becta, 2003).

References

Becta (2003) A review of the research literature on the use of managed learning environments and virtual learning environments in education, and a consideration of the implications for schools in the United Kingdom. Available at: http://partners.becta.org.uk/upload-dir/downloads/page_documents/research/VLE_report.pdf [Accessed: 3 November, 2007].

Other sources

23 Two articles by same author in same year

In-text citation

Bryant's assessments (1992a, 1992b) of the Samburu economy in Northern Kenya remain seminal works.

References

Bryant, T. (1992a) 'Barter and hierarchy in Northern Kenya'. Proceedings of the First International Research Conference on African Nomads 2006. 15 November. Nairobi: FIRCAN: pp. 25-48.

Bryant, T. (1992b) 'Where there's blood, there's money'. Ethnography Today. 2(3) pp. 12-27.

24 Images

In-text citation

Figure 1: Graduation Day (Source: Microsoft Online Images, 2006).

References

Microsoft Online Images (2006) Academic photos - graduating students [Online image]. Available at: http://office.microsoft.com/clipart/default.aspx?lc=en-gb [Accessed: 10 May, 2007].

25 Photographs

In-text citation

Figure 1 shows a student studying in the University of Hertfordshire's Learning Resources Centre.

Figure 1: a student working in the Learning Resources Centre (Source: Teague, 2007).

References

Teague, J. (2007) Photograph of a student working in the Learning Resources Centre. July 2007. Unpublished.

26 Graphs, tables and diagrams

In-text citation:

As can be seen from the graph in Figure 1, the most common way that adults acquire information and communication technology (ICT) skills is through learning-by-doing.

Figure 1: How adults obtained ICT skills (Source: Office for National Statistics, 2007).

References

Office for National Statistics (2007) Where and how adults obtained ICT skills, 2006, UK. [Online image]. Available at: http://www.statistics.gov.uk/cci/nugget.asp?id=1712 [Accessed: 28 May, 2008].

27 Newspaper or magazine article - unspecified author

In-text citation

President Nicolas Sarkozy said he wanted a new law to ensure schools stay open when teachers go on strike so parents can get to work (The Independent, 2008).

References

The Independent (2008) 'Sarkozy threat to school strikes'. 17 May, 2008. p. 29.

28 Newspaper or magazine article - author known

In-text citation

The sin bins' official name - pupil referral units - will be scrapped as it has become an "outdated and unhelpful label" (Curtis, 2008).

References

Curtis, P. (2008) 'Sin bins for pupils to be scrapped'. The Guardian. 21 May, 2008. p. 8.

29 Corporate author

In-text citation

The tests give the opportunity for pupils to be set clear and understandable targets (Department for Education and Skills, 2002).

References

Department for Education and Skills (2002) Making assessment work. London: Department for Education and Skills. [DfES 0196/2002].

30 Lecture notes (check that your lecturer allows this)

In-text citation

Teague (2008) proposes that 'Blended Learning is based on a considered approach to curriculum design in which the advantages of face-to-face learning are integrated with the advantages of e-learning from the first planning stage.'

References

Teague, J. (2008) Relationship-learning theory and practice. [PowerPoint slides] Lecture handouts. University of Hertfordshire. 23 February, 2008.

31 Research conversations

This reference can be treated like an e-mail, so there is no need to include an entry in the reference list, although you can if you wish.

In-text citation

According to Smith (2007), there appear to be important limitations in our initial approach to the case study.

References

Smith, K. (2007) Telephone conversation with Mike Courtney. 31 January, 2007.

32 Audio visual material

In-text citation

Geography also plays an important part in pupils' physical, intellectual, social and emotional development (Scoffham, 2004).

References

Scoffham, S. (ed.) (2004) Primary geography handbook. [CD-ROM]. Sheffield: Geographical Association.

33 Film (DVD)

In-text citation

Keating introduces his students to poetry, and his free-thinking attitude and the liberating philosophies of the authors he introduces to his class have a profound effect on his students (Dead Poets Society, 1989).

References

Dead poets society (1989) Directed by Peter Weir [DVD]. Burbank: Buena Vista.

34 Full conference proceedings

In-text citation

The 3rd Hertfordshire Integrated Learning Project (HILP) conference (2002) focussed on identifying and strengthening links between skills development in the Higher Education curriculum and the factors that influence that development.

References

Hertfordshire Integrated Learning Project (2002) Skills development in higher education: forging links: proceedings of the 3rd Annual Skills Conference. University of Hertfordshire. 10-11 July, 2002. Hatfield: University of Hertfordshire.

35 Government/EU publication

In-text citation

Joint Educational Projects for language learning (JEPs) aim to increase young people's motivation as well as capacity to communicate in foreign languages (European Commission, 1997).

References

European Commission (1997) Socrates Lingua: joint educational projects: handbook. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities.

36 Reports

In-text citation

The focus of a recent report (Jenkins and Healey, 2005) is on supporting the relationships between student learning and staff discipline-based research in institutional policies and practices.

References

Jenkins, A. & Healey, M. (2005) Institutional strategies to link teaching and research. York: Higher Education Academy.

37 In house publications

In-text citation

Bryant and Courtney (2007) state that the main thing to remember about referencing is to remember the correct order of information and to be consistent in the application of this information.

References

Bryant, T. & Courtney, M. (2007) UHBS ASU guide to Harvard referencing. Hatfield: UHBS ASU.

38 Thesis/dissertation

In-text citation

As Farrant (2004) indicates, there are various reasons why free-time opportunities could be seen to be so positive for refugee pupils.

References

Farrant, K. (2004) Improving the provision for refugee children within a mainstream first school. Thesis (MA). University of Hertfordshire.

39 Translations (by translator)

In-text citation

Children do not learn to speak unless they are immersed in a world where others speak (Bouvet, 1990).

References

Bouvet, D. (1990) The path to language: bilingual education for deaf children. Translated from French by J.E. Johnson. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.

40 Translations (by student)

In-text citation

As a recent report from the Bank of China (2007) shows, the issue of bad loans is one that the Chinese government is increasingly worried about.

References

Bank of China (2007) Quarterly Report. Document number BOC58398. April. Translated from Chinese by L. Zhao.

41 Encyclopaedia entries

NB: Wikipedia should NOT be used as a reference, although it may be useful as a guide to other acceptable (refereed) sources.

In-text citation

Although new assessment instruments have been developed, the search continues for accurate and reliable measures of ADHD (Lowe & Reynolds, 2000).

References

Lowe, P. & Reynolds, C.R. (2000) 'Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)'. Encyclopedia of special education. 2nd edn. Vol. 1. pp. 166-173. New York: John Wiley.

If the encyclopaedia entry does not have an author, use the 'corporate author' style:

Encyclopaedia Britannica (2007) Marketing segmentation. [Online] Available at: www.britannica.com

[Accessed: 9 May, 2007]

42 Dictionaries

In-text citation

Pedagogy is defined as the practice of teaching or the study of teaching (Longman, 1995).

References

Longman dictionary of contemporary English (1995) 3rd edn. Harlow: Longman.

43 Exhibition catalogues

In-text citation

As stated in the catalogue (Eric Carle Museum of Picture Book Art, 2002) the exhibition represents the culmination of Eric and Barbara Carle's vision to launch a museum celebrating the art of the picture book.

References

Eric Carle Museum of Picture Book Art (2002) The world of Eric Carle. November 22, 2002 to March 23, 2003. Amherst: Eric Carle Museum of Picture Book Art.

44 Acts of Parliament (UK Statutes)

In-text citation

The Data Protection Act (Great Britain. 1998) states that the Secretary of State may exempt from the subject information provisions in relation to personal data in respect of which the data controller is a teacher at a school, and which consist of information relating to pupils at the school.

References

Great Britain (1998) Data Protection Act. London: Stationery Office.

45 Legislation

In-text citation

EC regulations (Council Regulation 40/94) are very specific about this aspect of trade marking.

References

EC Council Regulation (1993) No. 40/94 of 20 December on the Community Trade Mark. Final.

(The word 'Final' clarifies that this is not one of the earlier drafts.)

46 Case law

In-text citation

As a recent case shows (Courtney v Bryant, 2007) the principle of caveat emptor is interpreted differently across the EU. In many jurisdictions, there is no legal requirement for the vendor to provide a refund or exchange.

References

Courtney, M. v Bryant, T. (2007) Case C-179/07. ECR 9 -22.

47 Television

In-text citation

Play was defined as things that encourage creativity, social skills or physical activity and, most importantly, things that children choose to do themselves (Child Of Our Time, 2008).

References

Child Of Our Time (2008) BBC1, 21 May. 20.00.

48 Radio

In-text citation

The interviewee was not certain that children's behaviour was worse but felt that it had become more challenging (Woman's Hour, 2005).

References

Woman's Hour (2005) BBC Radio 4, 8 February. 10.00.

49 Quotations (page number must always be given, if it is not a web site).

One important way to avoid plagiarism is to use quotations. However, before you do this, consider the following:

1) Do not use a quote if you can make the point in another way

2) Do not quote just to make up your word count

3) Do not use very long quotes

In text citation

Quotations of less than two lines should be enclosed in quotation marks can be given like this:

Eaude (2006: 81) believes that 'Policies, procedures and rules all help provide a structure within which both children and adults feel safe.'

Quotations of more than two lines should be indented like this:

Eaude (2006: 81) believes that:

'Policies, procedures and rules all help provide a structure within which both children and adults feel safe. Yet creative learning, which is fundamental to cultural and spiritual development, involves a level of risk.'

References

Eaude, T. (2006) Children's spiritual, moral, social and cultural development: primary and early years. Exeter: Learning Matters.

50 Quoting other students

Very occasionally, you will need to quote or cite from the work of other students - perhaps you are part of a team which has to produce a joint piece of work.

In text citation

As can be seen from the statistics supplied for the Business Report in part one of the project (Zhao, 2007), Malaysia has the highest score for all of the five factors.

References

Zhao, L. (2007) MScIB Integrated Project Handout (1) Romania.

An example of a final list of References, in alphabetical order: