Food Studies Practical At Form Vi Level Education Essay

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Since the personal computer was first introduced in the 1970s, its processing power has progressed by leaps and bounds. The PC is now able to process the multimedia elements as well as become a communication device. With this advancement, the Information and Communication Technology (ICT), particularly the multimedia technology, has rapidly permeated and increasingly altered the landscape in the educational arena. In this section, we would focus on using multimedia as a strategic instructional media and the infusion of ICT and the multimedia technology into education which has created an impact on the traditional teaching and learning process. This has led to a new paradigm in education and the evolution of new concepts in content development and a number of innovative methods in which information can be communicated to the learners. This new learning environment will undoubtedly influence the way teachers teach and students learn.

2.1 FOOD STUDIES PRACTICAL AT FORM VI LEVEL

Food Studies is a dynamic subject and various teaching strategies can be used to teach the content of the syllabus. It combines the theoretical and practical aspect, drawing knowledge and skills to solve real life problems. In accordance to the National Curriculum framework for secondary schools, Home Economics is an interdisciplinary subject drawing on the fields of nutrition and dietetics, textiles, fashion and design, human development, relationships and behaviour. Home Economics education nowadays is concerned with promoting the development of skills to identify needs and wants as well to manage available resources efficiently and effectively. The objectives of this subject are to develop the analytical, evaluative and decision making skills of the students. Of course to be able to achieve these objectives, the students should have the proper knowledge background and basic application skills of that knowledge in real life situations (Appendix 3). Thus the emphasis is on applying theories and not on mere memorizing.

This study focuses on the practical aspect of the subject which aims at encouraging creativity and developing precise skills among form VI students. In the practical classes students should be able to interpret visual and instructions- demonstrate manipulative and culinary skills and show their ability to work with precision so as to prepare each dish correctly. The practical ability is developed through direct experiences of practical work and offers opportunity for learners to develop themselves in the following domains of learning:

Cognitive Learning: involving the acquiring and recalling of the steps behind each process/ the techniques involved and the equipment to use.

Psychomotor Learning : refers to the fine motor skills and more precisely to the ability of manipulate dough correctly

Affective Learning: concerns with the motivation of learners and appreciation of each lesson.

According to the assessment objectives of the syllabus, learners should be able to identify, recall, interpret, select and apply knowledge to relevant areas of study identified in the syllabus. The scheme of assessment for Food Studies is as follow:

Table 1: A level exams content and weightage

Candidates take:

Weighting

Paper 1 3 hours

Written theory paper testing candidate's knowledge of theory and practice.

Section A: the science of foods and nutrition

Section B: the practical application of food science to food handling and preparation

50%

and:

Paper 2 Planning 2½ hours

Practical* Preparation ½ hours

Practical test 2 ½ hours

Candidates select one from a choice of three practical assignments.

Practical work should be closely linked to the nutritional aspects of the subject and should include nutritional calculations. The underlying scientific principles of food preparation and cooking should be constantly emphasized. Dishes chosen for the practical examination should show manipulative skills and competent use of equipment.

40%

and:

Paper3

Coursework investigation

A written report of an investigation undertaken by the candidates toward the end of the first year of study and completed during the second year of the examination course.

The investigation must be a personal study linked to the course as a whole and there must be both theoretical and practical application of nutrition throughout the piece of work.

10%

2.1.1 TAXOMOMIES APPLIED TO FOOD STUDIES

At School Certificate level, the emphasis is mainly on knowledge and application as around 60% of the marks are allocated for these items and only 40% is allocated to analysis and evaluation. So, a student with the ability to memorize the theories and a minimum of application analysis and evaluation is able to perform well at SC level and get a good credit at least. However this is different at HSC level as more emphasis is put on analysis and evaluation. The marks allocated for knowledge and application is around 40% and 60% is given for analysis and evaluation. Thus, it is harder for students to get good results in HSC than in SC. This is why sometimes students who did well in SC end up with bad results in HSC. However, when students reach HSC level, the degree of maturity that they have helps them to analyze and evaluate their reasoning skills better.

For Food Studies practical, students have to prepare highly skillful dishes and compared to the O level planning. Also students need to show their creativity and originality in their work. Repetition of dishes should be discouraged and a variation of dishes using local produce should be encouraged. Versatility is essential for the practical paper. Overall, students manage to perform well in this paper as at the end of the practical test, they manage to serve all the 5 dishes but surprisingly the results for the practical paper are always bad. For the past three years, I have observed a drop in the practical results. Thus, students tend to do better in paper 1. Maybe it is due to the fact that the practical conditions and corrections are severe (Appendix 4) or many pupils show poor manipulative skills and rarely make effort to bring remedial action during the practical test, if something goes wrong. As stated above, since the practical test carries 40% of the total marks, it would be beneficial for the pupil to explore their cognitive and manipulative skills to score highest marks.

The use of computer- based learning may be a solution to the problems encountered by pupils during the practical classes. Kolb.et,al. (2001) argued that the use of computer based instructions can only enhance the reflective process and long term learning. Similarly Jacobs. et,al (2003) attested that technology meaningfully to support the learning process focus attention spark imagination and improve understanding. Thus to better enable learners to grasp the main processes expected from them to ensure success for the practical test, multimedia would be used. Through this, the constructivist approach would be demonstrated through spontaneous interaction of students with their environment by presenting ready- made knowledge verbally. The introduction of technology in class will aim at conveying messages and information generating a high level of autonomy, creativity, precision, research and responsibility as regard to technological media. Hence learners will have the opportunity to enjoy learning and develop deeper interest to perform manipulative skills better.

2.2 BENEFITS OF TEACHING AND LEARNING WITH MULTIMEDIA

The ICT (Information and Communication Technology) revolution is fast changing the world, and creating a generation that is media-hungry and technologically savvy. This new generation is using digital media for learning and communicating (Tapscott, 1998). Certain educational institutions have recognized this potential and used computers as instructional tools (interactive digital blackboard). However, in the context of education, technology also refers to the process of applying the tools for educational purposes. In other words, "educational technology is a combination of the processes and tools involved in addressing educational needs and problems, with an emphasis on applying the most current tools: computers and their related technologies" (Roblyer and Edwards, 2000).

The advent of multimedia and multimedia technologies has changed the way educators teach and students learn. With multimedia, the communication of the information can be done in a more effective manner and it can be an effective instructional medium for delivering information. Multimedia application design offers new insights into the learning process by representing information and knowledge in a new and innovative way (Neo and Neo, 2006). The use of multimedia as a platform for teaching is made even more possible with the audio visual rooms in schools and the availability of laptops that are powerful, fast, and able to process all media elements effortlessly and quickly, and multimedia software packages that are user-friendly yet power-packed. Multimedia "provides a means to supplement a presenter's efforts to garner attention, increase retention, improve comprehension, and to bring an audience into agreement", which consequently results in people remembering 20% of what they see, 40% of what they see and hear, but about 75% of what they see and hear and do simultaneously (Lindstrom 2004).

Multimedia learning can be used in the teaching field to arouse interest, to facilitate communication, to transmit ideas, to perceive visual concepts or situation through multi- sensory channels. The use of multimedia in Food studies practical will be a new era of experience for both pupils and educators. The wide spectrum of multimedia can be of sound help to the students if they are used constructively. As Wittrock, M. C. (2009) says audio visual images hold interest, facilitate retention and help recall information and processes. Thus, it enables students to visualize abstract concepts and ideas so that they are more meaning. For slow learners multimedia may be used as a remedial method of instruction. Multimedia, if correctly used can significantly increase and reinforce the teaching and learning process. It does not only arouse students' interest on visually presented contents but engage more than one sense of the learners, i.e. they facilitate listening and remembering, they excite and stimulate emotions and thinking, they encourage students to try and reflect upon certain things and they help students to better master certain techniques that may have always been abstract to them. Thus, the mass media is known to have a great potential in communicating key message in developing skills, knowledge and attitudes in students promptly and effectively. (Spector, J.M et al; 2008)

2.3 MUL TIMEDIA AS A TEACHING AND LEARNING TOOL

In the traditional talk and chalk method the teacher is the source of the knowledge and presents the knowledge to the students, who are in turn, passive receivers of the information. With multimedia, the communication of the information can be done in a more effective manner and it can be an effective instructional medium for delivering educational information. This is because it enables the teacher to represent the information in various media, i.e., via sound, text, animation, video and images. With multimedia, the teacher is now the director of the knowledge and can use the various combinations of media elements to create interactive educational content. The result is a stimulating environment for learning and retaining the information delivered. The marriage of content and multimedia technology results in interactive multimedia materials which can be delivered to the students in a teacher-centered, student-centered, or mixed teaching and learning modes (Figure 1).

Technology Teacher knowledge

& &

Multimedia Content

Interactive

Multimedia

Content

Student Centred Hybrid Mode Teacher - Centred

Figure 1: Using multimedia to represent content and delivering via various methods

In the teacher-centered mode, the teacher is the one in control of the information that is received by the students and is responsible for how much information is being disseminated to them. The teacher-centred methods include presentations and demonstrations to process the information. Students are also able to retain and recall the information as well as obtain mastery in the subject matter with drills and practices, and tutorials, which are highly interactive. The multimedia courseware can also be packaged on the CD-ROM and delivered in a networked classroom leading to a teacher-centered mode where the courseware is opened on their PCs and the students follow the teacher's lecture on their PCs.

In the student-centered method, the students construct their own knowledge and bring their authentic experiences into the learning process with the teacher as the facilitator. The multimedia courseware content can also be packaged as a Web file and delivered on the Internet in a Web browser can result in online courses where the students access the courseware from a browser on their PCs or mobile. The student is then free to engage in learning on his or her own time and pace, and consequently, the learning mode is student-centered. This multimedia material can be used to foster team-processing and active learning as with collaborative and cooperative methods. This encourages higher-level learning, increases comprehension and retention rates, and focuses on the total development of the student in self-accessed and self-directed learning.

In the mixed mode, the teacher has the flexibility to incorporate the two teaching and learning approaches whenever they deem them useful, to increase and enhance their students' learning processes. Here, the student learns the materials on his or her own time and pace, and interacts with the teacher via video-conferencing in real-time.

2.3.1 HOW THE BRAIN PROCESS INFORMATION

Our ability to process information is a multi-step process that involves the perception, attention, selection, organization and integration of information (Sweller, 2003). At the centre of this process is long term memory. As the name implies, our long term memory stores our accumulated knowledge. Our accumulated knowledge is organized into chunks of information in what are known as schema. Schemas allow us to organize information in meaningful ways and help us integrate and organize new information (Chi, Glaser, and Rees,

2002).In short, our long term memory is where what we know is stored and where we integrate new information. If information does not find its way into long term memory, it is lost. Learning can be thought of as change in our long term memory.In a traditional classroom situation, before information can be integrated into long term memory it must be received and processed by the working memory. Working memory is very limited; it can only handle small amounts of information before it has to be integrated into the long term memory or lost. George Miller (2006) suggested that students can only process about seven pieces of information at one time while learning. And, this must be done so quickly, as the working memory can only keep information for about 20 seconds. Multimedia applications are more effective when learner attention is not split. Split attention occurs when the learner is forced to attend to information that is far apart, such as when content is visually far apart on the screen or if it is presented at two separate points in time. In short, when related content is presented together in time and visually, learning is more effective (Mayer, 2005).

When related content is not presented together, learner attention is split and the brain has more work to do to integrate the disparate sources of information.

2.3.2 LEARNING THEORIES ASSOCIATED WITH MULTIMEDIA

'Words and pictures are better than words alone'

The constructivist learning theories argues that learners acquire knowledge and draws meaning from their existing know how/ experiences and this has a direct impact on the education provided to them. Constructivism has in roots based on traditional psychology from Bruner (1966) Dewey (1996), Piaget (1970) and Vygotsky (1978).

The fundamental principle behind multimedia learning is best described by Richard Mayer (2005), one of the leading researchers in this area: People learn better from words and pictures than from words alone. In this context, words include written and spoken text, and pictures include static graphic images, animation and video.That using both words and pictures is more effective than words alone should not be surprising in light of what we know about how the brain processes information. Research tells us that the use of both words and

pictures lets the brain process more information in working memory (Sweller, 2005).

Extending this basic principle,Mayer (2005) and his colleagues tell us that narration and video is much more effective than narration and text. Narration and text rely on the same channel to process information (Baddelley, 1999).By using multiple channels of working memory, multimedia content can increase the likelihood that information will be effectively integrated into long term memory and not lost.

2.4 MULTIMEDIA TOOLS USED AS A TEACHING AID

Multimedia education involves a wide variety of tools being used to foster better learning and understanding among learners. It brings a shift from a teacher-centered class, isolated and text- bounded classroom to a rich student- centered and interactive learning environment. To meet these challenges, educational institution must provide the Home Economics specialized room with certain facilities like an overhead projector, laptops and other appropriate tools for learning.

2.4.1 ICT as a support for learning

According to (Chandler, P,and Sweler, J. (2001) learners cannot be taught nor can learning take place until the latter are convinced that the teacher cares for them. Learners have a human need to feel catered for and this motivates them and enables them to do better in their studies. The best learning situations involve real communication than just passing facts to the students. In such environment, learners are likely to interact with peers, develop friendship and learn among themselves.

Technology is becoming part of education each year. Technology helps students to acquire a greater sense of responsibility for their work by generating higher quality work and increase in depth knowledge and talent. Various types of technology can be used to support the learning process using multimedia. Each technology is likely to play a different role in the learning process. In this new era, the use of computers in schools has grown more diversified as educators recognize the importance and potential of learning 'with' technology as a mean for enhancing students reasoning, creativity and problem solving abilities. In review of existing evidence of technology's impact on learning, Gardner, H. (2003) found strong evidence that educational technology 'complements' what a great teacher does naturally', extending their reach and broadening their students' experience beyond the classroom. Gardner also suggest that the recipe to success involves the learner, the teacher, the content and the teaching resources to be used to ensure students motivation and participation

2.4.2. Internet

It is a polyvalent tool in the teaching and learning of certain advanced techniques like cake decoration and vegetable carving. With the Internet, pupils as well as teachers can allow access to global information. As per the constructivist theories, the internet is an informative tool. Thus students can access reliable websites and download relevant information or demos and the process can be viewed over and over again. This would not only encourage them to become autonomous learners but would bring along an additional touch to their learning concept. In addition, concerning the teacher, varying the teaching aids is important to ensure the smooth success of the practical classes. Thus, to ensure effective learning and teaching, the second or next practical could be conducted using multimedia, which implies less of teacher led class and the students would be encouraged to put into practice what they have seen. The advantage of such an activity would be that, while working, the students would be more concentrated on the techniques and special points that they have grasped. It has been predicted by that Park, O. (2004) that internet is probably going to be the single most important application for education in the years to come. Students would be able to access educational wed sites where by just a single click would solve all their queries.

2.4.3 CD- Rom

Teaching through CD- Rom and using computer is considerably stimulating. It captivates the audience's attention and interest since it is seen to be the most powerful and liveliest medium of communication. The use of CD- Rom triggers the student's mental, emotional and intellectual response. They capitalize on synchronized sound, motion and movement. The body language and verbal/nonverbal communication shown when handling, preparing and serving food is another form of performance based learning activity. In such a way, variety in the teaching and learning process is brought about and it stimulates interest. Information from T. V shows, culinary programs, documentaries can be used to supplement students 'savoir- faire'. The advantage of such programs is that they can be viewed over again in case the students are having problems to follow the steps. Above all, the most important aspect of using CD-ROMs is due to the fact that it is an easy portable device and is ideal for scaffolding. Thus, I believe that the value of teaching using multimedia will aid students to formulate ideas, stimulate their thinking skills and develop motivation.

2.4.4. Computer simulations

Simulations can show pupils phenomena and processes which may be too slow, or too fast, or too expensive to carry out in school laboratories. Simulations can have many advantages as discussed further up. Money can be saved in directly copying some practical. For revision classes, using computer simulation instead of a genuine practical activity may save time. It is quite time consuming and complex to illustrate the different ways of cake decoration required for the A level examinations. This takes a lot of time, energy and it is costly. This would imply baking a cake for each selected decoration. However, the use of simulation may help to overcome this situation but at the same time, the students would be able to learn complex skills. By observing the process, students have an idea how to proceed, how to position their hand and skills involved. Thus for the practical class, each student can be allocated a specific method and through peer teaching and learning, the whole process is being learn. In addition to that, the process can be reviewed and further explained. The students may then use the basic ideas and creativity to build on other skills that might help them to do better master certain culinary skills.

2.4.5 Videos and mobile learning

The internet is full of useful educational sites which are designed with videos that may be used to enhance learning. Teachers and students can search for topics relevant for their lesson and download the videos instead of traditional lectures or to support the lesson. Many videos contain link to printable resources that the teacher can use to enhance learning. For the purpose of this study, videos would be downloaded as well as produced to demonstrate the expected outcome of the lesson. Thus learners will be able to have access to the resources through their PC at home or they can save the video on the mobile for further viewing as a revision guide. It is found that mobile learning is developing fast - mobile learning can offer great value to learners because it can connect learners to the knowledge and expertise they need. Integrating technology into all teaching and learning areas so as to enhance learning and to prepare our students for their roles in the digital world in which we live. Today's generation of students view technology as part of their everyday environment. To fully meet their learning needs, technology should be passive, that is always available.

2.5 MOTIVATION AND INTEREST

It is believe that the use of multimedia can enhance teaching and learning. Studies have shown that it has a positive effect on learners' motivation. Learners are naturally more involved and the desire to participate in the learning process is more effective. There are a lot of assumptions on the use of multimedia like it is a more appealing way of teaching; it is more pleasing and interesting to learners compared to traditional teaching. Gullo (2000) reported evidence that pleasure and diversity in learning keep learners engage and on task during the lecture. When considering multimedia development, motivation must be carefully considered. Motivation is one of the primary factors that influence the effectiveness of instruction. According to Lepper & Malone, 2007 Multimedia provides an opportunity to incorporate many motivational factors. (Jacobs & Dempsey, 2003) Motivating a student means the student is excited and will maintain interest in the activity or subject. It is important for teachers to be able to motivate their students to be able to motivate their students to effort and persistence and therefore improve performance.

The two types of motivation are intrinsic and extrinsic. Extrinsic motivation is when a student's goal is outside her, and not necessarily related to the task at hand. When a student is extrinsically motivated she is not interested in learning for knowledge, but for the rewards offered, such as good grades or financial gain. Extrinsic motivation can also be triggered by a desire to avoid unpleasant consequences. An intrinsically motivated student desires to learn the information simply because she is interested, or because she believe it will be useful to her later. Intrinsic motivation is more likely to create lifelong learners than extrinsic motivation, because reward systems are temporary. A combination of both types of motivation may be necessary in order to motivate as many students as possible in the classroom. (Omrod, 2002) To define where motivations in multimedia come from, cognitive

theories, and the motivational components of multimedia must be explored.

2.6 MOTIVATION AND LEARNING THEORIES

The relationship between motivation and the student has been explored by many theorists, creating several perspectives that can give some insight to the reasoning behind motivation. There are three basic perspectives the behaviorist perspective, the social cognitive perspective, and the cognitive perspective.

The first perspective is the behaviorist perspective. Behaviorist perspective is primarily external because it proposes that students are motivated by reinforcement or punishment. However, the behaviorists recognize that personal needs play and important role in the reasoning behind what students do. Since the learning environment would be a student- centered one, the students would be more motivated to discover the processes and the teacher will have more time to give individual attention to the pupils in difficulties and immediate remedial action can be taken. Thus this would develop a sense of confidence in each student and individual monitoring of their work will enable the learners master the appropriate skills. If the use of multimedia is carefully planned and pedagogically implemented, it can support the learning objectives effectively and in turn contribute to long lasting engagement of learners in the learning process

Social cognitive theorists believe students are motivated by personal goals, expectation of consequences, and the self-efficacy of the student. All three are seen as the cognitive factors that influence motivation. This means the teacher has to encourage students to set their own goals and be extremely supportive during the learning process. The cognitive theory differs slightly because it explores intrinsic motivation more thoroughly. An important way to motivate pupils is to focus on their interest so as to arouse their curiosity and draws their attention. Interest based learning is more pupil oriented and increase the likelihood of pupils being active in the learning process. Effective learning occurs when learners are immersed in an activity in which they make use of their prior knowledge and interest to support their new learning. Cognitive theorists believe there are three parts to intrinsic motivation. First, students must make sense of inconsistencies with already learned material, known as disequilibrium. Second, students must feel they have some competence. Lastly, they must have a sense of self-determination; they need to feel they have some control over their lives. (Omrod, 2002)

2.7 LEARNERS ATTITUDE TOWARDS MULTIMEDIA LEARNING

When learners are motivated, they have a positive attitude and better commitment to learn. Numerous studies have shown that learners develop learners develop a positive attitude toward self and the use of multimedia as a teaching tool. The studies also revealed that pupils perform better when multimedia is incorporates in the curriculum. Learning with multimedia is not only fun but also increase the self- confidence and self -esteem of learners resulting in better affective and cognitive learning and better performance.

2.7.1 TEACHING AND LEARNING STRATEGIES USED

Ramsden, P. (1992) state that effective teachers draw on a wide range of approach to teaching and learning as there is no best way of teaching for all the learners and teachers must have a repertoire of approaches to ensure that all areas of learning (cognitive, psychomotor and affective) are catered for in the teaching. The teaching strategies used for this study are:

Traditional Teaching v/s Multimedia Teaching.

Traditional teaching includes : 1. Brainstorming

2. Questioning

3. Guided discovery Learning

4. Pair - work

5. Peer teaching/ Learning

6. Hands on Activity

Multimedia teaching including : 1. The use of online- video

2. The use of video recordings

3. The use of computer simulations

Multimedia is an all-inclusive term which refers to the use of a variety of sources in presenting information for learning. In recent times, the term hypermedia has rather been more commonly used. Alessi and Trollip (2001) indicate that the concept of hypermedia and multimedia includes information that embodies a multisensory combination, including texts, audio, video, and photographs. This means that multimedia represents an extension, improvement and integration of the books or print medium that has been the main source of teaching with other sources to give it a greater sensory power. The use of multimedia is important because of its high ability of combining two of the most powerful cognitive tools for encoding meaning in memory which are attention and fidelity.

Learning with multimedia has the power of capturing the attention of learners. The psychology of memory attests that attention and motivation are the main precursors of learning. However as this benefit of multimedia (video) is obvious, there is less need to delve too deeply into it, but consider the other benefits of using video in teaching.

High Fidelity: Alessi and Trollip (2001) define fidelity as how closely a simulation imitates reality. In teaching student manipulative/culinary skills, the best medium cannot be words, but a video footage depicting a well sequenced steps/process. Hygiene skills can best be taught by the students observing the various kinds of hygiene practices and teacher handling of questions in a video footage.

Skill learning: Teaching students how to follow the step by step in a recipe involve the demonstration of some skills. In addition students need to produce advance skills in the preparation and serving of dishes. Often when students have to prepare five dishes and due to time constraint, they tend to by-pass certain skills/process. While a teacher can attempt to demonstrate such processes in class, the most efficient and effective means of delivering these skills is through multimedia. A basic characteristic of the video presentation is that it can be shown several times. This gives the teacher the benefit of using it for emphasis and the learner for mastery. It can also be reproduced, which makes it possible for the same video product to be used for revision at home/ at school.

The development of Creativity: Derry S.J (1990) defines creativity as a process by which a person combines flexibility, originality and sensitivity to ideas, to enable him break away from the usual ways of thinking and doing things to a new and productive way. However psychologists have agreed that creativity is an innate potential which if not developed, will remain latent in the individual. Creativity can only be developed through the use of a teaching process that promotes its development. Such a process includes stimulating thinking, making teaching concrete and full of interaction and discussion. Unfortunately, our current teaching approach in education serves to compel students to be passive as they receive notes and solve problems the way their teachers expect them to. For Food studies practical, students rely solely on recipe books for the serving of dishes or the manipulative skills is developed from performance learning. However, the potential of the video presentation to generate discussion and learning is enormous. It can serve as an effective advance organizer, present vital psychomotor and cognitive skills and enhance meaning of content in lesson delivery, as well as serve as an effective closure tool. Multimedia will be more able make teachers creative in their teaching and at the same time, learners would get the occasion to explore better quality learning and the development of skills.

The provision of teachers with Cognitive tools for thinking:

The human brain is no longer a 'black box' as studies in brain psychology have provided substantial knowledge about what happens in the brain as we learn. The effect of information processing on memory and performance has been highlighted and the factors that support the appropriate encoding, storage and retrieval of information have been exposed, centering highly on the power of cognitive tools in enhancing thinking. Cognitive tools are generalizable computer tools that are intended to engage and facilitate cognitive processing (Kommers, Jonnassen and Mayes, 2009). They are mental devises that support, guide and extend the thinking process of their users. Their main function is to activate appropriate mental models in the brain thereby enhancing the interpretation of new information and assimilating new information back into those models (Jonnassen, 2009). The power of audio- visual aids to bring reality into the learning environment makes it one of the most useful tools of cognitive processing and memory. This can be testified by the fact that students who watch an interesting movie can remember almost 80% of it after one hour but can remember only about 25% of lecture information after the same time lapse. Indeed, the teacher in the 21st century cannot afford to miss out on this benefit of using multimedia to enhance lesson delivery.

2.8 BENEFITS OF EDUCATIONAL MULTIMEDIA

The use of multimedia in teaching is considered to be an effective and efficient teaching tool as it promotes fun based learning. This is centered on the following merits:

Video adds variety to the teaching learning environment and has a special appeal especially with visual learners : According to Alessi and Trolip (2000) the strength of video in teaching lies in the fact that it can take many forms such as a soundless demonstration of a procedure, visual language and messages, verbal and non-verbal messages and so on. Videos can even be used to depict things that be confusing. For instance while doing a pastry, it is always said that all the water needs to be added at a time and avoid over manipulation of the dough. Thus, the video gives a clear instruction of the required consistency and how good dough looks like. Also the smooth rolling is easier to understand when seen visually.

Videos also provide a common experience for immense learning through discussion: This is more effective than reading the step by step recipe and reduces mistakes and wastage of materials that will be committed in undertaken the actual experiment.

It allows students to be engaged in problem solving and investigative activities:

Multimedia can be engaging, entertaining and thought provoking (Allessi and Trollip, 2000). The visual detail it provides can be used to provoke problem solving activities. It enables teachers as well as students to develop their creativity and innovative abilities.

2.9 CONCLUSION

In using multimedia beneficially, care must be taken in selecting the appropriate form suitable for the objectives of the content to be exposed. In this regard it is relevant to identify the forms of multimedia (audio-visual aids) that are available or may be produced for educational purposes to enhance learning. Educational Multimedia is opening many avenues for learners and studies have shown that students learn better with technology. Small chunks of information stays for longer in the long term memory and facilitate remembering and analysis. However the lessons need to be well planned to avoid an increase in cognitive load of the learners and ensure that the materials uses are effective enough to enhance the teaching and learning process.

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