Chevalier (May 2004) published an article on the topic of family background and education effecting the child's education. In general the article focuses on studying the relationship between family background and awareness to the career choices or education of the children. Parents with lower educational levels do not have a taste for learning and educating their children. Although the policies are being made to target children to enhance their educational potential, according to their interests. The article states that there is a positive relationship between the educated parents and the good schooling of the children. Another interesting finding in the article is that educational level of the same sex parent affects the successful educational behavior of the child. Step parents normally have negative impact on the child's schooling. There are several other factors effecting the educational preferences and choices of the children discussed in the article, they are; economic, social, cultural and demographic. The economic conditions of the country and the city, the parents are living in and specifically the income levels of the parents have a direct effect on the child's education. The cultural barriers also set precedents for the educational preferences for parents and for children. It is also mentioned that children's schooling laws can also have an effect on the educational levels of the children. The educational models applied in the country sometimes do not match the educational preferences of the students themselves and the parent's choices of the careers for their children. Parental education plays a vital role in child's education. Every year of parental education has an incremental effect on the educational levels of their children and their choices. So in developing countries this problem is even intense.
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Sherkat and Darnell (1999) conducted a research of the effects of parents' fundamentalism on children's educational attainment: examining differences by gender and children's fundamentalism. The research paper focuses on the educational attainment and the improvements and the negative factors in it, in the last three decades. Students were asked through a questionnaire what kind of curriculum do they want for their schooling and other affordability related issues were a part of the questionnaire. Research was conducted from some high school students, college going students, college graduates and graduate degree holders. The basic finding of the research paper was that the preparatory curriculum in the schools is the best mover in terms of selecting the career path and educational preferences by the students. Youth fundamentalism is an important factor in provoking the educational motivation in the students. Then the gender difference analysis was also conducted in this research paper which revealed an interesting fact that the female children had shown more likelihood of attaining college education than the male children. Therefore the research was divided into two aspects; parent's fundamentalism and the social behavioral impact on the student choices. Another factor coming from the parents' side on the children is that the religiously motivated parents assume the religious beliefs of the child and indirectly cause a behavioral change in the attainment of education from the child. This generally results in children not going for higher education in their careers. There is absolute certainty that parents do effect and influence the decision of the students in their educational lives, but there are several other factors like, gender differences, income levels and socio-cultural differences. There is also the need of social and structural changes in the country to support the educational motivation of the children in their careers. So the government needs to take some visible steps in solving this problem.
Cretsinger (Aug 2003) researched on the topic of academic competiveness among graduate students in different universities. The main purpose of the research was to find out the academic competitions'' impact on the students' career choices and on our educational systems. There are three parts or kinds of these competitions, "real competition (the competition between peers); the perceived competition (the competition a person believes is occurring between themselves and others) and self competition (the way a person continuously pressures himself to become better than what he was)." The paper suggests that these competitions are playing a vital role in aggravating the urge to attain education to a level that even sometimes students may adopt false ways to achieve excellence in their academic careers. There are several dishonest means described in the article as cheating, plagiarism, fabrication, and assisting others in going for the false means. These pressures and competitive factors are the leading forces affecting the students' choices for their education and for their careers as well. Even the choice of institutions has a direct impact on the students' personalities and the choices of their careers. The research paper reflects an interesting concern about the society intervening in the personal choices of students. According to the author the society and the environment around us provokes an individual to get ahead in the competition and in doing so, the individual attempts to mould his/her original choices. These pressures are a massive cause of motivation in moulding their personal choices and attaining satisfaction by winning the competition. Even the institutions are following the same strategy. Overall this could be rated as a healthy factor for the society, but of course there are risks involved which are "academic dishonesty". The article also refers to the fact that educational systems all around the world are also being affected by this competitive factor and there ahs to be a regulatory authority to keep a fit between quality education delivery and the competitiveness amongst the students.
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Gavtt (January 2010) published an article about the criticality of student competitiveness and different factors affecting it. The author reflects this belief and authenticates them with the help of this research paper that the students need to have a competitive environment to be successful globally in promoting business and for the well being of the economy. Even some environmental factors are also affected by the competitiveness in the education paradigm. Apart form these macro factors, there are some minor but important factors like the development of entrepreneurship, management skills, understanding of the economics, accounting and many other business concepts need this competiveness for their well being. The author discusses the example of United States of America, that the public schools in the country lack the consistency of the educational and training programs in the following fields; financial responsibility, business management, information technology, entrepreneurship, marketing and international business. Therefore the schools need to incorporate the student counseling programs since the early ages of their curriculums. So that their choices may benefit the country and then the globe on a larger scale, that is, the development of the economies, the concepts of forex, trading and civics. This may enhance the overall intellectual ability of the country as a whole and may decrease the prevalent concept of brain drain in the developing countries. Most importantly it will develop the skills of the individuals. These skills may cover the core subjects of their curriculum, the new and emerging disciplines of studies, continuous learning skills, ability to get familiar with the new and upcoming technologies, qualities of leadership and the combination of all these skills as well. So the author advices the government of the United States of America to incorporate an educational system in the country which monitors the consistency and performance of the public schools in the country on the secondary and primary levels of education, so that the country gets the competitive environment according to their economic needs.
Gungor and Tansel (2005) wrote a research paper on the problem of brain drain: the case of Turkey, the flight of professional intellectualism and the precious skills of the soil. The paper attempts to find out the intentions of the professionals of Turkey moving abroad, doing a full-time job who have at least attained a tertiary level degree. The study uses the secondary form of research which is attaining documents from the internet and analyzing the statistics of the professionals moved aboard in the last decade and questionnaires were also distributed using the referral sampling method. Then the regression analysis was carried out to dig out the relationship between the various factors motivating the individuals to migrate. The findings reflect the importance of the situation when the students do not come back to the home country against the situation when students do go abroad and attain post graduate degrees or other higher degrees and return to Turkey. It was observed that the students who went abroad, studied there and came back to Turkey belonged to the relatively wealthier families and when they came back, they contributed significantly to the Turkish economy. But these cases are very few in number and hence, resulted in the recent economic crises in Turkey. The general notion is that the return intentions of the students, who are working where they study, are weaker. Then the analysis of the situation where the country loses its skilled workers and welcomes the non-skilled emigrants affects the balance of overall intellectualism and the skill level of the country. There were a few advices to the Turkish education commission which are, to invest heavily in the higher education system and build a policy to invite skilled labour from other countries.
Ariss (2009) published an article on modes of engagement: migration, self-initiated expatriation, and career development. The author focused on two broad aspects of study which are, the structural basis of people migrating to other countries either to attain education or to capitalize on their education and work; the second area of research was that people who actually migrate as ethnic minorities into other countries, then what kind of jobs and occupations do they prefer and adopt eventually. To carry out this research the author used the technique of detailed, qualitative interviews and for these interviews the sample of 43 skilled Lebanese immigrants in France was used. Also, a few officials from who contribute in French emigration policy making were interviewed to balance the counter agreement. To support and legitimize the research technique the author also reviewed and analyzed French and European laws and emigration policies. The first aspect of the study included a detailed analysis of the situation of the economic condition of the country where the immigrants moved in and also of the country where they came from. The example of New Zealand is discussed in the research paper where in one of the earlier researches 77 public sector scientists were interviewed to find out the social and economic impact of the skilled labour on both the countries. The results revealed that skilled labour moving into the country either remains socially numb or they try and transform the environment according to them. Although, the economic impact is always positive for the country where they move in. to measure the second variable of the study the statistics of different European countries were analyzed that when the people move in to these countries, what sort of jobs and occupation do they prefer? It was found that most of the people go into the jobs in the private sector and the jobs are technical in nature most of the times.
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DeSantis and Angela (2006) researched on the influence of role models on the students' career choices. The research paper mainly focused women being influenced by the success stories of their role models. The sample taken for the research included 368 female students aging 18-25. These females were a part of the introduction to Psychology course at the Mid-Atlantic University. These students were a part of the survey. The study encompasses four broad socio-economic factors, which these female students constitute to be a part of. The research sheds light on two important terms under this discipline which are "self-efficacy and role model influence." These terms or factors turn out to be a healthy forecasting element for the career choices of these female students. Then the authors mentioned the importance of student counseling to control the factor of role model influence in determining the career choices for these female students. The study converges to finding the correlation between the role models and the decision-making process. This correlation covers a lot of other factors mentioned in the research paper, that is, career maturity, career aspirations, career indecision, inclination towards non traditional careers. The problem lies in the department of student counseling which has not been able to identify the seriousness and the importance of guiding the female workforce and the students in the right direction for the benefit of the individuals themselves and for the economy as a whole. Another important point highlighted in the paper was about the importance of role models to the female students especially because there are practically no examples of the female role models. The other aspect was the decision making process from the individual students according their preferences. Now their preferences could be a result of anything for example, the influence of the role models or the counseling from their teachers or the institutions. The decision making of these students affect the country's economy directly and society as well, so the proper counseling can play a vital role in building the required workforce for as country.
Commander et. al () researched on the students preferring to move abroad for their study or work and its effects as a curse or boon. This gives birth to a term known as the brain drain. According to the author this phenomena first came to the discussion in 1960s when there was a massive growth in the migration of skilled personnel from the developing countries to the developed ones. There were of course job attractions and career opportunities in the developed countries but it was more of negligence by the developing countries by not considering this migration as a huge disaster for their economy in the years to come. Recently, there have been many debates on the issue of the skilled labour migration in the developing countries and the attempt was made to find out the reasons for this migration and solutions to the problem. There were a number of factors considered and studied in this regard. The first important factor discovered was that this immigration has increased in the last decade or so, probably because of the worsening conditions of the economy in the developing countries. Secondly, the developed countries have marketed their economic job opportunities effectively enough to attract these young skilled immigrants. The global phenomena of the international trade and the reduction of physical barriers amongst the countries have also ignited the need to migrate in these young skilled individuals. One of the objectives of this research paper was to investigate the reasons for migration from the root which was discovered as the students using the subjects which have an international scope attached to it. So the students' original choices are inclined towards global market behavior and opportunities of education and work in the developed countries.
Harman (1994) discussed the importance of student selection and admission to higher education. The author also analyses the policies and practices in the Asian countries regarding the student relations in the local universities and the universities aboard. According to him, the government and the individual students both are responsible for this choice and the selection of the career. Effective selection of the career path and the educational vision of the students is vital because it will eventually effect the quality of the students produced by the country. Different institutions, which hire these international students, emphasize the importance of the skilled and motivated students who will eventually transform into an efficient and competent workforce. One of the institutions is the World Bank, which has the policy of accepting students who are knowledgeable and trained at the same time so they do not have to spend extra recourses on their orientation and training. Still many countries do not have an effective counseling and training programs to train their students for the organization where they will be working in the future. The developing countries do not have the early education counseling of students so that they can select their subjects and careers paths according to what they can do the best. The higher education commission and the government of each country are responsible for the international students going abroad to work and study. Therefore, when these students are not properly trained and motivated, they might just not be competent enough in the global market. Most of these developing countries are in the transition stage of transforming and revising their educational selection criterions, both for their local projects and for the higher education commission to send the students abroad. This decision of transforming the overall selection system will have a direct impact on the output of these countries, in the case of skilled labour and motivated and competent workforce for the organizations abroad.
Zaman (2009) conducted a research about the influences of different social and environmental factors on the career choices of the individuals. There were several factors taken into account in the article and each factor was separately considered. These factors include age, gender, number of working years, educational levels of the parents and the institutional effect. These factors were individually tested and analyzed. The results revealed the fact each of these factors had an impact on the student's career and educational choices both in the long run and in the short run. According to the author there are different stages of the career and there are different kinds of decisions to be made each level. It has been observed that people who were satisfied with their educational choices were also mostly satisfied with their careers and jobs as well. Performance appraisals revealed the factors about the employees performances linked with their background. It was also known that students who were the decedents of the educated families generally had better awareness about choosing their career and educational options. The author also consulted the other research papers written in this regard and most of the research was based on the secondary data collection. So, the research revealed the effects of student's choices on their career options. The factors affecting the individuals' choices of the students are also important in the satisfaction levels of the individuals.
Submitted to: Ms. Mehr Afzal
Submitted by: Nida Zafar
Lahore School of Economics