Throughout some characteristic features of bilingualism in India, the language situation used in India increase together with language policy issues. Firstly, language policy issues are affected by the increasing languages used of Indians. For example, in terms of the number of languages used in India ranks fourth in the world (Skutnabb-Kangas 2000), over 6,600 mother tongues were reported in India in the 2001, with varying estimates of 300 - 400 languages in the country. These belong to five different languages families, namely,â€¦â€¦â€¦.. These figures vary for a number of reasons including a given language may be reported different names reflecting the returnee's ethnic, professional, attitudinal, and other affiliations. Secondly, many languages used in different activities are partly due to the complex social-psychological and socio-linguistic relationship between language and their speakers. According to Mohanty (2010), a large number of languages is used in different Indian societies and different spheres of public activities. These include more than 104 for radio broadcasting, 87 for print media, 67 languages in primary education, and 104 for adult literacy programs. This study show that language users in the country use two or more languages to communicate with others in the same or different communities in different areas of their daily life. Moreover, all of the language used in India, only 22 official languages are recognized as an associate official language by VIIIth schedule of the Constitution of India. Because of all of these languages have rich literary traditional and are spoken by a large number of Indian. Koul & Devaki (2000)nice point out that a three-language formula was proposed for education in 1957. A regional language is used as the first teaching language for the first five school years. Then, a second language is taught as a school subject; Hindi in non-Hindi areas and another Indian language in the Hindi areas during school years 6 to 8. English is taught as a school subject from the third year onwards. Base on this evidence, 22 official languages are recognized as an associate official language, which are language of power in India, in particular, Hindi and English. However, it can be said that the tribal and other minority languages in India have no place in education because of an inequality and discrimination of language used in India. In addition, India is a nation composed of numerical linguistic minorities (Kamal K. 1991). Many tribal languages in India have been pushed out of public domains of social and economic significance for the communities. Mohanty (2010) claims that in such a condition of linguistic double divide, the languages in the higher levels push the lower-level languages out of significant public domains in a hierarchical pecking order. This evidence shows that these languages become impoverished with limited scope and restricted functions for development.
One of the facing serious problems of bilingual education development in India is the medium of instruction, which includes economic development demands the use of a language of wider communication, the language of the colonizer is still used, and often remains the official language or one of the official language Calvet (in Hamers 2005). For example, the lack of teachers and teaching materials for instruction in national languages Calvet 1981; Siguan & Mackey 1987 (in Hamers 2005). Based on this evidence, â€¦â€¦. According to Ghosh (1980) indicates two very brief reports on the Indian experience regarding bilingual education. The first report study the case of New Delhi, where the use of two languages as medium of instruction has been operative in 156 central schools controlled be the government. Hindi and English are used as medium of instruction to link languages of the country. These subjects including, Geography, Social studies, i.e. History, Civics are taught in Hindi, and the rest of curriculum, i.e. Science, Mathematics, etc., are taught in English. It is widely believed that medium of instruction in the central school might be better than that in regular school. This report shows that â€¦. In addition, the well researched of Mohanty (2006) shows that English is gaining a hegemonic status within the Indian education system. The official three-language formula is increasingly replaced by bilingualism with English and Hindi or with English and a regional language as the medium of instruction because of giving access to better jobs. It can be said thatâ€¦.. Bilingual education in India usually involves primary instruction through the regional language and English. The significance of instruction in English is the lack of modernization of many Indian languages, the non-availability of instructional materials and trained teachers in those languages. In education, the trend seems to be toward replacing English with modern Indian languages. However, this impression is misleading for two reasons. Firstly, Professional training at the university level, in particular, Engineering, Medicine, Law, Sciences, and Computer Science, is largely done through English at present and is likely to continue in the future. Secondly, the speakers of minority languages demand instruction through their mother tongue, bilingual education will probably become more attractive as a means to maintain the ethnic identity and culture (Kamal K. 1991).
problems of language policy issues in education including
bilingual education in India is provided using either Hindi, the issue of
the education policy toward minority groups.
Then the possible solutions will be provided based on â€¦. aspects:
The importance of English as a world language, the advance of technology and education reform envisaged by the new Thai Constitution are key determinants for new developments for English language teaching and learning in Thailand in this decade.