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The dinosaur age of the way educators teach have changed because of the technology in the classroom. Multimedia technology has taking teaching to another level. Educators have gone from teaching with VHS videos, overhead projector, 16mm projector and DVD players. The advance of multimedia technologies have brought by many changes for our education institutions. The changes in education have the potential to modify instruction within the next generation. These changes cannot be fully realized unless the classroom teachers are willing to embrace these transformations. Multimedia technology in the classroom technology such as Web 2.0 tools, TeacherTube, YouTube, Skype and SchoolTube have changed the way educators look at teaching. This paper will examine the history of technology in education, changes in teaching K-12, online learning, and Web 2.0 tools. How educators are using video sharing such as Skype, YouTube, SchoolTube and TeacherTube, and video sharing to teach their students.
Technology in the classroom has changed since the early 17th century it have gone from using lantern slides, films, film strips, 35mm slides and overhead projectors. In 1960 multimedia such as tape players; filmstrip projectors slides were most common in the classroom. In 1965 the Elementary and Secondary Education Act had money to add technology in the schools. Computer like the mainframes and minicomputer was added, but they were not available to the students. Only administrations and school counseling had access to these computers. In 1970 electronic math calculators make educators apprehension because they felt many students will forget how to do basic math. In the early 1980 television became available in the classroom, and VCR made learning more common. Even though educators have been showing videos in the classroom for an extended long time, the videos in the past were very boring and time-wasting. Fortunately for the students, digital videos that educators show today are interesting, real-life, and sometimes even interactive.
Later in the 80, Apple and IBM computers evolved over time in the classroom that brought about a change. The term computer-based education and computer assist instructions are used as an extra instructional way to involve the learning objectives, and to recognize situations that exist apart from learning.
Then ten years later multimedia PCs are developed, schools are using videodisc, simulations, object-oriented multimedia authoring tools, educational databases that delivered information on CD-ROM disks. Digital video, virtual reality, 3-D, Hyperstudio, HyperCard grew popular in the schools in 1994. Apple PCs was donated to schools in 1995 this brought about resistance to the PCs in the school, and the World Wide Web and Internet entered the schools. Many schools began to wire their schools for Internet access but few schools installed web servers for faculty to created instructional web pages. Likewise in 1997-2007, the growth of the Internet began to expand much faster then they predicated, and Internet became the largest database of information. Educators found that search engine such as Google and Yahoo as a new way to find information that was important to them. http://www.csulb.edu/~murdock/histofcs.html
Multimedia used in the classroom
The new generations of children spend more time watching television, texting, chatting, e-mailing, Facebook, MySpace, Twitter and playing video games then they do studying. These generations of students are so advanced in technology that educators see the potential of using video games in the classroom. Incorporating video games in learning would reflect on what some researchers know about human learning. No matter now gaming technologies may improve diversified and engage a wide range of interests among students the fact of the matter is that educational games such as computer and video games will have a major part in education.
Now that, educational games can have an impact on students learning educators want to know how games can most effective be used as a teaching tools, and what part of the games will be appropriate for educations. Furthermore, technology in K-12 provides teachers and schools education with a new vision for reform. The student engagement of video games such as reading comprehension, spelling, and mathematical skills can be useful in promoting learning within the classroom. Studies have shown that socio-dramatic and rule-based games have been incorporated in the classroom, but computer technology games have created resistance based on teacher's perceptions of the games. Teachers' believe that it is merely for entertaining and not useful for instructional tools. The reason for teacher's resistance is because of the lack of skills and knowledge and the value of computer assisted instruction, and the inadequate developments of effective educational hardware and software (Rosas, 2003).
Interactivity of Multimedia
The next generations of technology users are so advanced and they spend countless hours playing various video and computer games they have been recognized as digital native's students because the knowledge they have with the language of computers, video games, and the Internet. This is because computers games comply with the children's contemporary needs, habits and interests. However, not only children are fascinated with computer games, adults too are found to be deeply interested in these gaming activities particularly during their leisure hours. This is not surprising at all because playing is a natural way to learn as it is joyful and provide the opportunities to unconsciously integrate ideas. Basically playing educational computer games is beneficial to most children since these games allow diverse opportunities for them to become more creative as compared to when they are in a more conventional learning environment.
Indeed, we know that playing is a vital part of children's cognitive and social growth and that playing is considered primary to the stabilizing processes that are necessary for the improvement of cognitive structures. Once children reach school age he or she is able to recognize and follow rules. Children also learn through playing with other children. As children began to grow playing began to change and rules and meanings began to change which brings about cognitive development. Children use more complex grammatical structures while playing than they do in real life situations. However, games and simulations afford goal-based challenges that activate interest and increase user motivation and suggest that providing tools and promotes learner engagement (Mandernach, 2009).
Educators have discovered that video games increase reading comprehension, spelling, grammar, it help with developing thinking skills related to problem solving, develop different learning styles and it motivate learning. Educators believe that introducing educational video games can be a valuable tool in promoting learning in the classroom. Now that educators have incorporated video games in the classroom, this was done to make learning meaningful to students and to create a learning culture that is more in correspondence with student' interests (Rosas et al., 2003).
Meanwhile, educators have learned that students learn better from words and pictures than from words alone, and that using multimedia learning and video clips is consider the major resource for teaching the next generation. Educators think that they should draw on students various intelligence and learning styles to increase success in the classroom (Berk, 2009).
Studies have shown that students learn best by actively "constructing" knowledge from a blend of experience. Students that participate in multimedia learning show increasing enthusiasm and deeper understanding of concepts (Roshelle, Pea, Hoadley, Gordin, Means, 2000). Students involved in construction multimedia have substantial prospective for improving creativity, problem-solving abilities and improving their knowledge and skills in reading, writing, and mathematics. Educators that integrate computer technology to seventh grade student's composition instruction have found out that it has a positive effect on quantity and quality of student writing. There is considerable information that says that a well designed multimedia will influence vital outcome such as student engagement (Mandernach, 2009).
Changing in Teaching
The Digital Learning Classroom project conducted by Round Rock Independent School District initiated the Interactive Whiteboard (IWB) technology program to improve English Language Learners' (ELL). The goal of the evaluation was to decide to extend the IWB technology to promote performance similarity in academic achievement between ELL and regular students to decrease the student's achievement gap between the 3rd and 5th grade in mathematics and reading. The reason they chose these grades is because they did not pass the standardized test in mathematics and reading. However, the Digital Learning Classroom can significantly improve performance equality for ELL students, and demonstrates the potential value of employing IWB technology to achieve performance parity and complete reverse inconsistency in performance (López, 2010).
The International Society for Technology in Education (ISTE) members Special Interest Group were asked a question to choose three tech tools that have been the most significant in education over the past thirty years. The group believes that Internet tools/resources such as e-mail and Web browsers, word processing, spreadsheets, interactive whiteboards projectors, Web 2.0 tools and portable digital devices technologies is the best benefit of effective teaching and learning in the classroom. The overall winner was Internet tools/resources e-mail and search engines. Educators cannot imagine having a classroom without these basic tools. Word processing and spreadsheet is no longer the most popular program, but educators still values them (Wurster, 2009).
Current uses of technology in the classroom
Today's technologies used as an educational teaching tool in the classroom are the Smart interactive whiteboard and the Activclassroom Promethean. The Activclassoom Promethean consists of Activboard, Activslate, Activote and Activpen. The Activstudio is application software for secondary teaching and Activprimary is software developed for elementary classrooms (Doe, 2007). The Smart board offer creative, interaction, instruction and assessment in a technological world. The interactive whiteboard is a large wall-mounted electronic board that connects to a ceiling-mounted LCD projector and a laptop computer that connect to the internet using wireless network. The LCD projector show the image from the computer screen to the board, and with the laptop computer it can be controlled by touching the board with a wireless hand-held pen device that functions like a PC mouse.
The interactive whiteboard is similar to a large touch-screen that is connected to a computer and it allows educators to plan lessons using technology suitable for all age levels, abilities and learning styles. The Smart interactive whiteboard has become the most popular teaching tool used within the classroom that schools are replacing the traditional whiteboards or flip chart with interactive whiteboards where users can control programs with a click and drag. The Smart interactive whiteboard allow educators to record notes, post or print material for student to review this can be very helpful to students who benefit from duplication, missing school, struggling from learning, and for students to review for exams (López, 2010).
Now that educator viewed the role of media in the classroom and how to use it to a great degree to determine the level and degree of its usage. Educators' perception of media is predicated upon what they feel media can do in the teaching learning method. Even before technology was introduced into the classroom, educators' center of attention was upon their students and what impact it would have on student's learning outcomes. Educators use technology because it motivates students and offers a special mode of presentation. As a substitute of using computers for drill and practice, more confident educators use technology as an instructional tool to improve student's learning. Therefore, technology adoption in educators' classrooms dependents upon school administrators providing and individualized differentiated process of training and implementation. The lack of budget to obtain materials for audiovisual classroom facilities and the lack of trained audiovisual personnel. Educators' technology philosophy is influenced by their attitude, resistance to adopting new technologies and educators' wiliness to change their role in the classroom (TAIWO, 2009).
One possible use of multimedia in the classroom involves engaging students in the structure of their own multimedia learning environments. This approach can be a fundamental part of changing from an instructional system in which students are passive recipients of information in which students actively and collaboratively combine knowledge and express it in extrinsic ways (Fan, Orey, 2001).
According to Burke, Synder, Rager (2009) "YouTube was created in 2005 to give public-access Web-based platform that allows people to easily upload, view, and share video clips on www.YouTube.com. YouTube allows users to share video clips across the Internet through other web sites, mobile devices, blogs, and email. It has quickly become the most widely used resources for online video in the United States. Anyone with Internet accesses watch videos on YouTube, but user registration (which is free) is required to upload a video. It should be noted that posting of copyrighted material on the site is prohibited due to U.S. copyright laws. YouTube is an admired online video sharing web site for academic and non-scholarly communication. Anyway the only reason educators use video as a communication tools they strongly value what the students think about using the tools in the course.
YouTube might be missing some educational goals but the application encourages students and teachers to experiment with new media. Educators think that creating the content is virtual and valuable in learning by helping developing an understanding of the subject and the tools used in the content. YouTube facilitates a design that has the likely to expose students to more insights and skills and link them to a variety of online communities. The Net Generation of YouTube for students is replacing passive learning with active involvement, where everyone has a say, they can add to the content and the learners can support one another in the learning goals. www.eduause.edu/eli. One thing user must be aware is the copyright law when uploading to YouTube.
TeacherTube is a video sharing website that is designed to allow educators to share educational resources such as videos, audios, documents, photos, groups and blogs, and it has a combination of classroom teaching resources designed to aid teacher training. YouTube was developed by Jason Smith, a Superintendent, his wife, Jodie and younger brother, Adam from Melissa, Texas, and it was launched on March 6, 2007. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/TeacherTube. The videos are safe for students and it only focus on educational content and it is very easy to use. Furthermore, when teachers upload materials to the website it must address specific learning objectives and the content must focus on professional development for other educators and the teaching community.
SchoolTube is another safe video sharing website approve by the National Education Associations used by K-12 schools. SchoolTube was launched in 2006 it was created to support educational institution to share videos through web knowledge. Using SchoolTube to show videos show the fact of what can be done in a classroom, and it is a great learning and motivation tool for the student. Students can share media from schools for fun. Teachers can share media that has been approved for the classroom, and while they integrate technology in their curriculum. Teacher can learn from other educators and they can share ideas, concepts and lesson plans. http://www2.schooltube.com/AboutUs.aspx.
Current uses of technology in different areas
The new impact on teaching and learning is a new technology called Skype. Skype is freeware software that offers telephone service using VoIP (voice over Internet protocol) and P2P that can be used in nursing and music class. This technology uses voice communication over the Internet. In 2002, Skype enhanced VoIP technology by using the P2P model to transfer voice communication (Rexius, 2007). Skype can be used for conference calls, video calls and chat. Skype technology can have a great impact on teaching and learning because it opens up many options for teachers and students interactions. An eight grade music teacher thought it would be good for the students to connect with the artist of the music they perform. With the help of some friends and other the live concert was made possible by using Skype. Skype have made it possible for educators to seek experts in their subject area. Teachers using music as a learning tool create an engaging and exciting environment where students can actively participate and learn to value their classroom experience. Therefore, the paradigm have shifted in education, teachers are no longer the authority of knowledge in the classroom (Weller, 2010).
Meanwhile, technology in physical education is a great mean of transformation of schools, increase students' success and makes education successful. The term educational technology is used as the aim to development practice and assesses the system process material in order to get results and develop the human's learning process. Throughout the history, the term about educational technology linked to others like educational technology, distant education learning with computer; a fast development in electronic technology has made some important effect on education systems in the world. Therefore, I am convinced that new technology had affected the economical, social and education system. People who plan the future of education should know where this technology is going and should consider it being used in the classroom (Yaman, 2008). Yaman (2008) said that physical activities have been needed for a number of reasons; such as, defense, environmental factors and continuing the lives." Likewise, in some other situations, the most important motive for physical activity has been the longing for a more quality life. Technology has increase the motivation of learning materials offered and learning among physical education teachers.
Distance and Blending Learning
Distance learning have been defined as the delivering or real time instruction from one distant site to another or multiple sites that uses audio or video technology. Distance learning allows teacher and students at different location to interact with each other. Students today in rural, urban areas are growing up on television, computers, electronics, video games and Internet. The rapid technological developments have made technological tools profoundly in changing the classroom and reforming education (Barker, Dickson, 1996).
E-learning with multimedia technology is becoming more available, and the technologies that are used in the area have changed over the past decade the way teachers in the classroom. The virtual classroom enhances learner engagement and improves learning effectiveness. The powerful means in e-learning is videos because it presents information in an eye-catching method. E-learning can provide configurable communication that integrates the tools of learning and service to create training of educational content quickly, effectively, and economically (Wieling, Hofman (2010). Though, multimedia elements such as video, graphics, sound, and photographs are vital components in inspiring students to engage in active learning. Multimedia based e-learning incorporate and present media such as text, image, sound and video. Adding computers into composition instruction have had a positive result on both the quantity and quality of student writing. Educators say that "you don't learn fundamentals by memorizing the basics, but by doing projects or creating object where the basics can be utilized."
Therefore, knowledge is constructed actively and often collaboratively by individuals instead of being transmitted by a teacher (Fan, 2001). The benefit of multimedia is that student cannot take a multimedia course without interest. They must interact with multimedia as the course changes direction. Since multimedia appeals to visual learning, instructor must be cautious that it is not a lot of repeating material on a given subject. The presentation must have a built-in path that leads students from one vital point of information to another (Arn, Watts, Kordsmeier 1999).
Even though, changes in education in recent years have been universal availability of a range of information and communication technologies (ICT) at work, school and a lot at home. The access to this information, knowledge and assets is what the Internet offers that has already changed the world of work and beginning to impact upon learning and teaching in schools. The teaching strategies that teachers use relies upon a range of situation such as attitudes, self-confidence, views of the way they learned and perceptions of themselves. The knowledge of the world around us and the information are developing rapidly. The constant changing in what we know about the world, the changing work patterns, the emphasis on developing lifelong learners the focus in the classroom, and the shifts from teachers teaching to learners approach. Teachers are required not only to know the knowledge of their subject but also the capability to create effective learning environments that allow the active engagement of students in the learning process. The teacher's role is to support the learners to learn for themselves and to provide opportunities to permit them to develop a sense of ownership of the learning process. According to Condie & Livingston (2007) "To capitalize on the potential of blending ICT with more traditional learning and teaching strategies and engage learners, a significant and far-reaching change will be necessary. New learning contexts demand new learning and teaching strategies. Meanwhile, today's technology can offers influence which teaching can give students independent learning. Students that take online courses do well as the traditional students in the classroom, so majority of the students have considered taking responsibility of their own learning. The advantage of online video recording lectures is that it allows students to view lectures they missed at their convenience. Instructors face a great deal of different conditions of the recent explosion in the production and distribution of online media because now they have immediate access to a wide assortment of quality materials that can efficiently be delivered to students (Harris, 2009).
Finally, the disadvantage of e-learning is that the material can become boredom and disengagement it only contains text-based learning. Multimedia based systems suffer from insufficient learner content interactivity and flexibility because of their passive and unstructured way of presenting instructional content (Zhang, Zhao Zhou, Nunmaker, 2004), and blending learning can be perceived as a threats.
Education and computer-based technology have changed over the decade from the time of the Elementary and Secondary Education; mainframes and minicomputer computers; VHS; overhead projectors' and DVDs in the classroom. Educators have gone to teaching through multimedia technologies, blending online learning, interactive whiteboard, digital video, TeacherTube, YouTube, Skype, SchoolTube, e-mail and other emerging technology have changes the way teachers teach communicate with students and the way students learn in the classroom. Teacher must be willing to embrace and modify the transformations keep up with the growing teaching to be able to to teach the next generation of learning.