This chapter covers the summary of the research as well as the discussion of the findings, the conclusions that can be made out of them, their implications and some recommendations for further research.
5.2 Research Summary
This research was done to investigate the effect of family background on students' academic achievement in Sekolah Jenis Kebangsaan (Cina) Yuk Tse, Tumpat, Kelantan. There were 377 respondents from year 1 to year 6 students of Sekolah Jenis Kebangsaan (Cina) Yuk Tse, Tumpat, Kelantan. The instrument used in this research was the questionnaire to gather information about the respondents. The information such as students' personal details (age, gender, ethnic group) and their results (Chinese Comprehension, Malay Comprehension and English) in Mid Term Exam Year 2010, students' family structure, socioeconomic status of the students' families, and their parents' attitudes and expectation.
Next, the students' personal details were analyzed using mean, median, mode, range, standard deviation, variance and percentages to determine their demographic profiles in term of ages, gender, ethnic group, number of sibling, person living with, parents' income, parents' highest level of education, parents' monthly income. Then, the students' scores in Chinese Comprehension, Malay Comprehension and English were analyzed to determine their achievement in these three subjects. The information from the questionnaire also analyzed to determine the relationship between students' academic achievement and family backgrounds such as family structure, family's socioeconomic status, parental expectation, home environment and home language. The outcomes of these data analysis would then be used to answer the research questions and finally conclude the research. Hence, previous research can be validated through the outcomes.
5.3 Discussion of Research Findings
Based on the research outcome, the average class year of the students in this school is in year 3. There are enough evidence to conclude that there is a difference between academic achievement of students and class year. The academic achievements for students from different year are not the same. The level academic is higher from year to year. Moreover, the standard for each students are not the same, because they are from different family background.
Female students in this school are more than male students. There are no significance difference between academic achievement of students and gender. Majority of the students were Thai, followed by Malay, Chinese and Indian. There are also no significance difference between the academic achievement of students and their ethnic group. Most of the students' families have 3-4 siblings in their house. There is not enough evidence to conclude that there is a difference between academic achievements of students and numbers of sibling in a family. Most of them stayed with their biological parents. So, there is not enough evidence to conclude that there is a difference between academic achievements of students and people they live with. From the research outcomes, most of their fathers' monthly salary is below RM1000 and their mothers are in other group, means they do not provide any money to the families in any reasons. There is not enough evidence to conclude that there is a difference between academic achievements of students and parents' monthly salary. Majority of the parents had education at primary school level. There is enough evidence to conclude that there is a difference between academic achievements of students and mothers' highest level of education.
Mother's education level
Finish primary school
Finish secondary school
Most of the students' mothers stay at home as a housewife. So, they spend more time with the children. Since their education at primary level, they will be having difficulties in supervising their children in their homework.
Based on the research outcomes, the students have low achievement in Chinese Comprehension, Malay Comprehension and English language. Their average score for these three subjects are below 70%. The lowest achievement among these three subjects is Chinese Comprehension.
There is not enough evidence to conclude that there is a difference between academic achievements of students and parents' attitude an expectation. However, there is enough evidence to conclude that there is a difference between academic achievements of students and the number of books at home. Availability in the home of books and other reading material has validated that it effects the academic achievement of the students.
How many books, other than textbooks are there in your home?
more than 10
There is enough evidence to conclude that there is a difference between academic achievements of students and home language.
Chinese language is the medium language in this school. However, most of the students speak their mother tongue at home. For Thai students, they speak in Thai language; Malay students speak Malay language. Even most of the Chinese students speak in either Thai language or Hokkien, just least of them speak in Chinese language. Indian students speak in Thai or English only. From the table above, students who not use the school language at home has been validated have lower academic achievement.
Through this research analysis, S.J.K(C)Yuk Tse, Tumpat, Kelantan is having some problems which lead to students lower academic achievement especially in Chinese Comprehension. Firstly, the students from year 3, year 5 and year 6 have lower achievement in Chinese Comprehension compared with other year class. Majority of these students have mothers who in primary education level. They have fewer books compared with other students. They speak in their own mother tongue but not in Chinese language at home.
5.4 Implications of Research Findings
This research is conducted to find out the effect of family background on students' academicÂ achievement in S.J.K (C) Yuk Tse, Tumpat, Kelantan. This research can be a reference to this school to find the ways to increase the students' academic achievement. The ways below are suggested to increase the students' achievement in Chinese Comprehension:
Teachers as supervisors
Teachers need to pay more attention and patience to the students who do not receive any supervises from their parents. These students are facing problems in finishing their homework at home. So, teachers play an important role as their supervisors at school. As the students' mother tongue is not Chinese language, it is definitely become the students' problem when they can't understand the instructions from their teachers. Teachers need patience and guide them during the teaching and learning process. It is very important to arouse their interest to learn and speak in Chinese language.
Teachers as motivator
Teachers need to encourage students to read more Chinese books. Teachers can help students to choose printed material such as story books, comic, magazines and others which suitable for their level. Reading can help the students to gain more interest in learning Chinese language. Furthermore, teachers also need to encourage students to speak Chinese language with their parents. If their parents do not speak in Chinese language, students can play role as a "small teacher" and try to teach their parents in Chinese language.
Cooperation among parents and teachers
Parents need to participate in school activities such as Parents and Teacher Association, Sport Day, Children Day, Annual Award Ceremony and others. Through these activities, parents will more understand the school function and cooperate with in educating their children. Parents also need to understand their children's needs and problems. Parents can have a meeting with their children's teachers and know more about their children behavior at the school. Teachers and parents together think of ways to increase the students' academic achievement.
Encouragement from the parents
Parents need to encourage their children to speak more Chinese language at home. Children will not feel uneasy whenever they speak in this language. Parents also need to buy some books or magazines to their children or bring them to the library to borrow books. Parents need to encourage their children to read more books during their leisure time and let reading become one of their hobbies.
5.5 Further Research
Further researches are suggested as below:
Research can be made on teachers' teaching methods due to the teaching methods will affect the students' academic achievement in this school.
Create a questionnaire which focuses on the students' learning problem. It should be conducted to analyze the students' learning problem. Teachers can find ways to solve the students' problems through the research result.