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According to Horner, K. and Kitchen, K (2002) each child is proficient on specific power and the issues .Thus, in one way or another, every child could be determined as being "gifted". However, a more particular definition of "gifted children" is done with the aim of special programs and services in the schools. From the view of special education, a "gifted student" is defined mostly as a learner having an "unusual capacity to learn."Moreover, the writer defines gifted children as learners whose performances are extraordinarily high for they have excellent skills.
Lisa Cook, Rebecka Jones, Shannon Saenz, Angela Titus(2004) states that Gifted students are defined as the people who performs exceptionally well in one or more areas of show. And also he added that approximately, 3 million children in the world determined as being a gifted learners.
Berger, Sandra L.(1990)states that gifted children are the human beings whose education should be particularly adapted to their special learning needs and demands. James J. Gallagher(1988) defines the gifted students as having a capacity to learn more quickly and much more thoroughly than their age mates.
According to Danny Hammond(2007) there are two definition of "gifted students" from the point of both traditional and contemporary. Traditional definition states that gifted students are the ones whose IQ is more that 130 (IQ>130) and whose exceptional mental capability necessitates distinguish instruction/curriculum. Contemporary view explains gifted from the point of two theories: "Sternberg's Triarchic Theory" and "Gardner's Multiple Intelligences" According to the Gardner's Multiple Intelligences theory there are 9 kinds of intelligencessuch as Verbal-linguistic, Logical-mathematical Naturalistic, Visual-spatial, Body-kinesthetic, Auditory-musical, Interpersonal, Intrapersonal, Proposed - Spiritual, Sexual, Existential. According to Sternberg's Triarchic Theory, there are 3 kinds of giftedness.
- Analytic Giftedness
- Intellectual Abilities/Problem Solving
- Synthetic Giftedness
- Practical Giftedness
- Applying above to everyday situations.
Kathleen Teasdale (2008 ) defines gifted students as outstanding or having a great potential to be perfect. General intelligence, specific academic studies, visual and performing arts, physical ability, creative thinking, interpersonal and intrapersonal abilities are the areas they are good at. Learning very rapidly, thinking critically , performing notably among the their age groups, are some of the shared features of gifted students.
In each community, the gifted students are quite significant and they should be cared for sensitively and their benefits to the community they live in never be ignored. Morover, every community should pay great attention both the gifted students and their education. Lisa Cook, Rebecka Jones, Shannon Saenz, Angela Titus(2004) states that just half of the gifted students in the globe have an opportunity to have a special education suitable for their needs and interest. In gifted education programs both individual and social needs should be included. Encouraging educational experiences which are suitable the ability of the gifted students should be supplied for them.
James J. Gallagher(1988) also claims that "we (as a U.S members) complain about a lack of leadership, a lack of responsibility, and the unwillingness to make sacrifices on the part of many gifted students who are our potential future strength in business, industry, the arts, and the sciences. We find, for example, that half of the students in graduate school, in fields such as chemistry and engineering, are foreign students who seem more willing and able to take the hard and tough road intellectually."( 3.d:
While working with gifted students, in the classes, teacher should use many different strategies to make the learning process most efficient and appropriate for the students. Horner, K. and Kitchen, K (2002) refers that to meet the demands of gifted learners a large variety of different strategies or techniques could be used in the classes.. In the schools, some modifications in the areas such as the content of the curriculum, the processes that engage the students, the products of their studies and the learning environment may be absolutely beneficial for them.
According to Danny Hammond(2007); there are a great many of strategies to improve the achievement of the gifted students. He investigates the strategies from more theoretical way. He refers that Guided Reading and Viewing , Alternative Assessments and Projects have an important impact on this issue. He also claims that some specific programs should be employed peculiar to the gifted ones such as; Gifted Programs (Enrichment vs. IEP), Extracurricular Programs: Governor's School Model, Summer/Saturday Programs, Talent Search, Mentoring Schools for the Gifted, Early Entrance College ,Distance Learning. He advocates these kinds of programs which allow students to be with their peers, similar, in the point of ability and interest will thoroughly helpful for their social progression.
Fertig, C.(2009) Explains the strategies for the gifted students more in a more simple way. She states that both parents and teachers should try to use some strategies to improve the thinking skills of a child. This could be achieved by put forting to them the question types such as open questions and guiding them to create their own open questions. Critical thinking questions, essential questions, problem solving and brainstorming are some types of techniques included in open question.
In the education of gifted students the teachers and the parents should be in a strong cooperation. Each of them has very significant roles in gifted students' education. Paul E. Torrance and Kathy Goff (1990), states that there quite important issues the teacher should be careful in teaching the gifted students. According to him some of the teachers' role could be listed as
- Respecting all of the questions they ask even they are illogical
- Respecting all of the strange ideas or thoughts of them
- By listening to their opinions, we can prove that their ideas are very valuable.
- For self-initiated learning, creating chances.
- Supporting creativity in the classroom activities.()
Paul E. Torrance and Kathy Goff (1990) also claims that there are some ways parents can promote and encourage the creativity or achievements of the students. He listed the roles of the gifted students' parents as the followings:
- Making ready the children for new experiences.
- Helping the children to deal with the changes and stress
- Fostering their curiosity, questioning, testing skills.
- Guiding them to turn destructive behavior into constructive one.
Kathleen Teasdale (2008 ) mentioned the roles of the teachers of gifted students as like this:
- They should be aware of the characteristics of giftedness
- For recognize gifted students they should use suitable methods.
- They should have a contact with their parents, considering the talents and the needs of them.
- They should create more challenging activities including depth of study, complexity of thinking to foster the gifted students' success.
Kathleen Teasdale (2008 ) also mentions that for the gifted students' recognize their capacity to extraordinary success, not only teachers but also the parents have very significant works to do.
- They should prepare a encouraging and supportive atmosphere at home
- They should be aware of the community organizations and programs about gifted students' development.
- They should be informed about the characteristics of giftedness