Foundation Of Sport And Exercise Psychology Education Essay

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Efficiently I handled to sit for my 3rd module - Psychology in PSB Academy, after the introduction of psychology was done, Mr Edgar continue with his session in Chapter 3 - Motivation, in this chapter I would like to share my encounter in the year of 2006, when I being appointed as an associate trainer, leading a team of Silat sportsmen age between from 10 - 12 years of age for their first period of time in their competition was not that tough, as I voluntarily accepted the offer which organise by the Nanyang Community Centre. I had no issue performing exercising and guide them along for their competition.

The day of competition, I observed their behaviour such as anxious and pressure encounters on each individual sportsman including my young brother, which emphasize me the day on my first competition with the similar experience, whereby my trainers approached me and provided me a inspiration assistance which I can't forget until now. So I did the same thing to my young other sportsmen which now I realise that inspiration play apart in every single action that we taking part for.

After I talked to them and share some of my encounter and experience, I can see comfort on them and gradually they are placing more attempts to battle and win the competition. Incredibly out of 12 sportsmen seven went to finally and 4 sportsmen including my sibling was chosen for the first badge of Silat group in Singapore Sport School.

Inspiration element was performed by Mr Edger providing my interest in Psychology in sports. With the techniques and guide which I used back then, and the element that I discovered right now help me to improve and evaluate the scenario better in the future.

In this element I discovered to determine motivation and its element, route of attempt describe an individual search for out and techniques to certain scenario and notice a individual attempt in particular scenario. Beside determine the motivation element the guide for building up motivation are so useful to follow such as inner attributes, understand their purpose participation, framework the scenario, identify the crucial part and to modify the contribution purposes. With this guide I may evaluate the aspects that may be easily to modify.

Not just motivation, accomplishment and objective successful can performed into the motivation method. Without accomplishment and objective successful, no point to encourage a individual without their objective, if the individual concentrates on their objective it may easy to encourage the individual, as such self improve and social evaluation may apply to the individual.

We should impact the accomplishment motivation to the individual and create the environment to improve their accomplishment and deal with of being vulnerability. I get to know that the best to do is to acknowledging interactional impacts on accomplishment motivation. To focusing their objectives and result objectives is to tracking and provide appropriate reviews.

I discovered the expertise of conversation with the sportsman when it is appropriate to contend and evaluate the individual culturally. Most of all is to look at their self recommended concentrate, control and accomplish the understanding of proficiency.


Foundation of Sport and Exercise Psychology


In this chapter, I had learned to define the arousal, stress and anxiety. Stress was the process of our mind can't think successfully between physical and psychology. And there are few methods to process type of stress and discrepancy between physical and psychology on the person. In my practical knowledge, I experienced the advanced stage of stress where I was appointed to do the deployment for the first time and end up lead me to headaches.

After Mr Edgar explain the said chapter arousal, stress and anxiety, I had complete understand of the explanations and to take note some of the note for our reflection, beside that I did do some research on the internet to make me understand better. I did list the key point from Mr Edgar and internet forum

Generally arousal is a psychological activity. Anxiety will be the opposite of it which is negative psychological condition with emotions of fear, anxiety and worry that is associated with the initial of the body. Stress is a discrepancy between that requirements that someone emotions of capably to meet that requirements, when failing of these requirements has essential repercussions.

Some situations produce more condition anxiety and arousal than others. Stress is also impact by character tendencies. Individual with great feature anxiety, low respect, and great social body anxiety encounter more condition than others.

Problem posits that as long as there are reduced concepts of stress, then performance will be best at a method level of actual stimulation. If there is advanced stage of nervous ideas, performance will be better at a method stage of actual stimulation but will instantly fall off and become useless. There is a splitting point when performance reduces considerably.

Reversal Concept posits that the way that stimulation impacts performance relies on an individual's presentation of their stimulation. Arousal can be considered as enjoyable and interesting and as distressing and nervous. Arousal that is thought to be enjoyable helps performance, and vice versa for bad stimulation.

Anxiety direction and intensity declares that how someone recognizes their own anxiety is essential for knowing the connection of their stress to their performance. Both the individual's intensity and direction have to be considered. Therefore, anxiety as helpful results in better performance.

Reference: (Chapter 4)

Foundation of Sport and Exercise Psychology


In feedback, reinforcement and intrinsic motivation, I manage to understand the most principle, techniques to impact behaviour and most of all is the guide for using good encouragement. As for the concepts of reinforcement there is complicated person that respond in a different way to the same encouragement and may not be able to do it again in preferred behaviour, and receive different the reinforcers in different situation.

Although some coach's still uses risks of penalties as their primary motivational tool, a good approach coach is recommended for dealing with athlete or directly offers an important compensate. Back then, studying and ongoing immediate encouragement is suitable, however sporadic encouragement is more effective these days. Difficult skills, can shape the behaviour of the athletes by strengthening close approximation of the preferred behaviour.

To offer performance reviews, knowledge is the outcome to help people improve performance by offer specific reviews regarding the correctness of their reaction and by improving their inspiration. Potential to disadvantage of our penalties and critique include arousing fear of failing and implement unwanted behaviour and shame which effecting the studying of expertise. As we know and research was make, a person was being paid for operating on an interesting activity can reduce a person intrinsic motivation for the activity.

To understand a compensate is crucial in identifying whether the compensate will improve or reduce intrinsic motivation. The benefits that people understand as managing their behaviour or to indicating that they are not qualified and reduce their intrinsic motivation. Rewards that highlight the informative element and offer good feedback about proficiency improve their intrinsic motivation. A grants sportsman can either reduce or improve athlete level of intrinsic motivation, based on which is more highlighted to control or informative element.

In major competition such as Olympic, Sea Games and World Tournament generally athlete may success and tends to improve their intrinsic motivation and most athlete result to failing and tend to reduce their intrinsic motivation and it is determined by the athlete to pay attention to successful or to unsuccessful to the competition.

In the flow the condition may contains many of the common elements, but a key of element which balance between individual capabilities and task. Few factors such as confidence, maximum arousal and concentrate might help us to achieve the flow state. Beside that there is a affect of flow which can we prevent such as self crucial mind-set, diversion and lack of preparation, so psychological skill training has to be practice in order to get the flow right.


Foundation of sport and exercise psychology


On chapter 7, in group team dynamic I had manage to identified two type of different roles which common uses in the team, as for coach and team captain they were dictated by the structure of the management and informal roles that evolve from the dynamic group. Depend its how was the group structure on each interaction of the members, group roles and group norms was the two important structural characteristics in each team. Each role consists of the behaviour which required of the person to occupying some position in the group. Belief, performance and patterns of behaviours are the norms level of each group that exist on the earth.

To create effectiveness of the team climate, the team should develop how players to perceive the interrelationships between their group members to prevent a critical factor which affecting the team climate. For example fairness and social support might affect the team climate and performance. Moderately, individual skill are related to success in individual team especially for high level performance team which critically for each player to have a greater contribution in the future, in other ways video media recording one of the method to help players identify their mistake and make them understand their individual roles and giving the player effort to make massive contribution in upcoming event.

In social loafing concept, what I understand within my group sometime will put less effort as we had losses the motivation within us and that was the phenomenon with all group athletes. Sometimes there was a diffusion of their responsibility to pick up the slack. Individual more often cannot be independent to evaluate the task that is perceived to be meaningfulness, some personal involvement the task are low which impossible to compare with group standard.

Contributing to collective effort are strangers than teammates are seen as high in ability and some contribution outcome is redundant to some athlete or group. There is a principle to which sport team to au fait with. They have to begin with pre-briefing, to discuss there weakness and their strength, and they have to set a goal of their achievement every game or level they played on. In order to get their respective goal or achievement the team have to undergo cross training, research has make and proven that cross training are effective to apply on. In this training, the team able to manage their pressure level and giving the task of their individual athlete.

In every team communication is the important asset to bond the team, in closed loop communication training team member are taught with basic communication, collect information and make decision in a short period of time. Communication is very important to those athletes that under pressure which other teammates may help to ease down the pressure.

In adaptation in team, I use to have the feeling whereby I first joined the Silat National Team in 2001, I feel so left out which I doesn't know who I want to speak to, however session by session I manage to get into the team and the bond are getting better after my first international competition with them. Sometimes, my teammates told me which of my area that I need to improve on and I have to correct myself in every session of my training, apart of it I do consult my coach regarding my performance in the training. If feel so satisfied when my coach praise me and my team.


Foundation of Sport and Exercise Psychology.


In this chapter, I have opportunities to understand the cohesiveness which group member had a same mindset and together to achieve the common goal and objective. In my view that I must have a good leader with high expectation of goal in a team. As he may bring the team strive to achieve the common goal. To boost the team cohesiveness, the team can design their own logo or motto of their team for their vision target.

My experience in the group cohesion, back then in 2001 when I was in National Team, my team will make an event or vocation after the competition such as Picnic or had dinner together and maybe went for holiday, irregardless whether the athlete didn't deliver the medal to Singapore, first and foremost not the glory that we bring into but the effort that we put into the team that show us that we are bonding together, when our athlete was in the arena to fight with the opponent we as a team give 110% of support to him as I and the team have the same mission as he did which bring back medal for Singapore.

In this group cohesion, the team tendencies to stick together as the team have the same objective and goal toward the competition and had a good interpersonal attraction among the team members. However before I had a flow of my group members, before hand number of my team members had clash with one another, conflict of task with our captain, some of the team member are struggling for the power to being a captain, with all this problem our team member had a severe breakdown communication.

After we bring up the issue to our coaches, I can see the team trying to gain the vision which they had left out in the beginning of their mission and the team members have shared their goal and objective which they trying to achieve on it. I'm so glad that our coaches make a immediate action to resolved the conflicts which we had brought up earlier before condition getting worse. After incident, the team willing to help the group members whenever they were needed.

To get the group more cohesive, they must have good influence on individual members to get the group norms. The higher the cohesion is the better the team can resist disruption than the lower cohesion. The team may stay longer and tend to be much more cohesion which can leads to improvement in their performance and low possibility the athlete to be dropout from the team and the team leader have to play apart to increase the team cohesiveness.

Group cohesion not only for athlete or sport, I can the see the cohesion in my current workplace. I was appointed as team leader in Aetos Auxiliary Police in Changi Prison Clusters. I lead 60 officers who come from Malaysia and our local, my challenge as a team leader was tough for the first week to forming them together. I fine day I decided to divide them into two groups and organize a team retreat, as my first intention was to relieve myself and my team.

Subsequently after the two days of my team retreat, as my team have started to work on the following day, they started to communicate among them and I can see the cohesion among them getting stronger on each day.


Foundation of Sport and Exercise Psychology


This chapter in leadership is relevant to my current job scope. Team leader is a challenging job to execute, some will declare that it is homogenous job. Those in the leadership role knew that it is a noble job, as for leader we have to work tirelessly to keep our officer in standard discipline. By any measure, the leadership skills are of a world-class standard, and we are proud to acquire those skills inside us and contributed to our organization.

The leadership is nothing without my fellow officers. Of course, I was tasked to lead a team of 60 officers comprising Malaysians and Singaporeans and I have to maintain high standards of discipline, and a firm stand on them. For the successful officer, I offer them an extraordinary deployment in the service which leads them to the next level and at the same time I will impart the leadership skill to the officer.

I am honoured to be working with Aetos Auxiliary Police, which allowed me to excel. My leadership career has been an excellent experience in the organization. I had started, like everyone else, as a Police Constable and man on the ground to further increase my confident to do my best for my organization. Subsequently I was promoted to Corporal and was appointed as an assistant team leader and several years involved in various type of assignment.

By 2010, I promptly did my best for my performance and was appointed as full team leader and authorize to approve leave and other management level documentation and it was my life-changing experience. I was tasked to set up and involve new Aetos Auxiliary police officers to take over from Cisco Auxiliary Police at Changi Prison Complex. Few years I was in command of Cluster 'A' in Changi Prison Complex, I had encountered volatile group performances which resulted in my reputation being jeopardize, however I manage to maintain the reputation and dignity of my subordinate as Aetos Auxiliary Police have.

As Leaders, they are able to influence Subordinate and peers toward their objective, by establishing interpersonal relationship and motivation toward their men. Every leader understood the needs of the team and the Leaders have to provide direction and resources to accomplish it. First and foremost we have to manage the planning, organizing and scheduling.

As a great leader they have to possess a set of universal personality traits that are essential for effective leadership such as benevolent, far - sightedness and firm. Successful leader always characterizes universal set of behaviors and establish the way of approach in each behavior of the individuals. Sport leadership will rely on how well the leader behavior such as required, preferred and actual, and also we have to study the history of the characteristic of the situation. Leader should have a positive outcomes and better view of their team performance.