CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION
1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY
Gender disparity shapes people's life unusual are one that been dull broadly throughout minds of contemporary society in the current decades. The biological differences between men and women compose as one of the core motive on behalf of males having enhanced job opportunities. As a result males were constantly celebrated the breadwinners of the family even as a female's place was at home.
1.1.2 POPULATION OF MALAYSIA
Malaysia population is a great blend of varied multi ethnic, multicultural population comprising Malays, Chinese, Indians and more than 200 ancestral native ethnic groups. Although, Malaysia population encompasses with several cultural, still antique Malay cultural is the most major one followed by Chinese and Indian cultural. Malaysia population comprises of 50% of Malay, 24 % of Chinese and 7% Indian, 11% other bumiputera and 8 % and others.
Above shown diagram tells us that the total number of population in Malaysia is increasing every year and this makes Malaysia no.43 in world rankings according to population in year 2008.
Based on the estimation the total number of population in Malaysia for year 2009 is 25, 715, 819 (July 2009) with the population growth rate of 1.723 % (2009 est.) which squeeze of 50.3 % of female and 49.7% of male.
1.1.3 EDUCATION IN MALAYSIA
Malaysian government has always been sensitive toward gender issues and women's development and therefore the Malaysian progress plan have positioned better accent on mainstreaming women in national progress throughout confirmatory multi sectoral policies and programs .Malaysian education system is highly centralized particularly in primary and secondary schools with state and local governments having little declared in curriculum or the major accepts of education.
There has been rapid expansion of educational opportunities and openings for women and men to improve their economic participants. Overall, the trend shows an increase in the literacy rate levels of both males and females. The progress made in reducing gender gaps is attributable to remarkable increase in girl's enrolment in schooling.
However the gender disparity issues are vacant and enhancement stemmed from the improved health position of women and the bigger levels of girls in secondary and higher education. Investing in girls education supply them with social and economic opportunities and option throughout their lifetime. As we can see in the table below shows the gender participantion in school enrolment based on different year together with the gender gap.
As extra women than yet prior to be working, an unrelenting hole in position, job, safety, pay and education among men and women are still continue living. Although the position of women in the world of employment has enhanced, but gains have been deliberate. While women have to some extent closed the status gap with men, the slow speed of change means that disparities remain significant.
1.1.4 GENDER GAPS IN MALAYSIA
Gender disparity means an unequal difference, as in attitudes and selection preferences between the sexes or can be defined as the purely descriptive observation of different outcomes between males and females. Gender equality and the empowerment of women are the fundamental in order to achieve human development. Besides that they are also essential to achieve the social, economic and political development. As seen in figure 3 shows us that total percentage of Male and Female in Malaysia based on year 2009.
Based on Malaysia Gender Development Index (GDI) in relation to Human Development Index (HDI) Malaysia is 0.829 in 2007, which gives the country a rank of 66 out of 182 countries data. Malaysia's GDI value, 0.823 should be compared to its HDI value of 0.829.
According to the global gender gap 2008 report, Malaysia ranks 96 out of 130 countries surveyed. The gender gap score is 0.644 (0.00 = inequality, 1.00 = equality). Besides that in year 2007 Malaysia ranks 92 out of 128 countries surveyed. The gender gap score is 0.644 (0.00 = inequality, 1.00 = equality) and in year 2006, Malaysia ranks 72 out of 115 countries surveyed. The gender gap score is 0.651 (0.00 = inequality, 1.00 = equality).
Based on table 6 shows that gender gap sub index of Malaysia in year 2008 .Those indicators are grouped based on female and male participation in economics participation and opportunity, education attainment, political empowerment. According to the labour force participant between gender males are given more opportunity than female although the total female population in Malaysia exist the male population.
In addition when we look at the political empowerment female is given less occasion to involve. Based on the table 6 the number of women participation in parliament level and women in ministerial positions are very few compare to male which show that women are given less opening in decision making level wherelse male are given more prospect.
As we can see, only at the primary education, enrolment in Malaysia has equal participation among the genders and the numbers of female participation in secondary education enrolment are greater than male. However, the number of male participation in tertiary education enrolment is very low compare to the female participation are primarily because of more male dropouts at the secondary education enrolment level. Furthermore based on the table 7 tells us that students who completed their secondary enrolment holds major proportion in labour force in Malaysia compare to other education level.
1.2 PROBLEM STATEMENTS
There are ample of issues been arising regarding gender disparity problem in Malaysian which is not purely on women deliberations but also considering the aspects of man and women participation in education and workforce. Since Malaysia had made further progress towards creating a more equitable society, this problem has raised many questions in the mind of men and women. Certainly Malaysia has achieved remarkable economic growth over the past decades, yet has this growth been 'with equity'?
Bold initiatives and resolute resolve are necessary to finish individual and institutional gender inequity. Gender inequity is pervasive. While the amount and appearance of inequality may diverge, women and girls are disadvantaged of the same admission to resources, opportunities and political power in each region of the world. Institutional discrimination is harder to identify and put right. Cultural traditions can complete inequality and prejudice from generation to generation, as gender stereotypes stay established and unconcealed.
Malaysia still has a long way to go in achieving full economic integration of women and realizing their unused potential for economic development. A female is likely to take care of the home and look after the children. This is visibly seen in everyday living. Even at an untimely phase in existence girls is liable play with dolls, nursing and looking after them as if they were their children. Society has completed it such that even if a woman required to against the norms and get a job in the work force she would not get very far.
While more women than ever before are working, an unrelenting gap in status, job security, wages and education between men and women are still continue living. Although the status of women in the world of work has improved, but gains have been slow. While women have to some extent closed the status gap with men, the slow speed of change means that disparities remain significant.
Many actions are trying to get rid of gender disparity and these days present is an rising number of women in the army and similar jobs that used to mainly consist of men. But society has exposed us the collapse of such deeds by the increase in rapes, sexual attack and sexual harassments in the work force. This once extra makes women think double prior to imperfect to join these gender sheltered jobs.
This visibly is a gender inequality and correct all through living it has been capable to speak our living likelihood. The amount to which it allow us to establish this has nonetheless has broadened more than the existence and known females a wider series of job opportunities and potential prospects. However such limitations will forever survive, it will merely get lighter and further apart as years go on.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
This study generally aims to examine the gender disparity in Malaysia which primarily hub on education disparity and income disparity.
v To investigate the gender disparity in education enrolment
v To examine gender disparity in Labour market.
v Discuss the consequences of gender disparity and its implications on social development in Malaysia.
1.4 ORGANISATION OF RESEARCH PROJECT
Chapter 1: This chapter seeks to build theories from observation and psychology to examine the factors that contributes to gender disparity in Malaysia.
Chapter 2: This chapter provides a review of the literature review related to gender disparity in Malaysia which focuses on education and income. Apart of that, the independent variables are used based on the factors that leads to gender disparity in Malaysia are recognized.
Chapter 3: This study uses various statistics method to do investigation on the research. This analysis is to determine an aspect that contributes to gender disparity in Malaysia. This chapter identifies and describes the methodology used to recognize the research problems
CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 HARMONIZING ECONOMIC GROWTH AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT AMONG GENDER
In the article literature review, the author observed that there is very little opportunity given for women to participate in genuine decision making at any level and the actuality is that men conquered in government, the party and state enterprises. Although women have been in good position to benefit from economics yet gender discrimination in the work place could be assessed. Besides that, the great educational waste and higher education has not been design to solve the gender disparity which is because women been lock away by the belief and behaviors that delay them to fill in positions in the workplace since the main part of female life is dedicated to reproduction and take care of others and occupational separation among gender explains that there are major gaps among gender on labor market and average of gross salaries which tells women are paid less (Adriana and Manolescu, 2006; Cuetara, 2001)
In additional there are two main prospect been identified by the author which are to participate in and benefit from the society built by them and the society here means values parity to ensure that people have opportunity to make decision in every aspects and equal allocation of decision making is given when low percentage of women involved in the decision making process at the political and administrative level shows us that there is no fair distribution of the decisional burden (Adriana & Manolescu, 2006). The limitation of this journal is that the data provided do not manage to offer a sound explanation of gender disparity in the private sector.
Furthermore in other study for example (Cuetara, 2001), said that the inter and intra gender distances and the final list recovers the role of higher education for social development is important yet the disadvantages for women even in higher educational level in a social order of male high proportion. It has been started that the educational lag affects more women than men and it is becoming more serious as the age of the group increase.
On the other hand, labor policy reforms able to balances growth needs of firms and socio economics imperatives of a developing nation. Labor relations in developing countries is grouped by recent change of market determined such as external environment, economically susceptible surplus labor, low skills, hard employment laws, politicized union with low labor representations and low corporate involvement in governance ( Gurtoo , 2008).There is a require for policy modify that incorporate economic steadiness for labour, employment guideline on behalf of organizational elasticity, union management for proper representations and corporate involvement in labour sanctuary and domination. However there is a significant business need to reform labour policy in several developing countries in order to support overall economic development and growth.
2.2 REASONS FOR DIFFERENCE IN EARNINGS
Achieving gender equality in general is now considered a very crucial issue in order to reduce poverty and has become a development objective in its own right. Studies on gender wage gaps and labor market discrimination in different countries have established that women generally get paid at lower rates than men. A study by (Temesgen, 2008) said that gender wage disparity exist when two workers who otherwise are identical in their human capital endowment and other characteristics.
Gender wage disparity can be grouped into 2 types which are average wage differences between firm is called as pre employment and treating women vs. men in term promotion, pay scale and etc is called as post employment. However based on the study by (Mano-Negrin, 2000) said that gender based differences in wages initiate in organizational and sector characteristics.
The labor market institutions, unionization and other firm characteristics have significant influences on the level of gender wage inequality at the firm level (Temesyen, 2008; Mano-Negrin, 2000). An attempt to close the gender wage gaps between men and women should be carefully targeted at the appropriate endowment but the existing institutions and other firm characteristics should also be considered. Temesyen (2008) argues that the public enterprises are more gender egalitarian compared to private firms and training plays an important role on gender wage gaps narrowing. In additional a study by (Srinivas, 2007) said that there is an increase in women contribution on labor force in twentieth century but there is some evidence that the gender gap between the pay of men and women has not narrowed homogeneously in the second half of the twentieth century.
Furthermore in the research by (Mano-Negrin, 2000), had observed that the wage differences between genders are due to their differences work sector placement whether in public or private, higher return on working hours and managerial position in the private sector and manhood. Apart from that the author has been identified the similarities and differences between the public and private sector.
The similarly are the structural effects of managerial position on wage levels also different taking into account of demographic and human capital effects and it was shown that the middle level management position is strongly rewarded in the private sector due to stronger link between the middle level management position and organizational performance. The differences are in public sector the middle level management positions are relatively abundant due to large organizational size and high hierarchical structure.
Based on the research article by (Srinivas, 2007) explained that a purely economics explanation does not work well in explaining the gender wage gap instead the strong negative correlation between the traditional social attitudes and women's wage suggests that social attitudes towards gender roles affect's wage independently of women's labor force participants. Besides that there still many people are more traditional in their view, agreeing with the statement that a women's place is in the home. These should include better access to firm level training opportunities for women, as well as better access to employment into higher level occupational categories for which they are Qualifies and better access to within firm career promotion opportunities (Temesyen, 2008).In a nut shell, the gender disparity in pay can be explain in two different broad categories which are gender differences in human capital and labor market structure.
2.3 EDUCATIONAL DISPARITIES AGAINST GENDER
Education is a common and crucial element in every human being life yet there are still barriers received by women and girl in education competences and at workplace which is mainly due to "gender traditional". The main issue that affected their early education and their career path is their early histories and familial support which is essential in shaping their thinking and enabling them to aspire to higher education and role achievement (Cubillo & Brown, 2003).Generally either at higher education or at workplace women is more concentrated in under represented and traditional feminised area rather given equal opportunity as men. Educational progress has been enjoyed by both sexes, even in the poorest countries, yet these advances have failed to eradicate the gender gap (Hill & Elizabeth, 1995).
Although several program been designed to raise female education thus all began ended to channel projects with short term funding, implementation support from donor agencies, and very few were subject to evaluation. In other study by (Gatta, 2006) said that the role state policy plays an important role in provide same opportunities for women and girls as men in educational, economic development and workplace settings .Thus it is important to monitor and evaluated those entire project in order to provide equal opportunity in education and expanding education system is essential for socialization and development of human capital. Apart from that, the state policy role also have crucial role in removing gender barriers in non traditional jobs in order to provide gender equity in labor, education and training. Therefore it is important to consider on how those policies can differentially impact men and women.
In the research article by (McTavish & Miller, 2009), highlight that there is major occupational gender segregation in both sectors between colleges and higher education which show that the job living equilibrium be not a occupation inhibitor for women in higher education other than was for women in colleges. Besides that, there is a clear link between the reform and managerial environment and the privileging of the masculine since the bureaucracy system and organization settings in public sector more to masculinist in nature and thus rarely able to provide for equal gender representation (McTavish & Miller, 2009; Cubillo & Brown, 2003).
2.4 MEASURING DISPARITY IN HIRING
Women's holding managerial positions was found to be much lower at senior level but there is increase in women in management at junior and middle management level. There are several obstacles have been considered that relatively have impact towards women's career advancement rather than the actual abilities and qualities women possess. For example (Wood, 2008) found out that Gender stereotyping and preconception of women's roles and abilities is therefore instrumental in creating a barrier to women's career advancement.
Women's natural feminine character to be devoted toward their family has become one of the obstacle that put them lack of competencies besides adverse corporate cultural. For example (Chinchilla et al., 2006) said that lack of support from their superiors who are heartless when a woman has to give main concern to her family duties. Furthermore the author also observed this condition may cause women's loss their self confidence. One the other hand, (Chinchilla et al., 2006) observed that the corporate cultural against women which is lack of flexibility policy has main influences over differences in hiring among male and women.
Demographic characteristics may serve as the basis of stereotypes that unclear the qualities of individuals. Demographic stereotypes usually occur in the form of gender, age and race. For example (Manshor, Jusoh, & Simun, 2003) found out that except the race and religion variables has a significance relationship between the hiring managers race and religion and their preferences to select candidates based on these two demographic characteristics. Diversity factors of hiring managers are the main consideration in influencing the final selection of employees.
Besides that, based on Malaysia context where the Malaysian manager is made up by multi racial may cause different managerial decision making. However the author also observed that both male and female managers show a high preference to select qualified candidate of their own gender when the candidates are equally qualified however they become less preference when the candidates are less qualified. As results, it has been so far discovered that different primary causes of hiring disparity among gender. For instance the hiring disparity among gender was found to be primarily influenced by gender stereotyping and corporate cultural.
The study analytical and qualitative in nature, however qualitative research refers to the organized experimental exploration of qualitative properties and phenomena and their relationships. It involve with the process of generate information only on the particular cases studied and any more common conclusions are only hypothesis.
3.1 STATEMENTS OF RESEARCH QUESTION
A research question is one of the first methodological ways to investigate when commission a research. It should be correctly and clearly defined, since it will make the hypothetical statements in the framework clearer of all it point towards to know most and first, which may include a look forward to.
Question 1: Femininity, fairness & personhood differences lead to gender disparity in career
Question 2: Labour market structure root to gender disparity among female
Question 3: Difficulty faced by women in wage succession
Income distribution in Malaysia
Different in pay policies
Question 4: Possible Barriers faced by female in education enrolment
Parents low investment on girls education
Technical and vocational education separation among gender
Transformation of labour market structure
Question 5: Consequences of gender disparity and social development in Malaysia
3.2 METHODS OF ESTIMATION
There are two types of analysis will be used in this study to analyze the data collection which are Descriptive Statistics and Review of secondary data.
3.2.1 DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS
Description statistics means a collection of methods for organizing, displaying and presenting data by using table, graphs and summary measures .In order to complete the process raw data is needed and it is recorded in the progression in which they are collected and have not yet be processed. In general, descriptive statistical indices are presented in the text of a manuscript if there are relatively few variables. Basically for this study the Univariate Descriptive Statistics will be used and the main purpose of this to represent exactly and briefly data from a variable.
3.2.2 REVIEWING SECONDARY DATA
Secondary data is data composed by someone else before and gathering of experimental data and evaluation of results. Based on this study secondary data from social science include censuses, surveys, organizational records and data has been used in order to complete this study. Besides that, secondary data provides higher quality databases than would be not viable for any individual researcher to collect on their own
CHAPTER 4 RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
4.0 BACKGROUND OF FINDINGS
The following are the findings, which are importance to the study. The analysis proposes that there persist to be disparities between male and female in education and income. Through an analysis of primary and secondary source materials, we will be able to sought answers to a pre determined set of the four-research question related to gender disparity in Malaysia focusing on education and income. The three purposes of this study were to investigate the gender disparity in education, to examine the gender disparity in labour market and discuss the consequences of gender disparity and its implications on social development. As will be bring to the forth chapter, the outcome derived from this attempt to answers to the question. Nevertheless, the study's findings do offer strong approach into a complex topic that is clearly of dominant importance to reduce gender disparity in the future.
4.1 OUESTION 1: FEMININITY, FAIRNESS & PERSONHOOD DIFFERENCES LEAD TO GENDER DISPARITY IN CAREER
It has been observed that there is inequality in the manner and advance in the direction of women and men at the work place, which interprets, into remarkable unfairness in opposition to women. It is well known that organizations are grouped by a gender hierarchy unbreakable and uttered thought male norms and arrangement, fixed in broad social relations of male advantage and female disadvantages.
Women are frequently attentive in the lower and middle management level position as compare to men. Although numbers of women are graduating form higher, institution yet the involvement of women in managerial roles especially at senior level continue to be less than men (Wood & Lindorff, 2001) are.
As we can see in the figure 7, which explain the percentage of labour force participation in Malaysia. There are large different between male and female contributor in the labour force. Female mostly likely involve lesser than men in the labour force and this condition are mostly probable explain the workplace has become more male dominated. However, there are few factors that influence this situation and at the same time, it could be the barriers to women to be involve as equal as men.
4.1.1 DEMOGRAPHIC FACTOR
One of the factors that direct to the decline of female involvement towards the labor force is "Demographic Factor". Women represent about 50.3 % out of the total population in Malaysia and the working age population is from 15 to 64 years. The status of women has always been lower than men in term of position and wage, separately from the little who grab top position (Mavin, 2001). Other study for example (Smedley & Whitten, 2006; Shultz & Adam, 2007) suggested that crucial difference between ages guide to work performance. The main reason behind this occurrence is disparity aligned with them in the appearance of unfavorable promotion judgment and given less chance for females.
The effects of age manipulate the work force involvement between female and their starting salary and therefore women are charged lesser salary than men were. The reason behind this is that as women grow older they are often limited towards upward mobility and promotions. Physical appearance on hiring assessment is connected because it has consequence on promotion assessment or proposal for promotion. Since women are apparent to beg off in pleasant appearance, as they grow older, this variable guide to decline of female accomplishment in career attainment.
Below seen Figure 8, explain the total labour force participation in Malaysia by age group from year 2001 until 2008.Numbers of male participation relatively higher as compare to female participation. Based on the figure we can wrap up that age is one of the factors that influence the labour force participation between male and female.
Besides that, below seen Table 8, which enlightens labour force participation in Malaysia by age group based on year 1980 and 1991. The female labour participation rate stayed stable among 1980 and 1991 at low rate of 41.9 %, measured against male rate 83.8 %. As we can see at the age of 15-19 the percentage of male and female involvement at labour force are considerable lower than other age grouped appropriately longer years of schooling before their enter into the labour force. In 1980, the 84.4 % of male was in the labour force as compared to female only 42.2%.
However, there is increase in female labour force participation at age group of 20-24 probable due to increase in the demand of female worker during that period. Furthermore there is delayed in the female labour force at age group of 25-29 due to the natural that female worker get married and committed into family life .The increasing demand for female labour force often resulted biased performs in which they are paid lesser than men for the same work.
According to (Hurley & Giannantonia, 1999) has acknowledged that gender disparity in career attainment happens in two different forms. The first form is adverse promotion decisions and the second form is that race and gender, an individual's age is a further vital demographical variable that might cause gender disparities.
4.1.2 WORK-FAMILY COMMITMENT
However, the second factor that pilot to gender disparity in career is "Work -Family Commitment" whereby the labour force involvement, occupations and the significance of work provides important approach hooked between family responsibilities and career. Since in the case of job participation, family contribution is expected to create interior forces to devote enlarged attempts and power in the family field to accomplish family role insists. Family tasks are individually essential issue influencing the sum of time and energy that individual are capable to dedicate to work.
Besides that, a further key matter appear with this analysis is women are often drop into the domestic responsibilities that are naturally engaged them with house chores and there still people hole on the believe the women place is home and they should only take care the family (Jacob, 1999; Moore, 1995) and male should go for work. In order to fulfill their responsibilities, they often occupied in small salaried tasks and informal labour.
Base on the figure 9, which tells us the percentage of working age in Malaysia based on year. The female participation in labour force not even reached half from the total percentage of working citizen in Malaysia. Even though there is increase in female participation each year yet, male be likely to participation more as compared to female worker. This is because female has to balance between their work and family and family life obligation tender become a difficulty for a female too participation as equal as men.
Moreover, this traditional gender role had cause disadvantage for women in term of economic power. In many circumstances, men persist to be main decision makers and decline to acquire female roles and work outside the house whereas women cannot generously do the same. Women who work outside the home are typically face more burden such as livelihood responsibility in order to fulfill their domestic responsibilities.
Above seen table 9, which give details on the percentage of women at decision-making level in Malaysia. As we can see that at the broad of director level , women been given lesser decision making power as compare to other level but somehow women are given less power to make decision than men .
Hence, women's career expansion is still significantly fewer than those of men are and this is because it is difficult for women to balance their work and family roles. In addition, women also fail to growth in an organization due to extended working hours, which is necessary for senior manager level. This is the major reason on why women's face difficulty in the corporate world and clarifies their attention in low paid, part time employment and their nonappearance at the majority of senior stages of management. As seen in the table 10, that express hours worked by gender in Malaysia and female workers are likely to work less than 20 hours and male be liable to work more than 40 hours.
Besides that, as Malaysia shift from labour intensive manufacturing to further capital-intensive types of production, female employees will be less aggressive. Current economics depression, women become more exposed to low skills, low job levels and structural limitations towards their involvement in workforce after marriage and the beginning of family responsibilities (Ahmad, 1998) .
4.2 QUESTION 2: LABOUR MARKET STRUCTURE ROOT TO FEMALE DISPARITY IN CAREER.
4.2.1 CORPORATE CULTURAL
In additional, "Corporate Cultural "is also one of the factors that pilot to the less female participation in the labour force. As we know that, women's role has an additional important effect in business perform or presentation. It is fine to recognize that women are immobile strengthen for work and family behaviors, while men are trained to develop public representations and to notice themselves in term of public identities. The majority of male workers was occupied on production related work or in agricultural and female workers predominated in production related work followed by service such as clerical.
As seen in the below figure 10 which explain percentage of male participation in the labour force by sector and figure 11 which explain percentage of female participation in the labour force by sector. Male tend to involve more in agricultural and industry sector which compress about 16% and 35 % , while female tend to involve more in service sector which compress 62%.
As many firms currently focusing more investment on human capital development and change the way of doing business according to the current trend, modernization could be one of the ways. Modernization is nothing but it is the techniques that used by firm in order to change the traditional way of supervision and direction and at the same time
shifting the gap among the purposeful and imaginative thinker.By doing so, more innovative women's are experiencing minor tough of awareness which is controlled by organizations.
In additional, modernization continues to be subject matter by male traditions and Women are often facing unfairness towards relational developments and organizational development, which often not appreciated or officially recognized in term of employment assessment and performance. Women are frequently unnoticed in term of relational developments due to traditional female responsibility in management, as they overpass which make appease and discuss but are not appreciated for their involvement in response to further strong male cultures.
On the other hand, recruitment selection which emerged with the present of both structurally and culturally which focus more on male orientation and long working hours creates an inflexibility and unfairness among women. Apart from that, study by (Andrew R.J.Dainty, Barbara M.Bagilhole & Richard H.Neale, 2000) has recognized that men and women experiences disparity energetically whereby men expose to promotion more quickly than women throughout their career progress do.
They have proven that this could be resulted due to the consequences of structural organization aspects, which limit the promotion opening within women and the culture, which is opposition to women. This situation would create a segregation and unfair work environment. According to latest report by the Department of Statistics of Malaysia based on January 2010, the labour force has increased considerable to 11.61 million persons as compared to 11.42 million persons in the December 2009.Althought there is an increase in the labour force participation in Malaysia yet the unemployment rate had rose to 3.6 % as compared to previous month which is only 3.4%.
Gender diversity in the workplace is important as women have a positive contribution to make, especially in understanding women related issues. The latter becomes increasingly important with increasing female participation and even domination in some industries like in electronics.
4.2.2 GENDER STEREOTYPING
Finally, the last factors, which possibly lead to female disparity in the labour force, are "Gender Stereotyping". Gender stereotyping means one side representation of men and women, which are deploying constantly in everyday life. Even though women are graduating more compare to male from the educational institution (Fagenson & Jackson, 1994) but there are still less women's are accounted at senior management level (Parker & Fagenson, 1994). The different view point which express the male dominate on corporate world mirror a constant participation of men compare to women in the labour market and this occurrence is experienced a across all societies.
Other study for example (Adler & Izraeli, 1988) had mentioned that the attitudes, behavioral and structural barriers cause relatively decrease in female career progression. The behavioral characteristic that influences both male and female participant in the labour force for example women tend to be more common type of beliefs and behaviors such as caring, nurturing, interpersonal compassion and emotional, however men be likely to be more ambition, affirmation, organize and independent that may creates different anticipations and experiences for male and female. Thus this is the reason why there is different between male and female participant in labour force.
Man are offer expose to promotion compare to women due to their behavioral characteristic and this situation pilot less confident among women whereby their have less persuaded over their future progression as they have rated themselves lower compare with men.
Besides that, when a women try to adopt male style against their preference, they lead to be more aggressive and unexpected from the feminine customs. However, this above mention factor tells us that the gender disparity in career does subsist and women tend to be the subject matter.
4.3 OUESTION 3: DIFFICULTY FACED BY WOMEN IN WAGE SUCCESSION
4.3.1 INCOME DISTRIBUTION IN MALAYSIA
The distribution of income is an essential accept to be consider because it establish the national harmony and poverty rate. Apart from career disparity, women are also facing income disparity along with their male counterparts. Based on the United Nation Human Development Program (UNHDP) report in 2004 explains that the richest 10% in Malaysia control 38.4% of the economics income as compared to the poorest 10% who only control 1.7%.
Income disparity and labor market disparity in different countries have established that women usually been paid at lower rate compare to men. This sector of the study attempts to discover the contribution of labour market structure and firm level characteristics that lead to income disparity. Although Malaysia had achieved outstanding economic growth above the past decades, however the gender disparities among Malaysian are continue living.
Malaysian mainly appear unsighted to the dilemma of income inequality in the society. Based on the Figure 12 , tell us the percentage of labour force participation by female in workforce are only 24% compare to male participation which is about 42% out of 34% as total labour force participation according to year 2008.
According to the Gini coefficient, which used to compute income inequality, Malaysia has a wider disparity of income compare to other ASEAN countries. Based on the table 11 below, Malaysia has the highest gini coefficient among the ASEAN countries which excluding Myanmar and Brunei data. Malaysia recorded 49.2 gini in year 2004, which is the highest among the ASEAN countries.
4.3.2 DIFFERENT IN PAY POLICIES
Apart from the labour market structure, "Different in Pay Policies" also influences the gender disparity in income. Job satisfaction means a lot to an individual either male or female because it mirrors the temperament of the work performed, the features of the organization and individual wants and assessments. Pay and promotion process and policies is an important issue to organizations and employees because it will outline employee's observation of justice and therefore their obligation toward the organization.
According to the (Smith , 1776), theory on Wealth of Nation has identified several reasons why there is a different in earnings between male and female and this way of thinking forms the contemporary idea of compensating differences. One of the significant elements that the author highlighted is the complexity and cost of understanding a job, which means some types of employment require years of training, education and work experiences, and it can be categorized human capital development.
This situation can have an effect on the involvement of female whereby they are mostly likely to be different from men in relation to their human capital level. Women usually has additional focus on harmonizing work and family, as men are provoked to expand income thought work. Besides that, men have more chance such as to have flexible way of life and have more sense of balance between work and family.
Women mainly married women are not classically as the most important income contributor in the family hence women are only consider as second income contributor. Furthermore, women are normally inactive in term of society life and taking care of others, mainly family members and having career aims that are oriented in the direction of accomplishment and fulfillment. Therefore, men are likely to be involved in the high paying and high rank position.
Based on the theory of human capital, which (Becker, 1993) developed clarify that in business investment such as on equipment and individual investment in education and training bring the similar outcomes. Human capital means the education, knowledge, training, experiences or skills of a person, which create them possible precious to an employer. In order for an individual to improve in their human capital level, they should engage with some cost in form of training, involving in time and besides that an individual need to let go their earnings even if it is been paid by the state or employer. Here, again female as limited time especially married women to balance their time and contribute in the process of improving their human capital level.
In additional, another theory which was developed by (Becker , 1957 ) which called the taste based theory of discrimination , has identified that men receive more advantage handlings and this is because employer preferences to employ men rather than women and men dislike to work along with women mainly at lower position..
Since the employers, focus is primarily to maximize profit using this strategy then the effectiveness of the employer is increasing in profit and decrease in the number of women employed in the firm. However, the employer will only employs women if the ineffectiveness of employing a woman is salaried by increased profit from that act and that can occur when he/she pay women less.
Malaysian organization focus on the position of promoting professional women to management or higher management positions stay insightful matter that need handle carefully. The equal pay policies only been apply in the Malaysia public sector, however, in the private sector it is not applicable, thus important wage discrimination still continue although with comparable human capital level (Lee & Nagaraj, 1995).
4.3.3 OCCUPATIONAL SEGREGATION
Moreover the gender disparity in income also been influenced by "Occupational Segregation", which means group of workers are spread crosswise occupational according to qualified characteristics. There are two form of occupational segregation, which is horizontal and vertical segregation. Horizontal segregation means when labor force is made up typically by single gender, race or other qualified characteristic and the vertical segregation means opportunities for career development are only given to an exacting gender, race or other qualified characteristics.
For example based on the report done by the International Labour Organization although women had made significant advancement in order to close the gender gap in management and professional jobs, yet most of women are still been excluded from the top level position in organization no matter in public or private sector or even in their political life.
Based on the Table 12, which explain percentages of male involvement in the workforce by industry and it tell us that every year there is improvement and increased in the involvement of male. However, male tend to involve more in Agricultural, Manufacturing, Education and Health related industry compare to Construction and Electricity which relatively pay that higher wage .
On the other hand, according to the table 13, which express percentages of female involvement in the workforce by industry. By look at the table, there are no constant improvements and participation in the female workers and the value tend to fluctuate every year. This situation, give us a clear picture male tend to dominate the labour market every year and make notable improvement compare to female workers.
Apart from that (Women and Work Commission, 2006; Browne, 2006; Tomaskovic-Devey, 1993; Yahya, 1993) argued that occupational segregation which been practice in Malaysia are robustly gendered. They also provide a constant facts the female jobs are often fall into the lower and middle income group such as secretarial staff, service and production workers, equipment operators and laborers although there is increase in the female participant in labour force .Male workers who tend to be involve in professional jobs such as engineering, information technology and etc which is basically high income occupation.
In additional this occupational segregation created a large gender disparity in income and explain that female are often be the subject to this situation although the experiences, working order and talent are controlled. Although the female participant in the workforce are increase yet due this occupational segregation cause frustration among them which indirect lead to less female involvement at the senior level in an organization.
Based on all those factors mention above, it is save to say that there is gender disparity in income experienced by female in Malaysia. Income disparity between genders branched from the practice that decides the excellence if career and earnings related with jobs. Earnings linked jobs will root to income disparity in term of placements of individual into particular jobs.
4.4 QUESTION 4: POSSIBLE BARRIERS FACED BY FEMALE IN EDUCATION ENROLMENT
Even though information on female education cannot be obtain directly, gross enrolment rate, literacy rate and employment in applicable segment that able to be use to review women's participants on the base of the connections from side to side the various stages of education.
To determine the gender disparity in education, first of all female literacy rate, which is define as the ability to read and write in Malaysia compress 85.4% according to the 2000 census compare male, which is about 92% . At one glace, it able to tell us female still face education disparity compare to their counterpart. Education is the essential element for female in order to build basic capability and it plays an important function that could create impartial social and economic development.
According to, the report by Human Development in year 2004, Malaysia is rank 57 out of 167 countries, however based on the report in year 2009 Malaysia is rank 66 out of 167 countries. Besides that, based on the table 14, we can able to see that, the numbers of female student increasing higher at all schooling level compare to the male student, which relatively low.
The number of female enrollment rate is probably higher due to other factors such as population size of female. As we know that, out of the total population of Malaysia, female compress about 50.3% and male 49.7% (refer to Figure 3) , which tells us that the female proposition is larger and increasing over the years.
This could be the reason why the female enrollment rate is higher judge against to male at all schooling level. However, when we look at the literacy rate, females ( 85% ) are relatively lower as compare to males (92%) and at the end it tells us that education disparity take place and been experienced by female no matter female enrolment rate in higher than male. There are many reasons why female face education disparity, but I could like to emphasis the main important element that creates the occurrence of education disparity.
4.4.1 PARENTS INVESTMENT ON GIRL'S EDUCATION
Investment on girls education can be divided into two broad categories which firstly through their parents and secondly through the government such as promoting equality opportunity in education. If we look from the point of parents it has been a cultural practice among parents to investment more on son education compare to daughter education. Glick& Sahn (2000) defines that raise in household income will direct to greater investment in girls schooling.
Education attainment among gender, primarily demonstrates the important on equal distribution on family resource between son and daughter. For example, socialization disputes highlight the significance of role modeling, in a way that the children model their parents as their own educational and occupational ambitions and attainment. Besides that, some researcher argue that role modeling as on gender specific, girls (daughter) tend to be more like their mother and boys(son) tend to be more like their father as they expand their educational and occupational ambitions (Rosen & Aneshensel, 1978). As results from this, parents believe that daughter should relatively do better in household chores compare to education attainment while son should do better in education attainment.
Based on the Human Development Index in year 2007, adult literacy rate in Malaysia is 91.9%, which means around 8.1% of the adult in Malaysia has not involve in any form of education attainment. However, literacy rate of male in year 2007 is 94.2% and female is 91.9%.Base on the literacy rate by Human development Index in 2007, female tend to be moderately lower than their counterpart is. This is because parents believe that the return from son education investment will give them higher returning than daughters. Apart from that, parents believe that sons usually are expected to be financial and responsible to take out the family as they are grow older, while daughters will marry out. As results parents investment more on sons education compare to daughters.
Furthermore, based on the table 15, which enlighten that female student be likely to participant more in female related subject such as in home economics and agricultural compare to male involve more in manipulative skills. This is because female been educated and encouraged to involve more to femininity related skill even from home to school.
However, in the process of women's participation under the Ninth Malaysia Plan, which attempts to improve the role of female aligned with nation's development program that mainly focus on educating female and providing them more training opportunities, in order they could be able to meet the demand on knowledge based economy and improve the upward mobility in the labour market.
There has been rapid growth of educational opportunities and openings for women and men to improve their economic condition. Overall, the table16 below shows percentage of literacy rate in Malaysia over the period of 1970-2000.Over the period of 30 years, there was increase in the proposition of student who had the secondary and tertiary education in Malaysia, yet somehow male squeeze high percentage than female
Moreover, parents have a propensity to give more freedom to sons to develop their knowledge and skill, which in the later will increase their income, and parents limit daughter's education. Parents believe that investment on daughter's education will give them low return. For example based on (Gertler and Alderman, 1989; Dollar and Gatti, 1999) pointed three main reasons on low investment on girl's education, which is firstly, is "low return" followed by "no direct benefit" and lastly "social preferences" which is refer more to the reason such as traditions, cultural and local tradition.
4.4.2 TECHNICAL AND VOCATIONAL EDUCATION SEPARATION
Apart from above mention factors, female students are also experiencing disparity in term of educational segregation compare with male student especially in the technical and vocational education level. As we know that, these forms of education have a propensity to supply training in order to produce, students who are knowledgeable not only in word of theroically but also technically.
Generally, in the context of Malaysia education system, students at the upper secondary school level also have the options of continuing their education in professional courses, but here again it seemed to be gender stereotyping of education in Malaysia where the pattern of gender disparity in the enrolment and type of schools occur at the upper secondary level. More opportunities and priority is given to male students compare to female and the course are design mainly men related.
With regards, table 17 shows that student participation in Technical school courses in year 1998.As we can see that female student tend to obtain more in Agricultural 76.03% and Commerce 76.87% courses compare to Civil Engineering 47.95 % and Mechanical Engineering 12.29%.
However, in respect to Student participation in the Vocational courses in year 1998 as seen in above table 18, as well as Home Economic is offered at the Vocational school, it able to attract more female student with a involvement rate of 90.88 % followed by Commerce 80.24 %, hence female student involve lesser in the Engineering Trades which amounted 10.72% with 1470 female from the total participation of 13711.
It seem , that either in the Technical or Vocational school are more male dominated , in fact those courses been offered there more towards developing male human capital level which is an crucial aspect that allow that to be more marketable in labour market. Therefore female student offer lack in industrialization knowledge that restrict them from manufacturing related job (refer to figure 13)
The data in vocational and technical education in Malaysia suggests that female participation is low especially in engineering sector. Furthermore, female student be likely to involve more in an inclination for the arts and soft sciences in the learning institution. Based on this, female student are experiencing educational segregation and they been not encourage or promote to involve in sciences related courses which important for them in order to enjoy from the current economic transformation.
4.4.3 TRANSFORMATION OF LABOUR MARKET STRUCTURE
Before the Asian financial crisis in 1997, the salary and wage rate in Malaysia had practiced an important growth. Present, technological transform have effects an increase in the demand for workers with higher education. In order to supply the manufacturing sector, which has highest growth rate during the last decade, the demand for technically trained workers such as engineers, technician etc relatively increased.
As we know, that more male are involved in technical related job or even in higher education male student tend to be involve more in information technology and engineers besides female tend to involve in administrative and management field. Female contribution in labour market is still lagging behind compare to male especially in this sector. For example, the transformation in industry needs change in skilled workers mainly in technically, but female are still intense in low skilled jobs and labour intensive.
As seen in the Figure 13, which give explanation on percentage of labour participation based on sector. Male workers tend to contribute greater proposition judge against in term of female workers contribution especially in Mining and Quarrying, Manufacturing, Electricity and Construction. The figure, able to drawn a clear explanation that worker who are more talented and skillful in term of technically able to dominate the labour market or labour force and it is true that male are better in term of technically compare to female.
Most of Female workers have a propensity to involve in labour intensive in manufacturing sector work such as clerical workers, equipment operator, productive workers and service workers, which relatively provide that with fewer wages, compare to male worker who involve in high waged labour intensive works.
Income is the sum of consumption and saving that obtained by an individual within a particular period, however it is the matter of whether it is equality distribute among male or female is depending mainly by firm and society. As mention above gender disparity in education is experienced by female in Malaysia and the government need to provide equal opportunity for all and promote female in every accept by providing them more training and empowerment on female will direct to greater economic growth.
4.5 QUESTION 5: CONSEQUENCES OF GENDER DISPARITY AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT IN MALAYSIA
The greater awareness begins in 1970's such as rural output and informal economic activity, thus rising promotion on the issue of women and development. According to the (Lagerlof, 1999) define that the outcomes of gender inequality in education and economic growth are linked each other. Moreover the gender disparity in education can cause a poverty corner, which would explain public deed to run away this low level balance continue with gender gaps in education
On the other hand, the largely labour force participant's rates for rural areas and urban areas were approximately equal at 63% and 62.8% as demonstrated in the figure 14. However, male labour force participation in rural areas is higher than did their urban at 85.3 % and 82.4 % correspondingly. In compare, the urban female participation rate is higher than that of rural females. The advanced female labour force participation rate in the urban areas can be endorsed to the expansion of industry in urban areas and the increasing demand for female workers. Furthermore, in rural areas, women may decide not to go into the labour force appropriate to traditional insight about gender responsibility.
There are several ways that Malaysia government would address the gender disparity in Malaysia, which is through forming institution to set up equal opportunities among men and women, focus on right approach which will be the most effective way to reduce gender disparity and finally taking action that will provide constant equality in political involvement of women.
There has been tremendously enhancement by Malaysia government in order to rising the level of understanding on gender equality and advancing the development of women. Although substantial improvement have made but women still face disputes of globalization. Education is an essential element that should be considered and it is a tool to empower women as well to reduce gender disparity, thus to build basic capabilities and bridging reasonable social and economic development. Based on department of statistic Malaysia, nearly 50.3% of the country's total populations were female, so it is crucial to ensure equal access and treatment for women in education as men.
Besides that, based on the Malaysia third Outline Perspective Plan (OPP3) for the period of 2001-2010, which focus more women participant more in education and training opportunities in order to meet the demand of knowledge based economy and improve upward mobility in labour market.
Moreover, it is important to provide equality for women in term of economic participation, economic opportunities and education attainment because firstly due to the number of population of female is larger than male, so by improving them Malaysia able to achieve social and economic development .Secondary, as mention above that women empower will lead to bring equitable social and economic development.
4.5.1 ECONOMIC PARTICIPATION
Base on the analysis on gender disparity in income, we will able to wrap up that female participation In the labour market relatively lower as compared to male .Not only that the proposition of female to grab senior level position at an organization is also lower than men. It is important to take step towards raising female income and labour force participation and encouraging them to involve equality as men in economic development
Recent Malaysia economic transformation which focus more too manufacturing sector and industrialization, thus aligned with the globalization it is crucial to generated equal opportunities for women with providing them with more training in order to meet the demand in manufacturing sector.
In order to fulfill this, Malaysia government need to allocate budget particularly to gender budget purpose to develop women. In addition, government also needs to monitor and analysis the effects of gender disparity and implement policy or action in order to close the gender disparity.
4.5.2 ECONOMIC OPPORTUNITIES
Based on the study, female tend to participation in low wage and more female dominated career which indirectly minor female are less involving in upward mobility. This is because female often face the problem of balancing their work family commitment, which discourage them to involve economically as men.
Furthermore, the female face phenomenon of cultural boundaries that affect their participation in the labour market. Corporate cultural of an organization established barriers, thus it is also more towards to the interest of men. At the end, female workers lend to involve low paid wage and limited progression within professions.
The public and private firm needs to develop a cultural which able to create comfort working environment for both male and female. This is especially to provide equal opportunities for both gender and this can help to reduce the gender disparity in income
4.5.3 EDUCATION ATTAINMENT
Education within in doubt is a fundamental element to empower women. As mention by (Glick & Sahn, 2002) that investing in girl's schooling will provide to increase in the household income. Gender disparities in education are linked with social and economic development. For example education disparity will indirectly lend to decline in the economic development in term of reduce in the human capital who are able to compete with current demand for knowledge based workers and eventually this situation will lend to reduce in the productive of the countries.
Providing equal opportunity in education for both male and female able to develop to social and economic status of the countries. However, taking a different view from (Dollar & Gatti, 1999) define that there is relationship between the gender disparity in education and economic growth. This mainly female student participant in the technical and vocational are less than male and those course that offered are more to the interest of male student.