Function Of Educational Managers In A School Institution Education Essay

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Education is the foundation of civilized society and every society seems to be engaged in various educational activities. Its aim is to provide and promote education to the masses so that well disciplined and mentally sound individuals can be prepared who ultimately contribute in the development and prosperity of progressive society. Education system is devised to inculcate the philosophy, social norms and skills for economic activities. We also are rapidly shifting into a new era in the history of humans on this planet, which is called the technological era. And education is the primary source of all technological advances, innovations and human comforts and that we need development, which is only possible through quality education.

An organization is a collection of people working together in a Division of labour to achieve a common purpose. This definition fits a wide variety of fraternal groups, clubs, voluntary organizations and religious bodies, as well as entities such as schools, hospitals and government agencies. The insights and applications of OB apply to all of these groups. Here, we will be most interested in work organizations- those organizations to which people belong as employees (Wood, et al 1998).

Organizational behaviour is a discipline that seeks to describe understand and predict human behaviour in the environment of formal organization. A distinctive contribution and characteristic of organizational behaviour as discipline is the explicit recognition that (1) organizations create internal contextual setting or environments, that have great influence on the behaviour of people in them and (2) to some extent the internal environment of an organization is influenced by the large context in which the organization itself exists (for example, the social, political, economic and technological systems that support the organization). Moreover, the internal environment or context of the organization (which is so influential in eliciting and shaping human behaviour) is not merely physical and tangible but also includes the social and psychological characteristics of the living human system (Owens, R.G. 1998).

Organization behaviour is the field that seeks knowledge about the behaviours in organizational setting by systematically studying individual, group and organizational processes. Thus knowledge is used both as an end in itself by scientists interested in basic human behavior and by practitioners interested in enhancing organizational effectiveness and individual well being (Jerald and Robert, 2000).

Organizations do not succeed or fail people do. Organizations are intimately associated with people who are living and changing; therefore human behaviours must be considered and understood within the dynamics of the formal organization (Ahuja, 1990).

Hence the filed of organizational behaviour helps managers both deal with learn from their workplace experiences. Managers who understand OB are better prepared to know what to look for in work situations, to understand what they find, and to take or help others to take the required action. This is a process for which physicians are carefully trained. When giving a physical exam, a doctor systematically asks questions and is quick to note where one condition (such as a recurrent facial sore may be symptomatic of a problem that requires further medical attention (treatment for a small skin cancer). Instead of sores and headaches, managers, action indicators typically deal with the performance accomplishments of people at work, their attitudes and behaviours, and events that occur in the work unit, in the organization a hole, and event in the external environment. Good management is able both to recognize the significance of these indicators (for example, an increase in turnover among employees) and to take constructive action to improve things as a result of this insight (such as updating benefits and incentive pay schemes). Good managers add value to an organization. However, good managers must be able to identify, manage and modify the behaviour of other member of the organization is this added value from managerial activities is to be realized (Baron, 1986).

Fundamentally, however, any manager should seek two key results for a work unit or work team. The first is task performance, the quality and quantity of the work produced or the service provided by the work unit as a whole. The second is human resources maintenance, the attraction and continuation of a capable work force over time. This later notion, while to often neglected, is extremely important. It is not enough for a work unit to achieve this high performance on any given day: a work unity must be able to achieve this high performance every day, both now and in the future (Christensen, 1994).

Indeed, the two results can be seen as the criteria of an effective manager that is, a manager whose work unit team achieves high levels of task accomplishment and maintains itself as a capable workforce over time. This concept of the 'effective Manager' is an important framework for understanding the insights of OB and for developing your personal managerial skills.

Organizations are changing now, and they will continue to change in order to survive and prosper in a complex environment. We see organizations downsizing, forming alliances, creating new structures, going global, engaging in joint ventures and employing every more sophisticated technologies and they attempt to deal with competitive pressures. We see organization pursuing productivity gains, empowering workers, pressing for innovation, and trying to adapt themselves to best fit changing times (Dolan, 1994).

There is no doubt about it; the directions are clear; the future is there. But in order to succeed, managers must be willing to step forward and make the personal and organizational changes necessary to secure it. Indeed, some consultants and authors are questioning the very term manager. They believe that the changing nature of organizations in the new work place may make the term coordinator, or perhaps coach or facilitator, a more apt description of the role. However, regardless of the term used, the message is clear. The successful 21st century manager will have to make the behavioral and attitudinal adjustment necessary to succeed in very dynamic time (Flippo, 1998).

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

It is an established theory that proper organizational behaviour ensures the full utilization of available educational facilities and resources for the development of the organization. Hence the study was focused on the organizational behavior of educational managers in NWFP.

IMPORTANCE OF THE STUDY

Organizational behaviour is the yardstick which measures the climate of organization. If the climate is suitable for optimum utilization of worker's potential, energy and capability the organization grows and ensures high quality product. The educational managers are the backbone of educative process. They are the policy makers, planners, implementers, administrators and change agent in education. Any positive and fruitful change in society is difficult without education.

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The present study was conducted to educational managers observed aspects of organizational behaviour in educational institutes of Punjab having following objectives:

To determine the role and function of acceptable behavior of educational managers.

To investigate the style of decision making of education mangers.

ASSUMPTIONS OF THE STUDY

The following were the basic assumptions of the study:

It was assumed that the Education managers were well aware of the concept of organizational behavior and its implications.

It was assured that the teachers were aware of the concept of organizational behavior, its components and determinants..

DELIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

The Following delimitations were observed during the study;

Only public educational institutions were included in the study.

The study comprised of secondary level of education that is from class IX to XII.

The heads of the institutions and education officers up to district level were considered as educational managers.

PROCEDURE OF THE STUDY

This was the descriptive/survey type of study. Following procedure was adopted for its completion:-

Population

All the managers working in the different educational organizations of NWFP were included in the population of the study. All the teachers working in secondary education were also taken in study.

Sample

Random sampling technique was used for the selection of sample. Twenty heads of secondary schools ten heads of higher secondary and five teachers from each institution were included in the study. Eight Executive District Officers and eight District Education Officers were also taken in the sample. The sample was taken from eight district of NWFP namely; Kohat, Peshawar, Bannu,, D.I..Khan, Mardan, Swabi, Abbotabad, and Manshera .

Research Instruments

Two questionnaires were developed; one for 256 managers and the other for 1200 teachers. The questionnaires were developed on Likert's 5-point scale. The questionnaires covered all the important elements of organizational behavior of Educational Managers.

Data Collection

Data were collected by the researcher personally. Firstly questionnaires were mailed to the sampled target of respondents. The researcher personally visited the institutions for collection of data. Keeping in view the time factor, services of some representatives were also utilized who were made orientated in filling the questionnaires.

Data Analysis

The Data collected through questionnaires were tabulated, analyzed and interpreted by using suitable statistical tool of Chi-square. Findings were drawn and recommendations were made for the improvement of organizational behavior of educational managers in Punjab.

Statement of items

Responses

SA

A

UD

DA

SDA

Total

c2

Educational managers are aware of the concept of organizational behaviour or climate

Responses

37

112

0

89

18

256

176.75*

Percentage

14

44

0

35

7

100

Educational managers are satisfied with the quality of teachers.

Responses

16

51

0

182

7

256

447.7*

Percentage

6

20

0

71

3

100

Educational managers involve the teachers in decision making

Responses

8

85

0

127

36

256

226.68*

Percentage

3

33

0

50

14

100

Educational managers are trained is decision making techniques

Responses

21

79

0

119

37

256

114.07*

Percentage

8

31

0

47

14

100

Educational managers are trained is communication

Responses

39

152

0

47

18

256

274.41*

Percentage

15

60

0

18

7

100

They are fair in dealing with others

Responses

51

132

0

57

16

256

203.56*

Percentage

20

52

0

22

6

100

They believe in merit and transparency

Responses

61

148

0

46

1

256

285.81*

Percentage

24

58

0

18

0

100

Educational managers recommend incentives for good teachers

Responses

42

129

0

56

29

256

181.13*

Percentage

17

50

0

22

11

100

Educational managers are competent in management skills

Responses

17

51

0

157

31

256

300.62*

Percentage

7

20

0

61

12

100

Educational managers stress on the use of latest instructional technology

Responses

12

47

0

156

41

256

289.6*

Percentage

5

18

0

61

16

100

* Significant

df= 4 table value of c2 at 0.05 = 9.488

The above table 1 shows that value at 4 degree of freedom the c2 value at 0.05 = 9.488 which is greater than the table value the chi square (c2) value. The table indicate that the calculated value of c2 (176.75*, 447.4*, 226.28*, 114.07*, 274.41*, 203.56*, 285.81*, 181.13*, 300.62* and 289.6*) is greater than the table value of c2 (9.4888), therefore there is significant difference in the responses of the respondents. Some responses are positively accepted the category of "agree" so it is concluded that the respondents feel that educational managers are aware of the concept of organizational behaviour or climate, they are trained is communication, they are fair in dealing with others and they recommend incentives for good teachers. on the other side there a some responses which are in favour of negatively accepted They are satisfied with the quality of teachers" is negatively accepted. It is concluded that quality of teachers need improvement, they involve the teachers in decision making thus the situation needs improvement and educational manager are trained is decision making techniques is negatively accepted. It means educational managers need training which should be arranged properly.

CONCLUSIONS

The following conclusions were drawn out after analysis of responses.

Concept of organizational behavior was clear to 58% of the managers and majority of the teachers were not clear about this concept. Hence they were not participating willingly and voluntarily to improve it.

Educational Managers. Not satisfied with the quality of the teachers. Through in their opinions they involved teachers in group participation. They were also of the opinion that they involved teachers in decision-making. But the teachers were not trained in decision-making techniques. The teachers responded that the managers did not use democratic style of leadership.

Educational Managers opined that they were trained in social and commutation skills. They distributed load work curiously and they encouraged questions for clarification. They stressed the character building of teachers and students.

The majority of the educational managers responded that they could not ensure sufficient resources for each task and service. The majority of the teachers stated that organizational climate was not suitable for better performance. They did not feel comfortable. The workplace and principle of right man for right job was not maintained.

The majority of Educational Managers opined that they did not model the behaviour personally that they would others to adopt. They further stated that they were not fair in using funds. The majority of the teachers stated that their salaries were not sufficient to live comfortably. The E.M did not take interest in solving personal problem of the teachers. The majority of the teachers also said that shortage of funds was felt badly and system of accountability was weak and funds were misused.

The majority of the Educational Managers stated that they did not stress on the use of latest instructional technology in the classes due to its shortage. The majority of the teachers also verified that they did not use instructional technology in the classes they also did not use different motivation techniques in the classrooms.

RECOMMENDATIONS

The following recommendations were made in the light of the findings and objectives of the study.

It was reported by both categories of the respondents that shortage of funds was felt badly. Pakistan was providing finances to the tune of 2.1% of GDP to education which was very small for improving the system and organizational needs. It is strongly recommended that at least the budget for education should be doubled.

Both categories of respondents, the educational managers and teachers stated that system of accountability is weak. It is an established principle that only proper accountability mechanisms can enhance improvement of performance hence it was recommended that proper efficient and effective accountability system should be introduced from top to bottom in the district administration of education. For this purpose special training should be arranged for educational mangers and teachers at reachable centers.

Majority of both the categories of respondents replied that they were not trained in motivation, social, communication and decision-making skills. It was recommended that periodic training should be assigned for educational managers and teacher for their training in motivation leadership, communication interpersonal relations, teacher students' relations, and decision making techniques. This type of training should be arranged with the help of experts of relevant fields. The new information and instructional technology should be utilized properly. The teachers should be trained in academics for professional development and every teacher should be given the equal chance to participate in in-service training under certain cyclic order.

The majority of the respondents reported that there was an acute shortage of educational facilities like books, internet, computer, equipment, sports material and transport etc. The researcher felt that such situation was due to shortage of funds and to some extent due to the negligence of the heads. It was recommended that chemical and equipment for laboratories, books, computers and internet facility for libraries, sports materials for games, and furniture should be provided to all the secondary and higher secondary schools on priority basis. The help of community and local government can be solicited.

The majority of the respondents replied that there was a political interference in educational organizations which led to disturb the organizational behavior. It was recommended that assurance should be got from the political parties by the government, not to interrupt the educational environment. Moreover, working of political groups through student unions should be banned in the institutions.

AUTHORS INFORMATION

Mr.Muhammad Naeem Butt is working as Lecturer in Institute of Education and Research, Kohat University of Science and Technology, Kohat, Pakistan.. He did his M.Phil in Education from Sarhad University of Science and Technology, Peshawar - Pakistan nb840@yahoo.com

Dr. Muhammad Iqbal is presently working as Professor of Education in Department of Education, Sarhad University of Science and Technology, Peshawar - Pakistan

Dr. Muhammad Naseer-Ud-Din is working as an Assistant Professor in Institute of Education and Research, Kohat University of Science and Technology, Kohat, Pakistan. He did his Ph.D. in Education from University Institute of Education and Research, UAAR, Pakistan.

E-mail: naseer_khanpk2000@yahoo.com

Dr. Ishtiaq Hussain is working as an Assistant Professor in Institute of Education and Research, Kohat University of Science and Technology, Kohat, Pakistan.

Miss. Safia Noor is presently working as principal Govt. Girls High School, Charsada, Pakistan. She did her M.Phil in education.

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