Gate log system using rf-id reader

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Chapter one



1.1 What is RFID

Short for radio frequency identification, RFID is a dedicated short range communication (DSRC) technology. The term RFID is used to describe various technologies that use radio waves to automatically identify people or objects. RFID technology is similar to the bar code identification systems we see in retail stores everyday; however one big difference between RFID and bar code technology RFID does not rely on the line-of-sight reading that bar code scanning requires to work.

1.2 Why RFID

In an increasingly fragmented, regulated, and uncertain world, Texas Instruments' (TI) RFID technology gives businesses, governments, and consumers a safe, private, and unobtrusive way to keep track of it all.

Consumers benefit from shorter lines at checkout counters, in hospitals, libraries, and gas stations because RFID fast-tracks them to the front of the queue. They can also benefit from lower prices because of the efficiencies RFID brings to the supply chain.

Business and institutions are turning to RFID technology as they comply with government product-tracking regulations, seeking to limit theft, reduce out-of-stock losses, strengthen brand loyalty, and make interaction with customers a more positive experience.

RFID is a mature, thoroughly tested technology. In most RFID applications, the period of trials, testing, and economic feasibility studies is over. Large-scale RFID system rollouts are underway.

1.3 RFID Application Overview

There are almost as many RFID applications as there are business types. TI has established a leadership position in these basic categories:

  • Automotive - Auto-makers have added security and convenience into an automobile by using RFID technology for anti-theft immobilizers and passive-entry systems.

  • Animal Tracking - Ranchers and livestock producers use RFID technology to meet export regulations and optimize livestock value. Wild animals are tracked in ecological studies, and many pets that are tagged are returned to their owners.

  • Asset Tracking - Hospitals and pharmacies meet tough product accountability legislation with RFID; libraries limit theft and keep books in circulation more efficiently; and sports and entertainment entrepreneurs find that "smart tickets" are their ticket to a better bottom line and happier customers.

  • Contact less Payments - Blue-chip companies such as American Express, Exxon Mobil, and MasterCard use innovative form factors enabled by TI RFID technology to strengthen brand loyalty and boost revenue per customer.

  • Supply Chain - WalMart, Target, BestBuy, and other retailers have discovered that RFID technology can keep inventories at the optimal level, reduce out-of-stock losses, limit shoplifting, and speed customers through check-out lines.

Almost from the beginning, TI was there: helping establish standards; supporting the RFID supply chain of inlay and label manufacturers; and consistently applying leading-edge semiconductor technology to the core of RFID, the transponder.

1.4 Why this project is important

What we are planning to do is a gate log system based on the new technology which is the RF-ID READER, the user will have a CARD that will allow him to enter the gate, when he get close to the gate the receiver will detects the card and read the data stored on the card wirelessly by mean of the rf-id reader.

The microcontroller on the receiver will read the data from the RF-ID reader and if the user is allowed to enter the microcontroller will give the signal to open the motor(gate) .else a message will appear on the LCD and the motor will not open.

An important part of our project is the PC interfacing so all of the operations and the event will be displayed on a log table.

1.5 System block diagram:-

The main components that will be used

  • pic microcontroller (pic16f876A)

  • DC-motor(small motor for simulate open/close )

  • Serial interface chip( this chip will handle the voltage levels between the microcontroller and the pc)

  • RF ID-reader

  • H-bridge this is a will known circuit which have two inputs from the microcontroller to drive the motor clock wise or counter clock wise

  • LCD(liquid crystal display) that will be used to display the user number and any desired notes such as (not known user)

1.6 Features that leads to choose ID-12d as the rf-id reader for this project :

  • It requires 5V supply (it can be supplied from the same supply as pic)

  • 125kHz read frequency (compatible with most kinds of rf cards)

  • EM4001 64-bit RFID tag compatible

  • 9600bps TTL and RS232 output (can be connected directly to pic microcontroller using the usart module)

  • 100mm read range ( good reading distance )

1.7 Method of operation

The output of the rf-id reader is serial which will be connected directly to pic microcontroller , when the reader detects any rf-cards in range it will read it and send the red data (64-bit) serially , the microcontroller will receive those bytes and store them in a string , then it will compare whether this id is existed or not, this action will be displayed on the lcd.

If the user is allowed to enter the gate then the microcontroller will issue the command to the h-bridge to open the dc_motor, wait certain time then issue the closing command.

Also the microcontroller will send the data to the pc (serially) to be stored in a log table

Needed software

  1. mikrobasic compiler , this will be used to write the code for the microcontroller

  2. visual basic.NET , this software will be used to write the program that will receive the data from the microcontroller and display it on a table.