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Education is the run way of learner on where he can face the challenges of the world as well as the society. It plays a vital role to set moral, social and economic standards of any nation and has a very strong effect on thoughts, believes and planning of future polices of a country. Education is a nation building and globally inter-related activity that unlocks the door to modernization.
Education is the right of every child and it is the responsibility of the State to provide educational facilities to each and every child. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 1948 (as cited in National Education Policy, 1998-2010) states, "Everyone has the right to education".
The quality education is a necessary and inevitable agent for change as education is a process of civilization and development. Recent evidence of a substantial link between quality of schooling and individual productivity suggests that, from an economic efficiency perspective, quality aspects of education deserve attention. According to the Imran (2011), the concept of quality in every field is complex in nature, elements, components, and in every respect. Quality is the most respectable but the slipperiest term in the field of education. Sometimes it is used in evaluative sense, for example as a scale of goodness. Sometimes it is implied to seek some unique characteristics. The quality in education refers to the standard of management, educational facilities, curriculum, methods of teaching, students, exanimation system, teaching staff etc. Secondary education holds central position in an educational system of every country, as it is a terminal stage for most of students and it also serves as a linkage between elementary stage and higher education. As it provides input for higher education and therefore quality of higher education is dependent upon secondary education (AIOU, 1997).
Secondary education (IXXII) is an important sub-sector of the entire educational system. It provides the middle level work force for the economy on one hand and on the other it acts as a feeder for the higher level of education. Higher education, which produces quality professionals in different fields, is based on the quality of secondary education. Therefore, this level of education needs to be revamped in such a way that it may prepare young men and women for the pursuit of higher education as well as may also prepare them to adjust in their practical lives meaningfully and productively (GOP, 1998)
Developed nations have economic and political constancy due to their organized structure for education. On the other hand, quality of education is poor at all levels in developing and under developed countries. Underdeveloped countries like Pakistan need proper changes in their educational systems according to the requirements of their society and to achieve their national objectives. The standard of education or quality of education is very low in Pakistan. Without improving quality of education, we cannot keep pace with the modern era. Keeping this issue in view it was the need of the day to compare the quality of secondary school education in public and privately managed schools to the factual position. Iqbal (1987) reported that students in developing countries have a low mean level of achievement compared to industrial countries and their performance shows a much greater variation around the mean. According to a report of the World Bank (1999), the main things which governments can do to improve the quality of education are setting standards, supporting inputs to improve, achievements, adopting flexible strategies for the acquisition and use of inputs, and monitoring performance. Generally the steps are not taken because of the weight of the existing education speeding and management practices. Learning process requires five inputs: the student with learning capability, subject or information to be transferred, teacher having command on the subject, time for learning, and tools for teaching and learning.
Secondary education holds a key position as it is the terminal stage for the majority of students. The largest number of educated manpower in Pakistan is available at this stage. The economists believe the secondary education to be a backbone of the economy while the sociologists consider it is an effective weapon of social reforms. It can be said that the secondary education is strongly related with the economic progress and social welfare of the country (Ali, 1970).
Two main sectors working side by side in the field of secondary education are private and government sector in Pakistan. National Education Policy (1979) identified that private sector plays an important role in the development of education in a country. It helps both in the qualitative improvement and expansion. Private sector bears a good deal of expenditures burden on this important social cause even in the most advanced countries. In a country like Pakistan where the population growth rate is about 3 percent, annually and only about 20 percent of the existing children are in the secondary schools, the support of the private sector is badly needed to share this huge burden. Government alone cannot build and run all the schools required for this purpose
Objectives of the study
This study seeks to compare the quality of education of public and private schools of Gujranwala and the objectives of study were as:
To compare the results of their students who appeared in boards' examination.
To compare the quality of education in terms of physical facilities and infrastructure qualities.
To compare the ability of teachers.
To compare their fee and salary structure.
To compare their educational processes.
Significance of the study
Quality education includes ï€ Learners, Environments, Content, Processes and Outcomes (UNICEF, 2000). Government sector is unable to accommodate the needs of rapidly growing population. No one can deny the importance of private sector. Different studies have highlighted the deficient quality of private sector. This study endeavors to identify the quality of learning environment and infrastructure in public and private schools. The results of this study will be immense help to the parents, students and general public in the identification of the quality of public and private schools.
This study will also be imperative for planners and policy makers to enhance the quality of education and provide basis for reforms in education to overcome all weaknesses of public and private schools by incorporating all the superior aspects of both sectors.
The researcher aims to draw the comparison the standards of public and private secondary schools of Gujranwala in terms of quality of education.
Research Questions or Hypothesis
Q1: How can we compare quality of education in terms of quality of physical facilities and infrastructure?
Q2: What is the difference of fee structure of public and private schools?
Q3: What is the difference of salary package of the teachers of public and private schools?
Q4: What is the difference of qualification of teachers of public and private schools?
Q 5: What is the difference of difference of job tenure of public and private schools?
Q6: What is the difference of qualification of principals of public and private schools?
Q7: What is the difference of professional qualification of teachers and principals of public and private schools?
In this chapter, a detailed review of accessible literature on the quality of secondary education in Pakistan has been presented along with a critical review of the related research has also been presented at the end.
Role of Education
Education is a powerful driving force which drives mental, physical, ideological and moral preparation of an individual, so at the same time it facilitate them to have full consciousness of an instrument for their spiritual development along with the material fulfillment of human beings. With- in the context of Islamic - perception, education is an instrument for developing the attitude of individuals in accordance with the value of righteousness which helps to build a sound Islamic society (Govt. of Pakistan, 1998).
Education plays an important role in human resource development as it increases the output, competence of individuals and produces expert manpower that is capable of leading the economic development. Importance of Education for human resource development does not need any justification. The developed countries give highest priority to education; same is the case with the developing countries. The constitution of Pakistan defines education as one of the fundamental rights of a citizen as well as constitutional commitment of the government accepts to provide access to education to every citizen (Govt. of Pakistan, 2000).
Formal Education System of Pakistan
"The Government of Pakistan shall provide free and compulsory education to maximum children of the state. It might be determined by law." (Govt. of Pakistan, 1972).
The purpose of education is to eliminate the poverty and to improve the social behavior. Education enhances the social and ethical development. In formal education system, there are number of stages.
The age-group for the pre-schooling is 3 to 5 years (before one class, in Public schools Kachi class and in private schools. Play group /nursery/ prep).
The age-group for primary is 5 to 9 years (Class 1 to 5).
The age-group is 10 to 12years (Class 6 to 8).
Board of Intermediate and Secondary Education [BISE] conducts the examination (Class 9 & 10).
Higher Secondary/Intermediate Education
BISE awards the certificate of Higher Secondary School Education (HSSC) (Class 11 & 12).
Four years education after Higher Secondary Education is considered as higher education. Two years for Bachelor's degree and further 2 years for Master's degree. BS honors is also equal to this degree. M. Phil and PhD programs are also further advancement after the completion of master degree.
Academy of Educational Planning and Management (2010-11) reported the detailed analysis of education system in Pakistan.
Source: Academy of Educational Planning and Management, Govt. of Pakistan (2010)
Figure 2.1: Structure of education Sector in Pakistan
Education system of Pakistan is comprised of 270,825 institutions and is facilitating 40,926,661 students with the help of 1,507,100 teachers. The system is composed of 194,151 public institutions and 76,674 private institutions. The public sector is serving 26.63 million students to complete their education while the remaining 13.96 million students are in private sector of education (AEPM, 2010-11).
Importance of Secondary Education
It is a true fact that destiny of a nation is shaped in the classrooms which implies that education is the main source of progress and development. It can be said without any hesitation that education can be mostly responsible for the future of Pakistan. Through education, nation building process for the future citizens of the country can take place. As soon the education molds students, country will be molded. From this point of view, a lot of responsibilities lie with the educationist for quality education. Therefore, the education must be qualitative so that the students may develop necessary knowledge, attitude and skills to perform their duties effectively. It is in this context that quality education becomes the most important element to enhance the quality of life in any country. It is so worthwhile to raise some issues in this regard and think of their solution (AEPM, 2010-11).
In the earlier period of Pakistan, the highest priorities were literacy and numeracy in the schools. But later, personal growth with the communication skill, skill for social living, problem-solving skill and co-ordination of physical and mental skills got attention and importance by the society. Schools contribute its role in a vibrant way through the curriculum. Secondary schools develop the ability of reasoning, proper use of language, social and emotional constancy in the students. Secondary education plays a major role to produce realistic and skillful students.
Secondary education in all over the world recognized as an important level. The quality of higher education is depended upon the quality of this stage. This is the crucial age of adolescence for youth (AEPM, 2010-11).
In Italy higher secondary schools ware called "court schools". In England these types of schools were named "Grammar Schools"in1510.In USA first junior "Inter collage" came into being in California in 1907. In Pakistan, secondary education consists of four classes IX to XII. These are called secondary and higher secondary. In Pakistan higher secondary schools were established in 1954-55 (Shahzad, 2007).
According to the National Education Policy (1979), the education system consists of three levels as:
Elementary Education: I to VIII
Secondary Education: IX to XII
Higher Education: XIII and so on (Govt. of Pakistan, 1979).
Five Year Plans and Secondary Education
Eight Five Years plans were presented by Government of Pakistan for the betterment of education in Pakistan.
The First Five-Year Plan (1955-60)
According to the First Five-Year Plan (1955-60), the main objectives of secondary education were to introduce diversified courses in commerce, agriculture and technical subjects, to improve the quality and to increase the number of secondary schools. With the help of repetition of history and ideology of Pakistan, character building can be possible at secondary level. Mathematics and science are compulsory subjects for individual's career. 15 schools will be upgraded to high level. 75 new public schools will be opened. Grants-in-aid will be given to 100 privateschools.500 middle and 100 high schools will be improved by adding science courses. Enrollment in high schools increased from 0.109 million in 1955 to 0.149 million in 1960 (Memon, 1986).In this plan the more emphasis on the quantity rather than quality. The Second Five Year Plan (1960-65)
The main objectives of the second five year plan are integration of middle classes in higher secondary schools, diversification of courses, guidance programmers, opening of residential schools, and increment of enrollment of secondary education (Iqbal, 1993). During the Plan 160 high schools were opened with all physical facilities. 103 middle schools were up-graded to high schools.
According to Hussain (2003), "the program for secondary education proposed in the plan will increase the enrollment by 430.000 students at this level." The plan makers emphasized on quantity only and nobody was concerned about the quality of education provided to the students.
The Third Five-Year Plan (1965-70)
Iqbal (1993) defines the objectives of the third five year plan. The main objectives of secondary education are middle stage would be compulsory, development of educational facilities, upgrading of middle schools to high schools, emphasis on science and mathematics, to produce skillful nation, and change the curriculum from general education to development of agricultural, commercial and administrative skills. Policy maker did not focus the quality of education. Student's enrollment was the centre of attention.
Non- Plan Period (1970-78)
According to the Iqbal (1993) that during non-plan period, the main objectives of secondary education were to narrow down the difference between schools with the help of comprehensive curriculum, to achieve an enrollment ratio of 40:60 between science and arts programmes and consolidation of exiting secondary schools.
According to Govt. of Pakistan (1970), "At the high stage (Class IX and X) enrollment is proposed to be increased by: 35 million against an enrollment of 77 million at the end of third Plan."
Fifth Five-Year Plan (1978-83)
The fifth plan is very important in the regard of secondary education. There was a prominent change in education of quantity to quality. Curricula reform aimed at addition of job orient training in secondary education. 195 Science laboratories were constructed. The plan provides the agro- technical courses in 874 schools (Memon, 1986). Maintenance and improvement of facilities in all secondary schools would be compulsory. Although the necessity and importance of secondary education was accepted in all stakeholders, but later administrators neglected the said measures.
The Sixth Five-Year Plan (1983-88)
Education is very necessary for the development of a society. Without education, no one has ever been uplift himself and never help provide economically benefits to his nation. In according to sixth plan Mathematics, Urdu, Islamiyat, Pakistan Studies and Science subjects were the compulsory subjects. Special focus on mathematics and science was indispensable for all students at secondary education (Govt. of Pakistan, 1983). Quantity of high schools would be increased to 5530 and 1073 middle schools to be up-graded (Memon, 1986).
The Seventh Five-Year Plan (1988-93)
The education system suffers from critical condition. Forty percent of the children do not have access to education. According to Govt. of Pakistan (1988), "The seventh plan strategy was to increase the literacy rate through improvement and expansion of primary education as well as to motivate the private sector to play an active role. While it was estimated that the literacy rate will rise to about 40 percent by 1992-93, the infrastructure created during the seventh plan was expected to yield a literacy rate of 80 percent by end of the century."
The seventh plan will be expand the secondary education facilities. The curriculum at secondary level will be changed. For the improvement of quality of education in secondary schools, Bachelor of Education (B.Ed.) degree holder teachers will be appointed. A small hostel for students will be provided to secondary schools. One model school for boys and one for girls will be launched in each district for the improvement of quality (Hussain, 2003).
Eighth Five Year Plan (1993-98)
Education is fundamental right of every child. To fulfill the need of quantity, schools ignored the quality and a large number of educational institutions were opened without proper infrastructure. According to Govt. of Pakistan (1993), "Facilities for secondary education will be extended to absorb the increased output from primary schools. For this purpose, about 2.4 million additional seats in classes VI to X will be created by upgrading primary and middle schools, establishing new high schools and adding classrooms in the existing schools. Construction of additional classrooms and improvement of the existing buildings of schools will also be carried out. In urban areas, second shift will be introduced in secondary schools wherever feasible."
Private sector will be appreciated for the partnership to raise the enrollment at the secondary level. Curriculum will be revised for better quality. Science laboratories will be provided with better-trained teachers (Govt. of Pakistan, 1993).
Hussain (2003) evaluated that "The eighth national five year plan will encourage in spread of quality educational institutions to the remote areas of the country. Till the end of the Eighth plan, each district will have a model school for boys and each division will have such an institution for girls in the public or private sector. Private sector will be encouraged to establish the quality education institutions. Government will establish model schools only in districts where such institutions do not exist under public or private sector"
National Education Policies in Pakistan
Secondary education was discussed in all National Policies of Pakistan.
Report of Commission on National Education (1959)
On 30th December, 1958 the Government of Pakistan appointed a commission. The function of this commission is to analyze all the previous reports and all ongoing educational movements of the country. The commission recognized secondary education as a separate academic unit. The commission also suggested that the secondary education should be divided into three stages (6 to 12). Urdu, science and mathematics should be taught as compulsory subjects. Results should be complied on the performance of the students. Science labs and libraries should be provided in all secondary schools (Govt. of Pakistan, 1959).
The Education Policy (1972-1980)
On 15th March, 1972 the president of Pakistan Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto presented the Educational policy 1972-1980. He expressed that the education system was rendered by the cream of the crop in Pakistan. The government allocated very low budget for the education. The purpose of education should produce the nation with religious views, traditions and culture. Education system divided into four stages of primary secondary, college and university. According to Memon (1986),
"Secondary Education should not be abstract endeavor but must relate to the employment opportunities. The secondary education may provide for progressive integration of general and technical education. The enrollment in arts subjects may be restricted to the existing level and significant increase should be made in science and agro technical education"
National Education Policy, 1979
Secondary education was recognized as a terminal stage of students in the National Education Policy, 1979. The quality of higher education is based on the quality of secondary education. Elementary, secondary and university education are three levels of Pakistan's education system s. Physical facilities such as science labs, and libraries would be provided to the secondary schools. Curriculum should be upgraded. Mathematics would be compulsory subject. One thousand middle schools will be upgraded to high schools and 200 new schools would be opened. New teachers would be appointed (Ghaffar, 2003).
Board of Intermediate and Secondary would be held the examination system at secondary level. Estimated required budget was Rs. 8,073 million for secondary education (Govt. of Pakistan, 1979).
National Education Policy 1998-2010
In the view of National Education Policy 1998-2010, secondary education has played significant role in the whole education system. It enhances the work force for the economy and produce feeder the higher levels of education. The quality of higher education is based upon the quality of secondary education (Govt. of Pakistan, 1998).
The policy makers had pointed out some weakness in the secondary education such as:
No attraction for the investor.
Unplanned expansion and irrational distribution of schools.
Existence of science and mathematics teachers had not been valued.
Technical and vocational education at secondary level remained a controversial issue.
Physical facilities and textbooks were insufficient.
The following steps were identified in the policy for the achievement of the objectives of secondary education in the country:
New model secondary school would be opened.
Definite vocation at secondary level would be introduced.
Revision of curriculum would be compulsory.
Multiple text books would be introduced at secondary level.
In-service and pre-service teachers training programmes would be arranged.
Project method of teaching would be initiated at secondary level.
Education service commission would be established
Salary structures of teachers would be based on qualification.
Education card would be provided to needy students (Ghaffar, 2003).
The secondary level input rate is 32 percent which will be raised to 48 percent. According to Govt. of Pakistan (1998), "Curriculum at secondary stage will be based on two principles. First, at it will provide a compulsory core of subjects give every pupil the knowledge useful for a developing society. Second, it will include additional subjects and training to prepare the students of a definite career. Curricula for secondary stage (IX- XII) shall be revised with a view to stimulate problem solving, independent thinking and in the light of other objectives outlined above.
National Plan of Action 2001-2005
Technical education was offered in Matriculation as subject. Its main purpose was to prepare students for the practical life. After completing their secondary education, they could choose the work. National Plan of Action [NPA] had target to established 1,100 technical high schools in the country. The main objectives of NPA were to emphasis on education of women, to enhance participation of society and to promote the quality education. Quality improvement and school effectiveness had been given fundamental importance. The main quality inputs were also pointed out in the National Plan of Action 2001-2005. National Education Assessment System (NEAS) was introduced (Govt. of Pakistan, 2003).
National Education Policy 2009
The reviewed process for the National Education Policy 1998-2010 was shaped in 2005 named "White Paper". This White Paper became the basis of New Policy and finalized in March 2007.The secondary school system prepares young people for life. Providing skills to the labor market and providing input to the higher education are two important roles of secondary education. Access at secondary schools in Pakistan is low in comparison to other countries.
Average ratio of secondary to primary school is 1: 6 in Pakistan, but in different parts of the country, it is 1:13(Govt. of Pakistan, 2009).
Following steps will be taken for the improvement of secondary education in Pakistan:
Provision shall be expanded specially in those locations where the ratio of Secondary schools is low.
Student financial support shall be increased.
Students shall introduce more student-centre pedagogies.
Availability of counseling facilities for the students.
Life Skills-Based Education (LSBE) shall be promoted.
Sports activities shall be organized at secondary level.
Counseling at higher secondary level must also address the career concern.
Schooling shall be made more attractive by adding community service programmes.
Grade XI and XII shall not be part of the college and shall be consider the element school level.
Ranking of schools shall be introduced with rankings based on result outcomes.
"National Merit Programme" shall be introduced to award brilliant students (GOP, 2009).
Objectives of Secondary Education
Education is the main instrument for change in knowledge, skills, interests and value of the people. And education is only one instrument that can be used for the change purpose. At the stage of secondary education students begin to expose the different approaches of science, humanities and social sciences. This is an apt stage which provides the sense of history, to understand the constitutional duties, rights as citizen.
Certainly, economically we are so rearward that we need beg financial aids or loans from the advanced nations. These nations rule over us even in political matters in lieu of economic compulsions. The financial freedom has a great impact on the minds of people. If a nation desired to be self-governing it shall have to achieve economic independence through general education, science and technology. The objectives of secondary education are to generate qualified and skilled manpower for the development of the nation. In secondary institutions, a practical quantum of knowledge should be sufficient to provide the manpower to meet the challenges of the global world (Imran, 2008).
The objectives of secondary education have been modernized in various educational policies.
The objectives of secondary education are summarized as under:
Secondary school must provide all physical facilities.
Teachers must be talented and healthy minded.
Discipline must be maintained in the secondary schools.
Student should be able to express their knowledge and ideas vocally and in writing.
Secondary education should generate a sense of responsibility, integrity and a national spirit in students.
Curricula should be outstanding which fulfill the needs of the nation.
Secondary education should provide a solid foundation for higher scientific and technological education.
Secondary education needs to be extended and developed in the rural areas.
Teachers-students ratio should be maintained in all institutions of the secondary education so that individual attention could be paid to students.
Secondary education must create a sense of dignity of labor in the adolescence and fulfill requirement of second level manpower in Pakistan.
A student of secondary stage should be guided properly with modern instructional methods.
At this stage the physiological and psychological growths of adolescence are likely to bring about many important changes in their mental frame work. Therefore their ability of comprehension, commitment memorizing, significant admiration and reasoning should be developed to great extent. Secondary education should expand and improve such faculties in the adolescence so that they may play their role as useful citizens of Pakistan (Baloch, I 990).
Cardinal Principles of Secondary Education
Seven principles were published in 1918. This publication named as cardinal principles of secondary Education. These seven principles were:
2. Command of fundamental processes
3.Worthy Home Membership
5. Civic Education
6.Worthy Use of Leisure
7. Ethical Character (Shahzad, 2007)
According to these principles, school should provide health instruction; develop health habits and physical activities. Secondary schools should have command of fundamentals, such as mathematics, reading, writing and both expression. Worthy Home Membership contribute to increase the qualities of individuals. Vocational education should prepare the students for occupation. Individual's qualities could be developed by the Civic Education. School must provide the opportunities of positive use of spare time. Ethical character becomes the supreme objective of secondary school (McNeil & Wiles, 1990).
It seems very easy to define quality but it is difficult to describe. Dictionary definitions are unable to define word "quality" in one word. There are many expressions that can be taken in defining quality. The editors of Quality Digest said that defining the word "quality" is "no simple endeavor". They asked their readers to send their definitions of quality, in their December 1999 issue. Meeting the consumer expectations is the modern description of quality (Winder, Richard E. and Judd, Daniel K., 1996).
Dr. W. Edward approved himself as a pioneer who explains the meanings of quality. He introduced first time the basic principles of quality management. Under the process of evaluation, work output could be achieved as desired. Quality means "Degree of excellence a product or service provides."( Besterfeild, 2004). Excellence is often used as synonym of quality. Zuber & Ryan (1994) described the meanings of quality as characteristic, property or attributes. Quality is a special term for high lightening the specific attributes. Listen related quality to the complete of knowledge of products, services and customers. Quality can be defined as customers' perception for the worth of suppliers' production.
"Quality itself has been defined as fundamentally relational:Â 'Quality is the ongoing process of building and sustaining relationships by assessing, anticipating, and fulfilling stated and implied needs." (Winder, Richard E. and Judd, Daniel K., 1996)
Adams (1993,pp. 12-13) identifies numerous definitions of quality as concepts -in-use with following characteristics:
Having multiple meanings.
Reflection of individual values and interpretations.
Multidimensional concept; it may include
Dynamic; it changes over time and by context.
Assessed by either quantitative or qualitative measures.
Goals of quality may conflict with other goals.
Quality is stuck with values, cultures and traditions.
Stakeholders have different definitions of quality for instance, "winners" or "losers".
Quality of Education
It is very important to have awareness about the meanings of quality in the context of education. Many definitions of quality in education exist, testifying to the complexity and multifaceted nature of the concept. Adam, 1993 stated that the terms efficiency, effectiveness, equity and quality have often been used synonymously (Adams, 1993).There are many concepts of "quality" in education. It is vary nation to nation. For instance, a school curriculum without religious module is not quality education in a religious society. On the hand, in a liberal society, priorities are different. Quality of education means setting values and standards which make outlines to assessment and evaluation of targets.
According to British Standard Institution (BSI, 1991), quality is the cumulative of features and characteristics of a product or service that bear on its ability to satisfy stated or implied needs. The quality of administrative upkeep and guidance is another critical component in higher education procedures, both for pupils and for instructors.
The quality education is a necessity for the progress of societies with a purpose to articulate knowledge and skill based human reserves. UNICEF strongly emphasizes what might be called desirable dimensions of quality, as identified in the Dakar Framework (2000). Its paper Defining Quality in Education recognizes five dimensions of quality: learners, environments, content, processes and outcomes, founded on 'the rights of the whole child, and all children, to survival, protection, development and participation (UNICEF, 2000).
The World Education Forum, Dakar Framework of Action (2000) emphasize the quality of education "Improving all aspects of the quality of education, and ensuring their excellence of all therefore, recognized and measurable learning outcomes are achieved by all especially in literacy, numeracy and essential life skills."According to the Jomtien Declaration of Education for All (EFA, 1990), the quality of education is definite learning outcomes rather the enrollment. Main objective of education must be to attain the quality of outcomes.
The Recife Declaration of UNESCO-9 Project (Education for All in the nine most populous developing countries) of January (2000), confirmed the promise to improve the quality of basic education via different measures.The Beijing Declaration of the E-9 Project on ICT and EFA (August, 2001) reaffirmed its commitment to lift up the quality of education by using Information Communication Technology (ICT).
In Pakistan, priority of quantity was also replaced by quality. The National Education Policy 1998 has included many elements for improving quality. The central message of SAP-II and EFA is quality Education. The National Education Policy (1992) renowned the quality aspects and pointed out different strategies for the purpose. The National Education Policy (1998-2010) gave a detailed list of quality inputs such as merit-based teachers, pre-service and in-service training of teachers, improving the quality and availability of books etc. The National Plan of Action (NPA) also concerns the of quality education. Reforms in curriculum, textbooks, trained teachers, improved assessment system are major quality inputs. The National Education Policy (1998-2010) suggested the quality assurance in education could be possible by the upgraded teachers, textbooks and curricula, and assessment system (Govt. of Pakistan, 2009).
Behrman, J. R., A. D. Foster, M. R. Rosenweig, and P. Vashishtha (1999) evaluated Quality of education can be measured by student's achievement which depends upon personal abilities of the child, family background, school and teacher-related inputs into the educational process. Student success has always been considered key indicator of educational quality. Adams (1993) defined six elements of quality i.e. reputation of an institution, resources & inputs, process, content, output & outcomes, and value added.
Quality of education is a multi-dimensional concept, with varying conceptualizations. It includes, within its ambit, the quality of inputs in the form of students, faculty, support staff and the infrastructure: the quality of processes in the form of learning and teaching activity: and the quality of outputs in the form of the enlightened students who move out of the system (Sahney, Karunes & Banwet, 2001).
According to the UNESCO (1998), quality of education depends upon Quality of staff, quality of curricula, quality of students, quality of infrastructure and of the external environment, quality of management of institution. In 2005, a comprehensive report was presentenced by EFA Global Monitoring. The main elements of education system were reviewed in a framework for understanding of education quality.
Figure 2.2: A framework for understanding education quality
ISO 9000:2005 defined eight quality management principles. These principles are Customer focus, Leadership, Involvement of people, Process approach, System approach to management, Continual improvement, Factual approach to decision making and Mutuality beneficial supplier relationship.
Indicators of quality
Every society has assured measures or else status indicators of educational quality. Commonly, these indicators can be divided into three categories; educational inputs, educational outputs, and educational processes. Financial measures, physical measures, and manpower measures are inputs. Educational expenditures per student are summarized through financial measures. Age, condition and comprehensiveness of such facilities as classrooms, laboratories and libraries and provision of international and equipment are under the account of physical measures. Manpower measures include the number of different types of personals (Murnaue, 1987).
Educational outputs refer to the results of educational process. Level of knowledge, skills and values achieved by students and afterward selection of careers are the reflection of educational outputs (Murnaue, 1987). Educational processes refer to the dealings of students with the personals, the curriculum, requirements of the course, educational environment of the organization and co- curricular activities. Many examples exist to prove that inputs, outputs and process are interlinked. These indicators can be used for collecting information. This information can be converted into sound strategies for raising the quality of education. (Murnaue, 1987).
Role of Private Sector
Public sector alone cannot fulfill the needs of growing population. Private sector has to share this burden. So, both public and private sectors are busy in providing education. Since the Pakistan came into being, the private sector had a major contribution in providing education through schools at different levels. This importance was proved in the Education Conference held in Karachi. Fazal-ur-Rahman, Minister of education (Govt. of Pakistan, 1947), said that, "It is significant that in all countries, which have developed national system of education, private initiatives have borne a major share of the cost involved".
The need for involvement of private schools was again realized in the National Education Policy, 1979.The National Education Policy, 1979 evaluated the significance of nationalization. The policy makers concluded that as the result of nationalization of private schools, it would be difficult for government to provide education alone. It was considered essential to encourage participation of the private sector for better outcomes of literacy rate (Iqbal, 2005).
Many writers (Bray, 1996; James in Boyd 1989; kitaev, 1999) defended the private schools as a substitute to public education on the basis of following reasons:
Access and coverage.
Redundant teaching force.
Profit making motive among school managers.
Inadequate public supply or deliberate government policy.
According to the Oxford Concise Dictionary (2011), private sector is the part of a country's economy that consists of privately owned enterprises. The private schools, according to the same dictionary, is a school under the financial and managerial control of a private body or charitable trust accepting mostly fee-paying students. Private Sector has always a momentous role for providing educational facilities to a large number of pupils since independence.
Ministry of Education (2008/09) indicates that students are enrollment 17,205,194 at primary level in public and private sectors and at middle level are 5,346,736 in Pakistan. 17,512 students are enroll in private primary schools out of 155,827 with teachers 435,577 (of whom 202,421are female teachers). Whereas middle public schools are 40,917 and private are 25,224 with 323,935 teachers (of whom 210,703 were female teachers). The enroll ratio of students is 2,491,681 at higher secondary in 24,322 public higher secondary schools and 14,266 in the private sector with 380,068 teachers containing 211,027 female teachers(MoE-AEPM, 2009).
Quality of Education in Public Schools at Secondary
All schools whose expenses and salaries of the teachers are drawn from government are public schools. It's duty of public sector to provide education free or nominal charges. Education is the right of every child and it is the State's responsibility to provide education to each and every child. "Everyone has the right to education", stated in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948), cited in the (Pakistan's) National Education Policy 1998-2010. This essential right has been accepted in the Convention on the Rights of the Child 1989 stressing that the child has a right to education and it is the duty of the State to ensure that Primary education is free and compulsory.
The National Education Policy 1998-2010 indicates,
"The ideology of Pakistan lays down two important obligations on the government. Firstly, education will be accessible to all citizens. Secondly, it shall enable them to prepare enlightened and civilized individual committed to the cause of Islam; these tw obligations are in accordance with the teachings of the Holy Quran, which recognize the provision of education as a right of the individual"
According to Article 37 (b) of the 1973 constitution of Islamic Republic of Pakistan, the state is responsible to provide necessities of life, "the state shall remove illiteracy and provide free and compulsory Secondary Education within minimum possible period-----------"
"Our education system must provide quality education to our children and youth to enable them to realize their individual potential and contribute to development of society and nation, creating a sense of Pakistani nationhood, the concepts of tolerance, social justice, democracy, their regional and local culture and history based on the basic ideology enunciated in the Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan" (National Education Policy, 2009, p.17)
Government spend on Education is very low as compared to other countries of the South Asian region. According to official data, Pakistan allocated 2.5% of GDP during2006â€07, 2.47% in 2007â€08, 2.1% in 2008â€09 and 2.0 % in 2009â€10 which shows constant declining trend. According to UNESCO's EFA Global Monitoring Report (2009), the Public Sector expenditure on Education as percentage of GDP, in other countries of the region was 2.6% in Bangladesh, 3.2% in Nepal, 3.3% in India, 5.2% in Iran and 8.3% of GDP in Maldives (AEPM,2010-11).
Quality of Education in Private Schools at Secondary
Recognizing that the Government alone cannot achieve the policy objectives, it is imperative to seek volition involvement of the private sector in the expansion of the education. The private sectors need to be assured that the educational institutions established by them in the Future will not be nationalized. Unless such an assurance is forthcoming, the private enterprise is most likely to remain shy of making any further investment in the education. The nation also needs assurance that the private institutions would maintain high quality and provide the required physical facilities (Govt. of Pakistan, 1979). In pursuance of National Education Policy of 1979, the Punjab Private Education Institutions (Promotion and regulation), Ordinance No. 11 was passed in 1984.
Private schools have important role in education field and perform a valuable service by taking the "load off" government schools. Private schools over public schools, both in terms of student achievement and unit cost .However, studies on Tanzania (Lassibille & Tan, 2001) found that public schools are more effective than private schools in Tanzania in boosting student achievement. Not surprisingly, a review of the developing country literature points out that the relative efficiency of private and public schools has remained unresolved till date (Glewwe, 2002). Indeed, the most recent developing country study on private school effectiveness, Uribe et al. (2006), draws upon student achievement data from Colombia and concludes that, on average, private and public schools are equally effective. A similar debate also continues in South Asia.
Imran (2011) analyzed that that private sector schools has actually less number of students and teachers at secondary level as compared to public sector schools. The results of 10th class students in boards' examinations of private schools are better than government schools. In public sector schools student-teacher ratio is higher than private schools. Heads of private sector secondary schools are better than heads of public sector secondary schools regarding involvement of subordinate staff in decision making, keeping themselves as a part of team. But the heads of public sector secondary schools are more qualified academically as well as professionally. Teachers of public secondary schools are more qualified academically as well as professionally having command over teaching methodology as compared to the teachers of private secondary schools. In public school teachers have also job security and their pay structure is well. On the other hand, private sector is lacking these factors. Behavior of teachers of private schools is motivating and they encourage questioning and enhanced creativity among students, whereas public schools are lacking these factors. Position of physical facilities is better in public secondary schools than in private secondary schools with respect to buildings, libraries, play grounds, furniture. While position of private sector secondary schools is better in availability of computer lab. Curriculum of both types of systems is not up-to-date.
Rehan (12 Mar, 2012) says that the numbers of public schools have not proper learning environment and infrastructure. The primary education sector needs attention of government of Pakistan. Urban and rural public schools are not producing quality of education. Therefore parents have to search substitutes. So private schools charge high fees from the parents for their satisfaction. Amjad (as cited in Bari & Muzaffar, 2010) identified the fact that public and private both types have low level of quality education. Private schools have less problems of education than public schools. Consequently, the policy makers should care and improve both the sectors. Private schools create the competition environment for the public schools.
Problems and issues of quality at Secondary Level
Quality in education is a multidimensional concept which includes all the functions and activities which are part of a school system. Learners, teachers, environment, physical facilities, teaching methodology, transformation of content and process of evaluation are elements of a school. If a school wants to get quality assurance, then it should cover all the areas for improvement.
The secondary education is the most sensitive stage in our educational system. During this crucial period, the objectives should be comprehensive and practical. Sometime, the teenager boys and girls are involved in destructive activities. This young generation will become the leader of nation. Education has to prepare future leaders with mature vision. Secondary education has its own objectives according to the needs of youth. So the curricula should be enriched by putting emphasis on humanities and social sciences to develop the culture characteristics in individuals. It should be fulfill for the economic needs of country. Educational institutions have been increasing over time, but not rapidly according to the needs (Khan, Shah & Hussain , 2004).
Another important problem is medium of instruction. Language is a vital aspect of learning. In Pakistan, three languages are used; native language for instruction, Urdu as national language and English. Native language such as Punjabi, Sindhi has great significance in the mind set of teenagers. Everyone knows a mother tongue .It is better in primary level to literate in one language. Children learn their basic language skills from their mothers and only few mothers can speak Urdu. Now-a-days English has got essential place in the students. Global world is interlinked because of English language (Khan, Shah & Hussain ,2004). The inner effectiveness of an education system is relevant to the improvement of modern facilities. According to the Report of Commission on National Education (1959),
"Several factors are involved which deserve further consideration. The size and shape of classrooms must be conducive to good vision and hearing. The placement and size of windows to permit maximum light and ventilation, acoustics, construction patterns and furniture that will minimize the possibility of injury to small children an color that get the most advantage from natural light an prevent eye strain, are a few problems that have assorted the attention of researchers elsewhere."
Physical facilities at school are very helpful in the uplift of the students. Khan, Shah and Hussain (2004) observed that the physical facilities in a school had a significant impact on students' performance. In their point of view, availability of drinking water, electricity, boundary wall, toilets, furniture, playgrounds and dispensary were determining factors and had positive impact on the students' achievement.
Presence of a rich library is a mark of good school. The Commission on National Education says that: "The academic heart of the school should be its library, which should be specially stocked to meet the educational requirements"
Teachers are the pillars of an educational system. Trained teachers contribute in the personality building of the students. In fact, quality of educational process depends on the quality of teachers. The success of a school depends on the competence of the trained teachers. Adebor (1987) suggested the interaction of three processes for the teaching improvement.
Faculty Development. ( knowledge, skills, attitudes and techniques of faculty members)
Organizational Development.(change in structure, policies and organizational environment)
Instructional Development.(systematic design, development, implementation and evaluation of instructional lessons)