Gender Disparity In The Education Sector Of Developing Countries

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Gender disparity in the education sector is a crucial aspect that has been overlooked and neglected by many developing countries; however, it is an aspect that can strongly direct countries towards prosperity. According to the World Bank, there is no investment more effective for achieving development goals than educating girls.

Pakistan has been facing great gender disparity in the education sector over the years. According to the UNESCO, 60% of the girls and 72% of boys were enrolled in primary school in the year 2008. Furthermore, 28% girls and 37% boys were enrolled in the secondary education for the same year. The statistics in rural areas are far worse than the urban areas. Gender discrimination still prevails in both primary and secondary education level. However, many developing countries have registered improvement in the primary education sector. This disparity has decreased to a considerable extent in the Urban districts where as, the problem continues to prevail in the Rural districts where parents and head of the households fail to acknowledge the importance of female education. There are many factors which discourage parents to educate their daughters; these factors are extremely strong in the rural districts.

OVERVIEW OF THE PROBLEM

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There are many factors prevailing in Pakistan that hinder female education. The study expects to investigate these factors and analyze their affect on female education enrollment in rural and urban districts of Pakistan. The main factors that discourage parents from educating their daughters and are observed in this study are:

Cultural norms: Due to the cultural norms prevailing in Pakistan, most of the people expect women to look after the house and be adept in household chores. Therefore, parents pay no or little attention to a girl's education believing that it would be useless for her in the future.

Stereotypes: Stereotypes prevailing in the society are a strong barrier to female education. It is considered that a very educated female is too clever or thinks she is too superior to be confined to do household chores. Moreover, working females are still considered a taboo in some societies. Furthermore, parents believe that if they educate their daughters too much they would not be able to find suitable grooms for themselves.

Wealth: Income of the family is a crucial factor hindering education of females. It has been observed that high income families pay more attention to female education than low income families. Low income families pay more attention educating boys of the family since they believe that their son would help them look after the family business or earn for them in future. Where as, they consider spending money on a girl's education as a lost investment thinking that their daughter would soon go to her husband's place and would give no benefit to them in the future.

Age: Many parents, especially in the rural districts, marry their daughters at a very early age which leaves them uneducated for the rest of their lives. Moreover, parents do not educate their daughters when she grows up feeling it inadvisable for them to go out of the house unnecessarily.

Religion: Many parents restrict the movement of their daughters out of the house in the name of religion. This is frequently common in the rural districts, where parents do not allow their daughters to walk out freely from their house after a certain age. They are of the view that a female should not have any sort of encounter with males as it is strictly forbidden in the religion. Furthermore, parents do not allow their daughters to study in co-education schools because they believe it is prohibited in the religion.

Household factors: It is believed by many that husbands should always be more educated than heir wives. This statement is religiously followed in rural areas and to a great extent in the urban districts. Therefore, parents do not want their daughters to educate at a higher level since they think that if they educate their daughters too much, they might not find a groom since men would not want to marry a woman more educated than them. Furthermore, the generalized perception is that husbands should be the primary source of earning for the family, and many parents sought to marry their daughters to families where they would not have to work. This view discourages parents from educating their daughters.

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Unavailability of schools: Unavailability of female schools is a problem faced by many females living in the rural districts. There are hardly any schools near the houses. Schools are located miles away from the house so parents do not feel comfortable with sending their daughters so far from the house especially when there is no transportation. The schools available either cater to boys only or have really low standard.

Government reforms: Government does not seem to take adequate measures or reforms to eliminate gender disparity in education. There are hardly any incentives given to the parents so they'd want to educate their daughters. Moreover, the government is not taking enough action to create awareness amongst the parents residing in rural areas and to teach them the importance of educating females. Furthermore, governments spending in the education sector are not sufficient.

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

Female education is a significant aspect and should not be ignored if the country wants to progress. It does not only lead to economic growth, but also enables a woman to reach her full potential capabilities. The developing countries paying attention to female education have evolved and have leaped towards development and growth. Following are the ways how education helps a woman:

Economic growth:

Human capital: Female education increases human capital since education provides a woman with skills necessary to work outside their homes and therefore prepares them as labor force increasing the human capital.

Inflation: Female education helps fight inflation in a way that both parents are able to earn for the family and can therefore deal with the expenses. Moreover, they can provide a better life style and living to their children.

Unemployment: Educated females are more likely to work and earn as compared to uneducated women. So educating women will cause a decrease in the unemployment rate of the country.

Demographics:

Low fertility rate: It has been statistically observed that female education decreases fertility rate. Lowering the fertility rate has always been a crucial problem for the developing countries where resources are scarce.

Inter-generational education: The percentage that a child will receive education greatly depends on mother's education. Educated mothers pay more attention to their children's education and therefore, it increases inter-generational education.

Improved children health: The research shows that educated mothers can take care of children in a better way than uneducated mothers. They are more skilled in upbringing their children and focus more on their children's nutrition hence, ultimately improving their child's health.

Protection against HIV/AIDS: Educated population is more aware of the importance and ways of protection against HIV/AIDS. Moreover, education creates awareness amongst women and men both, and emphasizes the importance of hygiene and cleanliness.

Decreased child mortality rate: It has been observed that educating females decreases the child mortality rate to a considerable extent. This is because educated females are more aware of how to take good care of their children.

Educational benefits:

Prestigious jobs: Education helps females to obtain prestigious jobs that will not only boost up their confidence but will also put their skills and qualities to practice.

Well being: Besides helping them obtain better jobs, education helps females to look after themselves in a better way. They get experienced at their job and also help them to lead a better life.

Women empowerment: Education is the most important asset for a woman. It builds up her confidence and is highly important for their self esteem. It has been observed that educated females feel more confident about them and are more independent. Moreover, it gives them self-assurance that they can face the hardships and challenges of life without anyone's help or support.

LITERATURE REVIEWS

Kuenning and Sajeda Amin (2001) focuses on two approaches, namely the human capital approach and the capabilities approach. The human capital approach argues how a women's education should be valued because it is an effective measure to achieve other outcomes like decrease in the fertility rate. It states that the researches show women's education is a good investment because educated mothers are more effective in reaching goals that are valued in a society than the uneducated mothers. Moreover, education increases women's abilities to make choices. Furthermore, a mother's education has a stronger impact on the child's education, the chance that a child will receive education majorly depends on the education of mothers rather than fathers, and therefore it increases inter-generational education. On the other hand, the capabilities approach studies the fact that encouraging women's education is a good policy because it enhances women's capabilities. In order to explore how parents and children think about the costs and benefits of education, in-depth interviews were conducted in 1996 and 2000 in two villages located in the Rajshahi district of Bangladesh. The interviews were conducted in three neighborhoods included in school study. The schooling study sample included a 25% random sample of male headed households and all female headed households in the two villages. In study villages, most Bangladeshi villagers view women's education as means to make a good marriage. Parents perceive that the best way to promote their daughters' well being is through a good marriage, which takes precedence over education. People in the villages also speak of women's education as a way of increasing a woman's earning power. It also increases inter-generational education. Moreover, it is generally believed that a girl's schooling does not enhance their capability to have control over their environment. Despite the beginning of mass education, girls still have no voice in when and whom they will be married to, which is one of the important events of their lives. However, some respondents in the villages did speak of their daughters' education that closely links with the capabilities approach. Women in Bangladesh who had undergone many hardships spoke about educating their daughters so that they would be able to stand on their own feet. Furthermore, they will not be fully reliant on their husbands to fulfill their needs.

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Akin (2005) studies the relationship between education, fertility, gender and levels. The article sheds light upon the importance of education on fertility in terms of delaying marriage and aspiration for a better life. The study shows that low population growth leads to higher growth. Moreover, the ideal family size of women with no schooling is significantly larger than those with any education. A study at Iran, Salehi-Isfahani (2000) shows that reducing fertility depends on an educated generation of parents and high returns of human capital. The employment of females also has an effect on fertility.

The data and variable analysis shows that there is a trend on the fertility rate in the Middle East. It is consistently dropping from 3.8 to 2.5 over 19 years. Another methodology which is used is the panel data analysis. A panel method allows obtaining general trends. The conclusions show that the insufficient growth is linked with the high fertility rate in Middle East. In the Middle East, the average ratio for fertility is 4.33 children per woman. Fertility is negatively associated with female education enrollment in primary and secondary education, urbanization, tertiary education, and female participation in the labor force. It is positively associated with infant mortality, and male enrollment in primary and secondary education.

Khan and Ali (2005) shed light upon the fact that Pakistan is a country where most of the education plans and policies have failed to make any significant contribution to increasing literacy. The largest donor funded programme-Social Action Program (SAP), which was particularly focused on schooling in rural areas, specifically female schooling, failed to achieve it's objectives wit poor records of disbursement and implementation. (CRPRID 2002). It also states that the schooling enrollment in rural areas as compared to urban areas is much lower. The objective of the study was to analyze the demand side determinants of child's schooling in rural areas using primary data from two districts of Pakistan. The study sheds light upon the question of whether and to what extent child characteristics such as birthorder, gender and head of household and parent characteristics such as age, gender, age, education, employment, income, and household characteristics such as ownership of assets, per capita income of household, family size, number of children, number of infants and gender of older siblings affect the school participation of children. The paper also discusses the gender specific determinants of the participation of children in schooling and highlights the causes of observed low school participation of girls.

Hicks (2002) discusses the "missing women" problem and states that over 100 million women are missing worldwide which means that they're not even given roughly equal treatment and opportunities to girls and boys, and men and women. According to the article, there should be over 100 million women in the world than they are presently alive. The concept of :"missing women" has been taken into account through the perspective of Sen's capability approach. Sen argues that what's important for a person's well being is what she is able to do or what she is able to be, and not just what possession and income she can hold. One of the principal innovations of Sen's capabilities approach is to widen the concept of what counts in the determination of societal development and individual's well being. Sen's calculation of "missing women" is based on population figures and related to birth rates and death rates, serves to shift attention to gender based discrimination in the most basic form of human functioning. Moreover, the article says that the fact that females typically outnumber men in some regions has led to the common misconception that females currently outnumber males in the world as a whole. In parts of Latin America, and North Africa and much of Asia, males significantly outnumber females.

Gupte (2004) states in his study that women are important stakeholders in natural resources policies since rural women in developing countries are responsible for most of the collection of food, fuel, and firewood for commercial and domestic use. However, when it comes to the management of these resources gender inequality due to societal traditions could limit the ability of women to participate in policy making even when they are not formally excluded. The paper analyzes the effect of gender discrimination on women's participation by conducting a comparative analysis between two states Maharashtra and Rajhastan, that had issued the Joint Forest Management resolution around the same time (1991 and 1992) were compared with respect to woman's participation in the Forest Protection Committees. Gender stratification adversely affects women's participation in Forest Protection Committees in terms of women's needs not being considered, women being left out of the participatory process, and not being consulted regarding the various forest management options.

Kallaway (2001) purpose of study was to observe the strategies for vocational education in Africa, particularly with respect to rural communities, which were highlighted as the key aspect of development strategies in the '60s and '70s, have never been replaced with practical substitute in successive years. He further says that the need for linking the school curriculum to the rural world has increased over the years; however, the overall access to secondary and tertiary education and the prospects for finding alternative employment in the formal sector has decreased. Yet, the debate on these issues has been muted over the recent years. Despite the argument on the future of education after apartheid, there has been little willingness to learn from the African experience of the education in the post colonial era. He believes that this is the result of a deep seated legacy within resistance politics of viewing the South African experience as unique. This neglect of the African experience is also probably the result of a widely held perspective that educational innovation in Africa is hopelessly impractical; it was also delinked from the realities of the marketplace.

Zhao and Glewwe (2010) talk about how education is important for economic growth and social development (Glewwe & Kremer, 2006). The purpose of their research was to examine school attainment in a poor rural area of China, by conducting a household survey from Gansu, a less developed province in Northwest China. They observed that mother's education and household income have strong positive impact on years of schooling. Moreover, mother's expectations of the highest level of education for their children increase their years of schooling. A child's nutritional status also has a positive impact on education. They suggest that in order to decrease the school drop out ratio, certain measures should be taken, such as research on how to improve a child's nutritional status. Moreover, factors that shape a mother's expectations for their children should be investigated as they will be useful. They further suggest that the school labs should be checked if they make school attractive, the most effective way of doing so is by conducting a random trial that provides science labs to randomly select schools. And lastly, they suggest that there should be more research on how to make schools effective in promoting children learning of the curriculum. All schools must teach children skills that they'll be needing after finishing school.

Stair, Rephann and Heberling (2006) state that there has been concern for the quality of local public education in the United States in the recent years, which is mainly because of the underperformance of children in subjects like math, English and reading. Their study examines how many household are willing to pay for improvements in the quality of local public education in two areas of a rural school district in Pennsylvania. In order to examine the role of household attributes in respondents' willingness to pay, three analyses were conducted. Rubinfeld (1977), Akin and Youngday (1976), Bergstrom et al. (1982), and Lankford (1985) found that demand for increased expenditures per student varies directly with income. Following related sense, demand for improvements in public school quality should also be strongly impacted by household income. They also found out that having children or grandchildren in the school system and household size may affect demand for education and respondents would have a use value for education. Moreover, household size may have an independent effect. Previous studies show that the number of people in a household also have an affect on the demand for increased school expenditure. Moreover, they concluded that the occupation and educational achievement levels of the members of the household may also affect household willingness to pay for increases in public school quality.

Sawada and Lokshin (2009) state in their study that cross country studies reveal that human capital investment in Pakistan are poor. Moreover, the school enrollment rates are low and there is great gender disparity in education. As consequences, the low level of enrollment in Pakistan may have a strong negative impact on the country's long term macroeconomic growth. Their study aimed to find obstacles to school enrollment by using field surveys that were conducted in twenty five Pakistani villages. Their study revealed an important aspect of rural Pakistani education which is the high education retention rate of girls. They state in their study that while the father's education influences primary school entry, school progression after primary school entry is more influenced by the mother's education. They also analyze the important dynamics of the gender differences in education. Moreover, they suggest that a possible policy is to relax the credit constraints that households face, perhaps through a scholarship program or interest free student loans for female education. For example, microfinance programs might indirectly enhance educational investment.

METHODOLOGY

Research type:

The research type is qualitative because the study aims to find out aspects, issues and factors that affect female education enrollment both, negatively and positively. Moreover, the research tends to differentiate and analyze these factors with respect to urban and rural districts.

Data type:

This is a primary research. Questionnaires are going to be circulated both in rural and urban districts amongst both, men and women; to find out how important is female education to them. Moreover, to find out why they think a women should and should not educate. Further more, I plan on conducting interviews with the parents to find out more about the factors motivating and demotivating the society towards educating their daughters.

Sources of data:

The following articles have been consulted:

International journal of politics, culture and society, Vol. 15, No. 1, (2001)

The journal of developing areas, Vol. 39, No. 1, (2005)

The journal of economics, Vol. 8, No. 2

The journal of religious ethics

Human Ecology, Vol. 32, No. 3, (2001)

Economics of Education Review 29 (2010) 451-460

Economics of Education Review 25 (2006) 521-531

International Journal of Educational Development 25 (2005) 333-348

International Journal of Educational Development 21 (2001) 21-32

Journal of Development Economics 88 (2009) 335-347

Theoretical framework and variables under consideration:

Economic growth: Female education helps increase human capital, fight inflation and help Cultural norms: How stereotypes prevailing in a culture effect female enrollment.

Unavailability of female schools: Female schools are extremely less in rural areas and are far away from the homes.

Educational benefits: Educational benefits for women perceived by parents, such as women's empowerment, ability to make choices, well-being, being able to attain prestigious jobs, involvement in politics, marriage capital and builds up their self esteem.

Demographics: How educating females affect the demographics by lowering fertility rate, increasing inter-generational education, improving children's health, protecting against HIV/AIDS and lowering child mortality rate.

Age: The older a girl gets, the chances of her getting education becomes fewer.

Wealth: Income of the family is a crucial factor affecting female education enrollment. The wealthier the family, the chances of parents educating their daughters increases.

Household factors: It is generally perceived that husbands should be more educated than wives. Moreover, it is believed in most of the families that women should be confined to the home, look after the children and does household chores. Parents with lower income resist spending money on a girl's education since there are no economic returns to it.

Population, working population and planned sample:

The total population considered would be the total population of Pakistan. Both, Urban and Rural areas will be consulted. The primary focus will be on the women of Pakistan, since the research is based on female education. The working population will essentially comprise of working women in Pakistan. The planned sample size is 50.

Research hypothesis:

Is female education essential for economic growth?

Does age of a woman effect the amount of education she receives?

Does the head of the household determine education of a female?

Can religion be the cause of low female education enrollment?

Is unavailability of proper female schools a reason why female education enrollment is really low in the rural districts?

Techniques:

The research requires a statistical technique that establishes an interdependent relationship between two tables of values, therefore, cross tabulation will be used to determine a relationship between two qualitative variables.

Data analysis:

Since the statistical technique to be used is cross tabulation, to analyze the relationship between two qualitative variables, I'm going to use Minitab to run it.

Data interpretation:

For interpretation, I'll be running cross tabulation on the data gathered and collected, by using soft wares like Minitab. After that, I'll be interpreting and analyzing the results by looking at different relationships of variables and their impact on each other.

CROSS TABULATIONS

Cross tabulation was used in this study to estimate the result of the survey. SPSS software was used for this purpose. Following are the results and their interpretations.

The dependent variable was the topic under study which is "female education enrollment" and the independent variables were the factors that determine female education enrollment that are Economic growth, increased human capital, well paid jobs, as well as the factors that hinder female education enrollment, namely, age, religion, wealth, limited mobility, stereotypes and family disapproval.

Economic growth * Human capital Crosstabulation

Count

Humancap

Total

3.00

4.00

5.00

3.00

Ecogrowth

2.00

1

0

0

1

3.00

7

2

0

9

4.00

4

17

5

26

5.00

0

8

6

14

Total

12

27

11

50

Ho= Female education is essential for economic growth as it increases human capital.

H1=Female education is not essential for economic growth since it doesn't increase human capital.

The result for the cross tabulation of "Economic growth and Human capital" shows that out of the total sample size of 50, 35 recipients agreed that female education is essential for the economic growth of the country as it increases human capital, and only 8 recipients disagreed where as the rest of the recipients were neutral.

Economic growth * Well paid jobs Cross tabulation

Count

Wellpaidjobs

Total

1.00

2.00

3.00

4.00

5.00

1.00

Ecogrowth

2.00

1

0

0

0

0

1

3.00

1

2

4

2

0

9

4.00

0

4

8

13

1

26

5.00

0

0

2

9

3

14

Total

2

6

14

24

4

50

H0= Female education is essential for economic growth since it gives them access to well paid jobs and reduces unemployment.

H1= Female education is not essential for economic growth since it does not ensure well paid jobs and therefore, doesn't reduce unemployment.

The result for "Economic growth and well paid jobs" show that out of the sample size of 50, 27 recipients believe that female education is crucial for economic growth since it ensures well paid jobs and therefore helps reduce the unemployment rate, where as only one recipient disagreed favoring that female education does not ensure well paid jobs and eventually does not affect the unemployment rate.

Age * RELIGION Crosstabulation

Count

RELIGION

Total

2.00

3.00

4.00

5.00

2.00

Age

2.00

9

1

1

0

11

3.00

7

3

1

0

11

4.00

7

13

4

0

24

5.00

1

2

0

1

4

Total

24

19

6

1

50

H0= Religion and Age can be blamed for low female education enrollment.

H1= Religion and Age can not be blamed for low female education enrollment.

The results for the variable "Age and Religion" showed that 9 out of 50 recipients believed that Age and Religion can not be blamed for the low female education enrollment. On the other hand, 5 recipients believed that Age and Religion can be the cause of female education enrollment. The rest of the pupils were uncertain about their answer.

Religion2 * Limited mobility Crosstabulation

Count

Limitedmobility

Total

2.00

3.00

4.00

5.00

2.00

Religion2

2.00

10

9

7

0

26

3.00

4

4

8

1

17

4.00

1

1

5

0

7

Total

15

14

20

1

50

H0= Religion enforces limited mobility on females, therefore, hindering their enrollment.

H1= Religion does not enforce limited mobility on females, and does not hinder enrollment.

The results for the variable "Religion and limited mobility" showed that 10 out of 50 pupils disagree with the above statement, indicating that Religion does not enforce limited mobility on females and is not the cause of their low education enrollment. On the other hand, 5 pupils said that Religion does enforce limited mobility on females and is therefore the cause of low female education enrollment.

Religion2 * Family disapproval Crosstabulation

Count

Familydisapprove

Total

1.00

2.00

3.00

4.00

5.00

1.00

Religion2

2.00

1

14

2

9

0

26

3.00

0

2

5

10

0

17

4.00

0

2

0

4

1

7

Total

1

18

7

23

1

50

H0= Family disapproves female leaving the house premises because of the religion.

H1= Family does not disapprove female leaving the house premises because of the religion.

The result of the variable "Religion and Family disapproval" shows that 15 pupils disagree, demonstrating that family does not disapprove females leaving their house premises because of the religion. However, 5 pupils agree that Family does disapprove female leaving the house premises unnecessarily because of the religion.

Husbands should be more educated than wives * Husbands should be the ones earning Crosstabulation

Count

Husbands should be the earning ones

Total

1.00

2.00

3.00

4.00

5.00

1.00

Husbands are more educated

2.00

0

5

4

1

0

10

3.00

1

12

3

4

0

20

4.00

1

7

9

2

0

19

5.00

0

0

0

0

1

1

Total

2

24

16

7

1

50

H0= Husbands should always be more educated than their wives and should be earning for the family.

H1= Husbands should not always be more educated than their wives and be earning for the family.

The result for the variable "Husbands should be more educated than wives and earning for the family" shows that 5 pupils disagree, illustrating that husband should not always be more educated than their wives and both husband and wife should earn for the family. Where as, 3 pupils agreed by saying husbands should be more learned than their wives and should earn and support the family.

Lack of proper schools * Government incentives and reforms Crosstabulation

Count

Government incentives

Total

1.00

2.00

3.00

1.00

Lack of proper school

2.00

0

2

0

2

3.00

2

8

0

10

4.00

3

11

6

20

5.00

7

10

1

18

Total

12

31

7

50

H0= Female education enrollment is low because of lack of female schools and government reforms and incentives.

H1= There are adequate female schools and government reforms and incentives.

The result of the variables "Lack of proper female schools and Government reforms and incentives" show that only 2 out of 50 pupils disagree by concluding that female education enrollment is not due to lack of proper schools and government is taking adequate reforms to overcome problems. Whereas 38 pupils agreed by concluding that low female education is due to lack of proper female schools and government is not taking adequate measures to eradicate the problem

FREQUENCY TABLES

Female education helps in educating children

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

2.00

4

8.0

8.0

8.0

3.00

11

22.0

22.0

30.0

4.00

26

52.0

52.0

82.0

5.00

9

18.0

18.0

100.0

Total

50

100.0

100.0

Analysis: According to the above frequency table, 52% of the population agrees and 18% of the population strongly agree with the fact that female education helps educating children and hence leads to inter-generational education.

Female education improves health of children

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

3.00

23

46.0

46.0

46.0

4.00

22

44.0

44.0

90.0

5.00

5

10.0

10.0

100.0

Total

50

100.0

100.0

Analysis: According to the above frequency table, 44% of the population agrees and 10% of the population strongly agrees that educated mothers are more capable of looking after their children and therefore, it improves the health of the children.

Female education builds up self esteem

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

2.00

1

2.0

2.0

2.0

3.00

20

40.0

40.0

42.0

4.00

19

38.0

38.0

80.0

5.00

10

20.0

20.0

100.0

Total

50

100.0

100.0

Analysis: According to the above table, 38% of the population agree and 20% strongly agree with the statement that female education helps build self esteem of women since they realize that they are very much capable to do anything.

Female education helps women exercise their legal rights

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

2.00

3

6.0

6.0

6.0

3.00

18

36.0

36.0

42.0

4.00

23

46.0

46.0

88.0

5.00

6

12.0

12.0

100.0

Total

50

100.0

100.0

Analysis: According to the above table, 46% of the population agrees and 12% of the population strongly agree with the fact that female education helps women to know and practice their legal rights.

Early marriages hinder female education enrollment

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

2.00

30

60.0

60.0

60.0

3.00

5

10.0

10.0

70.0

4.00

13

26.0

26.0

96.0

5.00

2

4.0

4.0

100.0

Total

50

100.0

100.0

Analysis: According to the above frequency table, 26% of the population agrees and 4% of the population strongly agrees that early marriages hinder female education enrollment, where as, 60% of the population disagrees being of view that a girl can educate even after marriage if the husband allows her to.

Lack of education limits a woman's work opportunities

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

2.00

8

16.0

16.0

16.0

3.00

15

30.0

30.0

46.0

4.00

17

34.0

34.0

80.0

5.00

10

20.0

20.0

100.0

Total

50

100.0

100.0

Analysis: According to the above table, 34% of the population agrees and 20% strongly agrees that lack of education limits a woman's work opportunities. This is because education is required in every field of work and is crucial for every job.

Gender discrimination has hindered female education enrollment

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

2.00

2

4.0

4.0

4.0

3.00

7

14.0

14.0

18.0

4.00

29

58.0

58.0

76.0

5.00

12

24.0

24.0

100.0

Total

50

100.0

100.0

Analysis: According to above the table, 58% of the population agrees and further 24% of the population strongly agrees with the fact that gender discrimination has hindered female education enrollment to a considerable extent.

Women should be confined to the house

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

1.00

16

32.0

32.0

32.0

2.00

27

54.0

54.0

86.0

3.00

7

14.0

14.0

100.0

Total

50

100.0

100.0

Analysis: According to the above table, 54% of the population disagrees and further 32% of the population disagrees with women being confined to the house. According to them, women have equal rights to work outside the house than that of men.

Financial constraints have limited female education enrollment

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

2.00

14

28.0

28.0

28.0

3.00

11

22.0

22.0

50.0

4.00

22

44.0

44.0

94.0

5.00

3

6.0

6.0

100.0

Total

50

100.0

100.0

Analysis: According to the above table, 44% of the population agrees and 6% of the population strongly agrees that financial constraints are an important factor that limit female education enrollment. Usually families with low income pay more attention to the education of the boys than females.

Supporting the family causes females to drop out from schools

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

1.00

1

2.0

2.0

2.0

2.00

28

56.0

56.0

58.0

3.00

7

14.0

14.0

72.0

4.00

11

22.0

22.0

94.0

5.00

3

6.0

6.0

100.0

Total

50

100.0

100.0

Analysis: According to the above table, only 22% of the population agrees with the fact that females drop out from school in the rural belongings because they have to support their families by earning for them. However, mostly the urban population disagrees being of view that females do not drop out from schools because they have to support their family.

Husband disapproval has limited female education

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

1.00

1

2.0

2.0

2.0

2.00

32

64.0

64.0

66.0

3.00

2

4.0

4.0

70.0

4.00

15

30.0

30.0

100.0

Total

50

100.0

100.0

Analysis: According to the above table, 30% of the population agrees that husband disapproval has limited female education enrollment and 64% of the population disagrees with it being of view that husband disapproval does not limit female education in the urban districts.

Taking care of the children limits a woman's work opportunities

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

1.00

2

4.0

4.0

4.0

2.00

33

66.0

66.0

70.0

3.00

4

8.0

8.0

78.0

4.00

11

22.0

22.0

100.0

Total

50

100.0

100.0

Analysis: According to the above table, 22% of the women agree that taking care of children is a factor why females can not continue their education; however, 66% of the women in both urban and rural districts do not consider it a crucial factor limiting female education.

CONCLUSION

There have been many reasons that are known to affect female education enrollment. All of these reasons were taken as independent variables, where as, female education enrollment was the dependent variable. The results of the cross tabulation show how much each variable affects the education enrollment, and if it affects it positively or negatively. According to the cross tabulation, 70% of the population agrees that female education is essential for the economic growth of the country as it increases human capital. Moreover, 54% of the population strongly agrees with the fact that education does provide females with well paid and prestigious jobs which encourages them to work and therefore, increases human capital and reduces the unemployment rate in the country. Furthermore, 64% of the population believed that age does not affect female education enrollment and neither does religion. Recipients believed that religion encourages education whereas the cultural norms and stereotypes prevailing in the society affect education negatively and parents who are willing to provide their daughters with education do it irrespective of their age. On the other hand, 35% of the pupils said that religion and age does have a connection with low female education enrollment, since parents want their daughter to get married when she gets older instead of receive education. When it was asked if the recipients agreed that female education enrollment is low because religion enforces limited mobility on females, 33% of the population agreed, whereas 66% of the population disagreed that religion enforces limited mobility on females. Moreover 75% of the population disagrees with the fact that family disapproves female education because of religion. They said that cultural norms and generalized perceptions are to be blamed for this reason. Where as, 25% of the population said that family does disapprove female education because it isn't allowed in the religion for women to walk out of their houses unnecessarily. 62% of the females believe that husbands should not necessarily be more educated than their wives. Both men and women have equal rights to study and therefore, it should not be always husbands more educated. Moreover, females said that both men and women should earn and support the family since they both have the skills and ability to do so. This will help them support the family in a better way, cope with inflation and provide their children with a better lifestyle. Lastly, 95% of the pupils agreed that there are no proper female schools in the rural areas due to which parents are not aware and do not focus much on educating daughters. Moreover, government is taking no action in this regard and is giving no incentives to improve female education enrollment.