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Ibbotson have discussed about the myths about new creativity. There are many theories related to this. One is that everyone start from some point, nothing in this world is useless. New ideas comes when people are given time. There is no creativity without defined boundaries. This means that if someone has to achieve something, there should be a target in front. And that target can be achieved inside a certain limits of that person. Every person sees the creativity in different way, because of the different thinking of every human, every person approach the task with different idea and procedure. Great leaders try to merge with the boundaries around them and increase the limit of the environment they are working in. Good leaders do not stick to the world close to them but try to come out of that restriction and reach outside the boundary. They will try to make their way out even in the worst situations and create something with their hard attempts.
Ibbotson refers that great leaders always like to make changes. They get addicted for creating new ideas and work restlessly. Great leaders always try to achieve something new and different and keep them busy all the time. This is not restricted only to big leaders but every person can implement this to achieve his or her goals in the life. Expanding the boundaries and increasing the limits of the environment can help in improving the creativity.
Leadership is an illusion if leaders do not have different vision and attitude than others. Leaders need skills and experience to lead and to perform the role of leader in an effective way. Leadership styles differ with the environment, social and political factors. The leadership has changed now from the past. Now every organisation needs a better leader with positive and new ideas. Every field has become competitive and leaders have to be strong to hold that pressure, so leader have to be a good visionary and should have the goals and targets clear in front of him or her. The leader should have good communication skills, so that he or she can talk to the followers and other members in the group. Talking about the type of leaders, there are managing and directing leaders, directing leaders always give orders to others to do task or job, they act like they are superior to the other member of the team. While managing leaders give their members a space, they organise the task and the team, the work is neat and much accurate than directing leader.
Chapter 3: Project- Managing a Work of Art
Vision in leadership
Most of the good leaders have the quality of being a visionary. The goals are clear in front of them. Vision also means that the leader sees the perfect image of the coming future based on his or experience around the environment (Howarth & Rafferty). The skill of leadership helps a leader to understand the changes coming around and can solve any problem relating to that. Leaders with good vision always think about others and want to do something better for the human life. But vision can also be of two types, negative vision and positive vision. Positive vision makes the leader humble and more respectful, while a negative vision takes the leader towards doom. Positive vision can make leaders who do not hesitate to communicate and get along with their followers. A leader with positive attitude is more flexible with others and understands what the followers need and how he or she can helps them. Vision does not only mean that the leader sees the target in front and try to achieve, but it is the duty of the leader to give this vision to the followers as well. The followers should understand the vision of leader and the goal they have to achieve. It is the responsibility of the leader to check if all the followers are responding to his or her vision. Vision also means to hold the followers with the principles and goal all together (Blanchard, 2007).
Chapter 4 & Chapter 5: Hierarchy and Status Games
Hierarchy effect on leadership
Hierarchy system is present in the society since the long time and it is still strong in many cultures. This system has different levels, where the leader is at the top and rest work under that leader. Hierarchy system in modern world has changed from what it was in the ancient time, where a king was the head of people, and everyone under him was at lower level. Hierarchy is still there in most of the organisation, there are managers, team leaders and other staff which is based on hierarchy, but every person has his or her rights. Ethics have come into organisations which have given equal rights to every employer. In modern terms hierarchy is to assign different roles to the people to perform work which they are capable of (Gabris & Ihrke, 2007). This is not only bounded to business organisations but also in other fields like sports and politics. According to Ibbotson, thinking of the person himself and people around that person changes, when the position of that person changes in the hierarchy. When someone gets promoted to the higher position, people who are under the hierarchy give more respect and consider him or her as the leader. There Are more responsibilities on a person when he or she get promoted.
Hierarchy is an important part in the organisations. It gives different roles to the employees working in the organisation to perform and complete those (Gabris & Ihrke, 2007). Charismatic leaders with positive attitude are independent of the hierarchal system, they adjust themselves in any position and try to achieve their goals, ranks and position does not really matter to this form of leaders. Hierarchy is not only in organisations but in social society as well. People have more respect to the people who have good status in the society and considered to be high in the hierarchy than others. This status can come from different forms like money, power, and name.
Women in hierarchy
The other big question in the hierarchy system is about the role of the women. Women are not given much power in the society or in the organisation; it is very difficult for a woman to reach to the higher level of the hierarchy. Ibbotson explains that there is a big difference between what men and women think about their status in the hierarchy. Men are always concern about their level and status but women think about how to become better in that particular status or level. Women have very common behaviour as compared to males who have very flexible or variable behaviour. Women leaders are much more sensitive and caring while men leader only think about the status and goals that they have to achieve in the life. But different women have different attitude at different levels, and very much depends on the status they have. Even if the women have more capability than a man, men are given first preference and considered as leader than a woman.
Chapter 6: Mask and the Sense of Self
Leaders who have power and strength, should not show to others that how powerful they are but they should have humility and respect for others. Most of the leaders have some kind of inspiration source and a role model, to whom they try to follow. Good learning and teaching can help a person to become a good leader. But most of the time it is the internal willingness and self-motivation which makes a person leader. Internal thinking and determination of a person is very important aspect in the leadership, it is the characteristic of a person to self examine and test him or her as a good leader. Every person behaves differently at different situations and at different places, but the inside of the person remains the same. The self-control of the inside of a person is very important for an effective leadership. The happenings in the outside world do not make much effect on a leader, if he or she has good self-control and self-assessment. Good authentic leaders have a clear view about their thinking and this make their followers follows the same path as the leader (Eriksen, 2009).
There are many leaders in this world who are different in front of the followers, but in real life they have different attitude. Sometimes leaders use emotions and feelings to get attention of their followers. Good authentic leaders do not want to be mastered by any one; they like to be in themselves. Leaders must have a full view of the goal and target, they want to achieve. Good leader is not afraid of the outcomes and takes correct steps to do so. Other thing required in a good authentic leader is of disciple, discipline also creates self morals and standards. Which are the necessities of a good leader Leaders must understand the power they have and how to apply it with the followers. Power can make leader bad or good The leader should know how to use the power in correct path, good leaders must get adapted to the changes coming around but inside if the leader should remain the same, that means that the values and goals the leader have must remain still. By staying authentic, the leaders can do a lot for the followers and for the target they have to achieve.
As the leaders are made not born, leaders can be created by giving them correct knowledge and right direction to follow, most of the leaders get their main thought or knowledge of becoming a leader from some source. Every leader in this world has an ideal or a role model, whom they have followed and are following to become a successful leader. These leaders have these role models as their inspiration. But knowledge and teaching can also make good leaders, if a person have a good teacher or a coach, he or she will become a good ;leader, if they have capability. Leaders get their knowledge from childhood, they learn from the surrounding environment, from the school and the teachers. Teachers or coaches play a big role in creating a good positive leader. Giving them proper training about leading and how to act in different situations helps in bringing up a good leader. Army is very good example of creating and teaching the leader, they work on their soldiers to make them good leaders, so that they can apply those techniques of leadership in the war zone (Gunn, 2000). There are many institutions these days which take effort to produce good leaders, and have special courses for teaching leadership only. But the main instinct of becoming a leader comes from the teaching of the parents and the principles one make in his or her life. Good discipline and making correct decisions can help a person in making a good leader. Learning is very important, even for becoming a leader; a teacher can put the values of being humble and power to face the world.
Chapter 7: Creativity in Groups
Leadership in teams
When people are working in a group and every person share equal responsibility, that type of leadership is called shared or team leadership. In this type of leadership, every one respects every one's thoughts. Everyone in the group respects each other and shares the same power. There are many benefits by working in a team where all are leaders. It gives every person in the team a chance to excel and equal status. Team work is very effective for organisations, it helps them to compete and become successful. It also decreases the work pressure on an individual leader by dividing the work in members of the team. Team leadership is very different from individual leadership, here all the focus is on the team who are working as one unit and have to do all their work as a team (DeRue & Karam, 2009). Team work also makes the work easier as every person have different interest and members in the team can do the job, which they are capable of and can do it with excellence. There will be more creativity and new ideas can de discovered in a shared leadership, as there will be more brains working on any problem or concept.
Working as team can decrease the effect of individualism. When people are working together in a team, they complement each other which are very hard to get in the individualistic world. A team or a group can perform a task easier and quicker which an individual cannot. Other advantage of team leadership is that teams can produce results of complex problems, which individuals cannot. Working as team where everyone is a leader also gives the members working in the team a feeling of self-fulfilment and self-esteem as they are not working under someone and are responsible to do their work. Team leadership is not only relates to organisation but also to sport teams and political parties.
People working together in teams need more time to understand each other. More they understand each other, more they do well on a given job. More concentration comes into play, and more dedication towards the job. Team members appreciate each others work and give feedback. With time, everyone get used to one another character and attitude, and work much better than before. Every member compliments each other and they can do any work with minimal effort and without any problem. When all team members will have good discipline and energy level to do a job; than they can achieve any goal or target that is given to them. When there are no differences between the team members, there will be more creativity and innovation.
There are few disadvantages of team leadership as well, when working in a team; it is very difficult to have very good understanding between all the members of the team, unless they have great trust in each other. There can be some individual issues which can come in people in team, every individual is different in thinking and communicating with other person, so this can be a big problem in team leadership. There is also a fear of being getting failed as a team while an individual is not that worried about the failure. So there is need of leader, but outside the team, who have some control over the team. Those leaders outside the team do not interfere with the functioning of the team. The leader is like a guide to the team, who give them feedback and instructions. The leader outside the organisation will be responsible for taking care of the things happening in the team. It is very difficult to have team with all leaders in it; there is a need of formal leader for that team, but shared leadership decreases the pressure on the formal leader (Jackson & Parry, 2008).
Ibbotson states that the team fails if there are more than twenty five members in it, this means that the team comprising of less members can understand each other better, the bigger the team , more hard it is to get everyone along at the same time and same place. Every individual has different thinking than other, more people in the team can lead to personal disputes and misunderstanding. If there are some limited numbers of members in the team who are motivated and want to achieve a goal in the life than the team leadership is a great beneficial theory in leadership.
Fear of leadership
Ibbotson have discussed about the fear people have when they are in an organisation or simply when someone have a new idea but they do not express it. Even leader have fear in them, about what their followers will think about them if some thing goes wrong. This is one fear which everyone have, fear of getting wrong, when a person develop an idea, most of the time they do not express it, thinking about the reaction they will get from other people, this pushes them back in the line. Great leaders should have this characteristic of being fearless, but for the welfare of the society. Leaders have power, but still they are human, and have fear about the society. Leaders should be risk taking, so that they can implement new ideas, which can work well for their followers and society. Even in an organisation environment, there are many talented people working, they have many new ideas, but they do not bring them forward because of the fear, that if they get wrong other will laugh at them and they do not want to feel embrace in front of others.
Other fear the leaders have is of not being rude to any one, especially in an organisation, when an employee comes out with a new idea, leaders should not be rude to them. Most of the people do not bring there their views because of this fear. Leaders must be humble and polite to the followers, being a leader, they have to behave as a leader, and there are many problems which will come in the path of a leader, they should try to solve them calmly. In an organisation there can be may ideas coming from the employees, which looks not that interesting and may be stupid at that time, but; leaders should not be rude them, these ideas can be of great benefit sometime.
One other fear is of looking as a stupid in front of others, this happens mostly when working in a group, many ideas given by the members in a group can look stupid, this is the reason many people do not bring their ideas in front of others, but for becoming a good leaders, every person should bring up the ideas or thoughts forward. Leaders should support their followers and give them courage to bring new thoughts; this will help in bringing the best out of that person, and will help in killing all the fears.
Chapter 8 Creativity, Innovation and Leadership
Innovation in leadership
Ibbotson have discussed about the innovation of new ideas and, how these innovations occurs. A leader always comes up with new invention of ideas, which are followed by many other. Any new invention is not the work of only one person, but there are many more involved in that. Leaders do not shy from getting knowledge from other leaders or master, who is not in the same field as they are or have different opinion from them. Leaders must be open to new ideas, and bring new inventions. It is the good knowledge and communication skills of a leader, which make the followers, chose the correct path and follow the leader's steps. Good leaders always share their knowledge with others; they do not hesitate in helping others with the knowledge and experience they have. Great scientists in this world can also be considered as leaders in way, as they have left their great knowledge for the people. Many scientists are still using the experiments and theories given by these old scientists till now. Great leaders are free of negative thoughts and are selfless, they always think about the benefits of the other and how to help them. Great scientists like Albert Einstein were not concerned about what others think about their creations and innovations, and his studies are still used in science as the greatest knowledge material.
Most of the organisation uses structures or hierarchy in the system. This hierarchy have different levels, where the organisations have different sets of employees working. They have managers, team leader and other staff skilled in the particular field. More experienced person is at the higher level position and there are more skilled people working for the organisation. The person at higher level are responsible for making the big and main decisions, they are the leader of the organisation. Leaders in the organisations support the team and employees to achieve the target in correct time and in perfect manner. Leadership is very important for creating and managing as organisation. A leader in an organisation can take the organisation towards the peak but a bad leader can also destruct and spoil the organisation. A good leader knows how to react in a particular situation, when the organisation is in trouble, it is a good and experienced leader who can bring the company out of that crises.
Ibbotson also discusses two types of hierarchies in the organisation, one in that which works which manages the structure of the organisation and there is other which works for the achievement of the organisation. When there are good leaders in the organisation, the other staff working in the organisation will be more committed to the work and will try to do their job better and in quick time. A humble and calm leader can make the employees feel much better and the work can be done with more zeal and effort. Hierarchy which is in today's system of organisation is very different from the hierarchy in the older times. The leader is not the main boss now, every employee in the organisation is working together to do a job. The manager is the leaders who support them and give them guidance. Leaders at any level in the organisation help their employees play the specific role and do the work they are doing perfectly (Gabris & Ihrke, 2007). The leaders should also give time to the followers to adjust in the situation; this will help them to adapt the condition and can work in that particular condition with proper effort and skills. Leaders should not underestimate the skills and knowledge of the employees, every person in the organisation plays an important role for its benefit, so every employee in the organisation should get proper treatment. Followers follow the steps of their leaders, so the leaders in the organisation must put up good effort and show their followers they have to follow them to become like one of them.
There is a big competition in the organisation till now for gaining the upper status over others, status is still one important thing which is still active in the organisation. Every person working in an organisation wants to get better status and become a leader. The organisation these days have become very much leader centric, which is making them to neglect the basic requirements for the success of an organisation (Gabris & Ihrke, 2007). The leader is considered as the main responsible person if the work is not done or not completed on right time, which is correct up to a limit, but the employees should also give support to the leader and achieve the goals. Every person working in the organisation must understand their responsibilities and the role they are playing in the organisation. Even one person might have to work in different conditions and at different levels but as a good leader and employee of the organisation, every person should get adapt to it.
It is very important for a leader to get proper person to the job in the organisation; selection of correct people in the team can help a organisation and the leader to grow more. Choosing the correct person to do the job is also a skill of good leaders which a leader develops with time and experience.
Leaders in other forms
There is only one leader, who led the follower, but there are some more people in that, which plays an important role. Ibbotson discussed about that, every person is like a leader, his or her role is as important as of the leader; they are like a link in the chain, if it breaks, and the chain will break as well. Leaders give their followers vision and direction to follow a path, but in return the followers' gives leader self determination and commitment and they become as a leader as well (Jackson & Parry, 2008). In an organisational context every person working in the organisation is as important as the leader of the organisation. Every person contributes equally for the success of the organisation.
Diversity in leadership
There is a lot of diversity in leadership; leadership terms changes when it comes to situations like different sexes and cultural diversity in leadership. There is big difference when it comes to have a male or a female leader; most people like to have men as the leader rather than a woman. Most of the organisations and teams even today have men as their leaders. This difference comes with the difference in behaviour and characters of men and women, both men and women look at the situation differently. Men are more work centric and try to do any work quickly and effectively, while women are more emotional and have strong view point (Jackson & Parry, 2008). Men are supposed to have more vision than women and that is why men are considered as better leaders. Women do very well in all form of leadership as compared to men nut when it comes to vision and bringing new ideas, they are behind the men (Ibarra & Obodaru, 2009). The difference there are more men leaders is that "men and women view the world differently, and consequently male leaders seek autonomy and control over their followers while women favour connection and relatedness" (Jackson & Parry, 2008).
The other diversity is of cultures, the world has become a global village now, and there is a mixture of cultures in all the organisations and in different fields. Ibbotson have discussed about the diversity of the cultures in the organisation, there are factors like cultural background and age which are considered for the leadership. Every follower like to have a leader of his or her own culture, politics is a big example of this. It is easier for the leaders to convince and made the followers aware if they are from the same culture.
Chapter 9 Live Communication: The Business of Theatre
The communication effect in leadership
Communication is one of the important tools, which every leader should have, a good leader is that, who can communicate with the followers and make the ideas flow from his or her end to the followers. Communication of a leader does not only means the way he or she talks to the followers, but also how they interact with them even without speaking a word and the body language of the leader. The language of the leader must be simple so that the followers can grab the intentions and the views, which leader wants to convey to them. The message given by the leader must be clear and understandable; it should not confuse the followers. Communication is very important in every field for the leaders, in an organisation, the leader should communicate with all the staff and make the goals clear, and understanding the problems of the followers and try to fix them by interacting with them is good communication skill of a leader. The leader should be confident and impressive in front of the followers. Correct emotions during the communication are very necessary for the leader; the followers can easily gather the point, which the leader wants to give.
Both negative and positive leaders are good communicators, but the difference is negative leaders have arrogance and strictness in their talking, while positive leaders are humble and polite when they talk. Negative leaders try to push the people down, showing that they are superior to others, while positive leaders have energy in their talks; they try to inspire their followers and try to solve their problem. Body language of negative leaders is different from that of the positive leaders, negative leaders' stares at the people and make them feel the fear, which they have in their eyes. Positive leaders are calm and have happiness on their face, which make the followers feel good and positive in attitude. Negative leaders like Adolf Hitler use to look at the crowed for ten minutes without saying any words, the silence use to create fear in the people, this is also one of the communication tool but it was used in a negative manner. Every person has different style of communication and different physical behaviour, which cannot be copied. So the understanding and ways of thinking and saying is also different from person to person.
Chapter 10: Giving Presentation: The Theatre of Business
Understanding the followers
The leader must understand who the followers are and how he or she can interact with them, so that the message given can be understood. A good leader must chose the words he or she are going to say to the followers. If the leaders is communicating with the followers and do not know the meaning of the words, than the leader-follower interaction can not be made. Body language and way to express are also very important for the leader. The place where leaders give their live speech also matters, message given can be understood properly, if the palace is good and every person present there can listen top the voice of the leader. It is also important that the followers should also be quite and listen to what their leader is conveying. A good leader is one who can make some impact on others by the way of talking and interacting.
A leader should be able to change according the situation, where he or she is talking, a leader can make others laugh and emotional at the right time and correct palace. This is very necessary for the leader to understand the followers and deliver what they really need and also with exact time and situation.
Chapter 11: The Script
Ibbotson discusses that the correct process is very necessary in any field of the life. Words are powerful and correct use of them can make someone successful. In an organisation, correct use of processes and words by the people working in the organisation can make that organisation more successful. The leader in an organisation must select the process and objectives which can be performed by the staff in a symmetrical order. An organised job will be much easier to finish than an unsymmetrical job. Use of influenced and powerful statements by the leaders can make the other really impressed and bound toward the leader.
Use of simple words and working with a process can make the work easier. When people ask question to the leader and the leader answers, it is the best of interacting with the people. Communication is one of the most important skills which can make a leader persuasive and more effective with the followers.
Chapter 12: Rehearsing for Business and for Life
Ibbotson discusses that it not always the words and talking which impact others, but also the images and silence. It is very easy for a leader to fell in the trap of thinking that he or she is always correct. When a leader communicate with the follower, he or she must know and make sure that every one is looking at the point which he or she wants to portray. If the leader and the listener are not at the same level, than the message given is not worth. This is very common in organisation, when managers communicate with the staff they pretend that every one has understood, but this is incorrect most of the time.
Communicating with both words and pictures is much more attractive than just words. Using these methods a leader can easily influence others. Using different ways of communicating like this one can make a leader much better and persuasive.
Chapter 13: Training for Creative Leadership
Becoming a master in leadership
Leaders have qualities like vision, persuasion and knowledge but at the organisational level there are still some problems in the ways the leaders work. Leaders in an organisation inspire staff to do the work and also support them but they miss the emotional factor in that, which can make the staff bound well with the leaders. Leaders should create an emotional relation with the followers. This will help them to understand the followers properly. Experience makes a letter best from better. An experienced leader can handle any situation with the knowledge and experience he or she has. An unexperienced leader will handle that situation is different and much inaccurate way than an experienced leader. This experience in leaders comes with time, self-discipline and the knowledge they have. An experienced leader is creative and can develop new ideas to solve the problems. To become a good leader, one has to learn from other person, who has more experience and knowledge.
To become a good leader it is very important to know the self qualities and weaknesses. Discipline is one of the main qualities of a leader. Being emotional in the work environment is good for a leader but it can also make the leader weak in thinking. Emotions can come in when the leader have to take hard decisions. Creativity and innovation are needed in an organisation; a leader should gain these skills and should be capable of using them at right time.
Chapter 14: Art in the World
Risk taking in Leadership
Taking risk is one of the qualities of a leader who want to achieve a goal. Taking decisions and making them fulfil is a quality of a good leader. A visionary leader in an organisation can take big risks and still be successful. There are many businesses in the world that are blessed with risk taking quality and are successful. Most of the smart leaders in business who have risk taking ability tend to take over other small companies to make their business grow. Having courage to take risk is required in a good leader. When taking risk in an organisation, a good leader is not only worried about the wealth and economy but also about the people working in the organisation (Wang & Wilmshurst, 2008). In a hierarchal system, the person on the top has more responsibilities and he or she is also responsible for taking the risk. Success or failures are connected to the person at the top.
Risk taking not only means courage to do something outrageous without thinking about the results. A leader thinks about the result that is going to come by taking that risk and how to handle the situation if it gets wrong. A good leader keeps in mind that every person should get affected in a positive way with the result of taking the risk.
Chapter 15: Why Artist Should Rule the World
Every human on is world is not perfect, every one lack is some kind of quality or a characteristics. The leaders are same; no leader can be a perfect leader. For becoming a perfect leader, one needs to be perfect in all fields. Most people in this world are selfish and think themselves superior to others. Every person in this world chose their own direction and destiny. But to achieve the destiny is hard, to get it one need good understanding and support. Most common reason for a person to fail in life is not having a clear vision and methods to achieve it. Giving those right skills and direction to follow their vision can make people achieve their target. One needs not to fear of the outcomes that are going to come from taking that action to achieve the goal.
Most people hope and consider that every person is at the same level as they are which is incorrect most of the time. Ibbotson discusses that a creative person looks at the available conditions and environment and try to do the work in the given conditions. A creative person also looks at the possibilities that can be considered for a particular problem under that situation. The other main thing which hinders the person's thinking is selfishness, every person thinks about the benefit he or she can get but not about the consequence others have to face with their action. Ibbotson also states there is a need of more creative people in the business as they can solve even the complex problem more practically and with more effectiveness. There are many techniques and solutions which a leader can apply to solve the problem, but to use the appropriate technique and at right time is the skill. A leader must have a passion to do well and achieve in the world.
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