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This chapter focuses on review of literatures related to the study, starting with studies on causes of teacher attrition, this is because without attrition there will be no retention. In other words, all researches on teacher retention emanated as a result of teacher attrition. Other important aspects covered by this chapter are; factors that can help in retaining teachers and Theoretical/Conceptual framework.
2.3 Causes of Teacher Attrition
Teacher attrition and retention is complex, with reasons for leaving or staying often related to individual factors, yet certain themes and patterns may be related (Certo & Fox, 2002). Many factors can be attributed to the causes of teacher attrition, although the factors may varies within regions. The factors in the United States may necessarily not be the same in Malaysia or in Nigeria, but despite the disparities there are factors that are peculiar to all regions as indicated by the authors above, for the purpose of this review it is decided to choose and review the factors that are related to the region or area of study.
2.3.1 Low Salary
We are in an era were money play vital role in our lives, to sustain yourself and your family you must have an income that can be utilized for livelihood. Salary as a source of income is very important to every working individual, reasonably payment can determine ones readiness to a job while payment that is low can also affect someone and can even lead to his willingness to leave a job. Many literatures clarified low salary as a factor for teacher's attrition as indicated below.
Hess (2006) examined the effects of differentiated salaries in hard to staff urban schools on teacher retention. The study was conducted as a case study in one particular school, Rolling Hills Middle School in Kentucky. He interviewed current teachers and former teachers who had left the school within the past year. The school according to the researcher was among the schools that participated in the Kentucky Department of Education's Differentiated Compensation Research Project which ran from 2003-2005. He added from his findings that there wasn't enough money available to ease the teacher attrition problem in the hard-to-staff schools. In this circumstance, money truly matters to be able to tackle attrition problems.
Gladis et, al (2007) conducted their study covering two large school districts in Florida among Teachers that left the teaching profession in 2002-2003 and 2003-2004 on one hand and those that are still in the teaching profession on the other hand. Out of 2,858 teachers that left teaching within the period mentioned, 1131 teachers were reached through their contact provided by their schools, 901 completed their survey questionnaire. Out of the 20,148 serving teachers, 1145 were randomly selected, a total 898 completed their survey. Their results revealed that over 50% of those teachers who left teaching place significantly more importance on finance more than those teachers who remain. This may not be far from the fact that, those leavers may have found better paying positions or positions with similar pay but less responsibility and stress. One of the major defect of this study is that, the teachers that left the teaching profession who participated in the study were not contacted one on one, but rather filled the questionnaire and sent back to the researcher, it would have been better for the researcher to have personal contact with those categories of teachers so as to solicit information from them verbally, this would have given him a forum to hear from their voice why they leave teaching profession.
In Texas, Liza, Michelle & John (2008) interviewed teachers who left the teaching profession within the first to three years of their entrance. Virtually all the respondent answered that low salary is among the factors that led to their attrition, the researchers reported that many of the teachers expressed that the salary they received is low compared to their hours put in, and they at times spent extra hours which they are not paid for, so this affected them and causes their leaving.
Rumberger (1987) examined acute shortage of teachers in the area of Mathematics and Sciences in 2300 public secondary schools of the United States, the results of his analysis support the proposition that salary differentials between teachers and alternative occupations influence teacher shortages and attrition among Mathematics and Science teachers. In analysing his findings, one may not be surprised for the shortage of teachers in the field of Mathematics and Sciences because, the world is now turning rapidly to Science and Technology and specialist in this field are needed for advancement. It will be very difficult then to stop teachers from leaving hence their salary will be better when they leave class to industries, but for government to retain them there should be increase in the pay of these teachers so as to take off their mind from eying places outside the teaching profession.
In their study of survey data from 379 novice teachers in the 1993-94 School and Staffing Survey (SASS) and 1995 Teacher Follow up Survey (TFS) and 114 first-year teachers in a Western state, Stockard, & Lehman, (2004) found that salary were more important variables, at least for the national sample. When other variables were controlled, teachers with lower salaries, in small towns, and in the West were more likely than others to have left teaching. Those in the West were also more likely to move to other positions. Again, the authors hypothesize that the importance of these factors may be related to the pursuit of better employment opportunities. Teachers with low salaries may more actively seek out other employment. This could be as a result of relatively high cost of living on the West coast may have prompted these teachers to seek other opportunities. In addition, teachers in the West may have been more likely to move to other positions in education as a rapidly growing population and teacher shortage produced more job opportunities.
The report submitted to the House of Commons Education and Skills Committee of United Kingdom by the National Teachers Union (2004) stated that Teachers start at a salary disadvantage relative to other graduate professions and then fall further behind, according to their report the starting salary for teachers in 2002 was £17,595, compared to the average starting salary for graduates generally of £19,714 in addition, despite recent increases for new entrants to teaching, teachers' starting salaries continue to lag well behind those of other graduate professions. The relatively low level of teachers' starting salaries continues to hinder recruitment to the profession, they cited an example that, in 1994, the starting salary for teachers was worth 96 per cent of median graduate starting salaries, but in 2002, teachers' starting salaries declined to just 89 per cent of average graduate starting salaries. Teachers have lagged behind other graduates in terms of salary progression for a number of years. This disadvantage compared to other graduates continues and this could be among the reasons why teachers may decide to take another job.
Webb et al. (2004) conducted a comparative study among teachers in England and Finland. Despite the fact that all the sampled teachers complained of low salary, but the problem is more pronounce within Finnish teachers. They reported low salary to be the largest disincentive for remaining in teaching. 9 out of 13 teachers spoke out strongly for the need for pay reform to elevate their level of pay to that of other professions, to establish national salary norms and to remove the anomalies between municipalities which resulted in some teachers being paid for extra hours worked while others went unrewarded. This is a clear indication that teachers in Finland are not paid as expected, hence more than 70% of those interviewed complained of low payment.
Psacharopoulos, Valenzuela, & Arends, (1996) discovered that teachers are underpaid in Bolivia by 35% although they further clarified that the underpayment is common among teachers in primary schools which they attributed the reason for such to first, continue expansion of schools which resulted to hiring a large number of teachers and with the increase in number this affected their payment which resulted to the decrease, second issue is that teachers are not adequately trained and this affected their pay also. The implication of this is that, teachers may be struggling to move from the primary school level to secondary school or even to any other sector that they can receive better pay.
Paul (2004) conducted his study on in selected countries covering sub-saharan Africa and Asia, what he discovered was that teachers mostly in African region receive less pay with less than three dollars a day and most of this teachers have responsibilities on them, ranging from their family, house renting and food. This is actually true, because like in the state where this research is going to be conducted, teachers receive low salary compared to other professionals in the state. For example a Bachelor degree holder receives about one hundred and seventy five dollars ($ 175:00) in a month while medical doctors and engineers receives between six hundred and twenty five dollars ($625:00), and looking at the African culture having larger family is very common, so you will realised that the little amount cannot cater for the teachers' responsibilities, In fact as a result of low teachers' salary in Nigeria many teachers cannot even pay their house rent. So if somebody cannot even pay his rent regularly then you cannot think of him possessing other facilities that will make him comfortable, at this point the next thing is that he will start looking for a better place with better payment.
Asadullah (2006) Concluded that Teachers in Bangladesh are significantly under-paid compared to their counter-parts in other profession, their salary is low which is making it more challenging to attract others into the profession. He added that low relative pay of teachers may also partly explain the incidence of teacher attrition in some parts of the country. Hence, an increase in the relative pay of teachers can aid schools in teacher retention and recruitment as well.
Teacher interviews in all but two (India and Nepal) of the 12 case study countries discovered that teachers are seriously underpaid and that this, more than anything else, is the key factor undermining teacher morale and motivation, thereby causing teacher attrition. (Paul & Kwame 2007)
Davidson (2007) reported that teachers in Tanzania are not contented with their salary. They call on the government to increase the salary from the minimum of 70,000Tsh to 100,000Tsh per month, (as at the time of his study 1,000Tsh is equivalent to 1USD). He concluded that, low salary has repeatedly been associated with teacher attrition in Tanzania, because with their current salary teachers cannot be able to acquire the basic needs such as; food, cloth, and the education expense of their children.
Osei (2006) Conduct an interview with twenty secondary school teachers in Ghana, on the issue of Teacher Salaries and Welfare. He reported that, almost all the teachers interviewed indicated their salary and welfare is not properly taken care of by the government and many of those interviewed are into petty business outside the teaching so as to sustain themselves. The researcher concluded that, Teacher salaries are still low, which is one of the main reasons that the field does not attract or keep the best candidates, and due to inadequate salaries, many of the most experienced and qualified teachers today leave the schools to find better employment elsewhere.
To intensify the vital role of salary as it affects teachers, Bolarinwa (1994) conducted a study among secondary school teachers in Lagos state, Nigeria. He sampled 570 teachers, out of which 62.94% took up a minimal job as financial coping techniques, because of the poor payment the salary cannot cope with their daily needs and demands so they have to look for an alternative. 41.18% withdrew their children from fee paying schools to non-fee paying schools because their salary cannot shoulder the educational responsibility of their children, they have to withdraw them from the private schools where learning facilities are adequate to public government owned schools where learning facilities is lacking. 59.22% expressed their opinion that they are ashamed to be introduced as teachers. 78.82% indicated that if they should be given opportunity to start their career lives afresh, they would have opt out of teaching, while 82.35% voiced out that they were not satisfied with the teaching profession because of the low salary compare to other workers.
Osunde & Omoruyi (2005) employed a simple survey method to gather data on the status of teachers and the teaching profession in Nigeria. Their target group for the study comprised 400 post-primary school teachers randomly drawn from 40 post-primary schools in Midwestern Nigeria. From each post-primary school, 10 teachers were selected through simple random sampling. Thus a total of 400 post-primary school teachers participated in their study. Results of the study have shown that post primary school teachers in Nigeria are not well financially remunerated and that they are looked down upon because of delay in payment of salaries and allowances. This constitutes reason for their opting out of teaching profession. Imaging a family man with bulk of responsibilities, and his salary not paid at the right time, this is enough to frustrate and discourage him on the profession (teaching) thereby making him to start thinking for an alternative job elsewhere.
Yusuf (2010) opined that teaching should be respected as a profession and those in the profession (teachers) should be respected as wel. He added that government should put their welfare into considerations particularly in the area of salary, they should be given a reasonable salary not the little stipend given to them by government. This is a clear indication that teacher salaries in Nigeria is low, and that is the reason why that author in his writing suggested reasonable amount should be giving to them as salary.
In their research on Teacher attrition in Nigerian Schools, Egu, et al (2011) discovered that, improve in the payment of salary is often mention by a lot of teachers in regards to their decision to remain in teaching. The Researchers concluded that, paying reasonable salary will help in retaining teachers in schools. Although, apart from poor salary there are other factors discovered by the research which is hindering teachers in their profession, such as; lack of additional incentives and late payment of salary.
Cassandra (2006) indicated that teachers prefer higher salaries indicate that teachers exhibit preferences for higher salaries, better working conditions, and greater intrinsic rewards and tend to move to other teaching positions or to jobs outside teaching that offer these characteristics when possible.
Teacher salaries play an important role in determining teacher readiness to the teaching profession and as a factor can cause attrition (Bobbitt et al 1991; Theobald 1990)
2.1.2 Poor Working Condition
This is another factor leading to teacher attrition. No matter how good, hardworking and committed a teacher is, if the environment is not good and conducive there is no how he can efficiently perform his duty as expected.
NATCF(2002) categorised working conditions into i. professional working condition and demographic characteristic of the school according to them working conditions, including professional teaching conditions, plays a vital role in decisions to leave teaching in a particular school, and they contribute to decisions to leave the profession altogether. They further added that teachers' plans to remain in teaching are highly sensitive to their perceptions of their working conditions. The few teachers that reported their interest to remain in teaching are strongly associated with how teachers feel about the administrative support, resources, and teacher voice and influence over policy in their school. Some teacher according to the second category, prefer schools that are less in population as such some teachers prefer to leave from dense populated schools to the schools with less population. Over population of students in a class is a considerably factor for some teachers exit, for example it is very common in my state to see class over populated, a class that is supposed to accommodate 30-40 students you will find about 80-90 students. Rationally, there is no how a teacher can work efficiently. With over population also, teachers get discouraged because, it always consume their time to control the class and this can lead to discouraging them which can result to leaving the profession.
Loeb et al (2005) used data from a survey of 1,071 California teachers conducted in January 2002 by Louis Harris Associates. The teachers selected represent 1,018 schools located in approximately 370 different school districts in 53 of the 58 counties in the state. They conducted telephone interviews with teachers focusing on working conditions in their respective schools, including the adequacy of textbooks and instructional materials, physical facilities, class size and schedule, among others. Their findings revealed that, most teachers indicated large class size as a factor causing attrition, and some schools especially in low socioeconomic communities with a predominance of Black and Latino families often have dilapidated facilities, few or inadequate science laboratories. Teachers in this kind of areas indicated their interest of changing school or leaving the profession entirely. This is a clear indication that poor working condition can affect teachers' decision in their workplace.
In a similar study, Schneider (2003) randomly selected teachers in Chicago and Washington, D.C. Teachers were asked about the quality of their working conditions and the effect of those working conditions on job performance and effectiveness. They were asked to evaluate their surroundings, including the degree of overcrowding, the availability and adequacy of such specialized facilities as science labs and lunch rooms, and physiological factors, including indoor air quality, thermal comfort, classroom lighting, and noise levels. Respondents in the two cities were asked to grade their facilities on an A-through-F scale. Nearly 60% of respondents reported that science labs were somewhat or very inadequate, or non-existent. More than 40% said that their "classrooms were the wrong size for the type of education they were trying to deliver, and more than 25% reported having taught in non-classroom spaces such as hallways and even closets" Approximately one-third said that they had little or no teacher workspace. Air quality was reported to be only fair or poor in the classrooms of over two-thirds of the Washington and over one-half of the Chicago respondents. Notably, more than one-quarter of the Chicago teachers and about one-third of the Washington teachers reported suffering health problems rooted in poor environmental conditions in their schools. Although, the study was unable to establish whether sampled respondents are ready to quit the teaching profession or not, as a result of the reported conditions of their environment, one thing that is clear with their findings is that more than 40% of the teachers who graded their facilities with a C or below said that poor conditions had led them to consider changing schools.
Using qualitative methods, Johnson (2005) interviewed 115 drawn from a pool of teachers recommended by their principals as being above average, includes 75 from public schools, 20 from independent schools, and 20 from church-related schools in eastern Massachusetts. Teachers reported the importance of working in safe buildings and well-equipped schools. Respondents-especially those working in low income settings-frequently said that they lacked sufficient resources for their teaching such as; paper, crayons, pencils, chalk, and textbooks for each student. Although some teachers in low-income schools said that, as a result of categorical grants, they had abundant resources for particular subjects or students, they often lacked other physical supports, such as a clean, well maintained, and adequately ventilated classroom, which would enable them to teach effectively. The respondents reported of out-of-date textbooks, stringent quotas on paper, and deficient libraries with torn books and antiquated audio-visual materials. The author concluded that poorly maintained schools are less likely in attracting and retaining teachers. This is true because indicating dissatisfaction with the working condition is a signal that if a better working condition is discovered can be preferred.
Carroll et al. (2004) explore how inadequate resources limit teachers' effectiveness and affect their decision on teaching. These researchers report that in New York over 75% of teachers planning to leave high-risk schools cite non-retirement reasons, class size/pupil load, lack of supplies and materials, or bad school facilities reported as reasons for their leaving. Similar patterns of response were found in California and Wisconsin, although the gaps between high-income and low-income schools in Wisconsin were less extreme than in the other two states. In commenting on the impact these factors have on teachers' decisions to leave their schools, the authors observe that working conditions are cited far less often as reasons for teachers planning to leave low-risk (high-income) schools than high-risk (low-income) schools. In their view, such conditions increase the likelihood that teachers in low-income schools will leave their schools or teaching prematurely because they fail to succeed with their students. The authors concluded that the problem is not having too few teachers entering high-risk schools; it is that too many good teachers are leaving. They leave because conditions in their schools do not meet even the most basic requirements for successful teaching and learning.
In Nigeria, Fati (2010) conducted her study in Minna metropolis among 200 teachers randomly selected within 10 secondary schools. The researcher administered questionnaire and used simple frequency distribution table and percentage to analyse her data. The findings of the study discovered that 94.5% of the sample indicated that there were no adequate working materials such as; Textbooks, Maps, globes, laboratory equipment and so on, for teachers and students in their schools. In addition the study recorded high rate of inadequate infrastructures with over 80% of the teachers indicating that there were no infrastructures such as; adequate classrooms, furniture for students to sit and so on. Infact some teachers complained that their students sit on the floor while some stand during teaching and some teacher do not have chairs and table in the staff room. These with other problems identified by the research are the major factors causing teacher attrition. One of the major defects of this study is that, the researcher would have used mixed method, select some teachers and conduct interview with them and visit the schools to see things for her-self not relying on sending questionnaire and ask the teachers to fill and submit.
Paul (2004) in his studies discovered that many teachers are working in poor conditions, which tends to lower self-esteem and is generally de-motivating. Schools in many countries lack basic amenities such as pipe-borne water and electricity, staff rooms, and toilets. These are discouraging factors to many teachers it is obvious if you work in a place that the atmosphere is not conducive the next thing is that you will be thinking of another place that you will have more comfort.
Ahmed (2003) in his paper Education and National Development in Nigeria, pointed out that most secondary schools in Nigeria learn in an un conducive learning atmosphere, the basic amenities are not there so this has a lot of effect in demoralising the strength of so many teachers. In line with this, one most annoying thing with some schools in my area is that the required facilities/equipment particularly for science practical are totally in adequate, teachers will be willing to engage science students in practical but the facilities are not there, this is actually discouraging to the profession.
Olaleye (2009) observed that many of the schools in Nigeria are still functioning below standard. Most of them are characterized with inadequate classroom space, furniture, equipment for teaching and learning, lack of easy access to safe drinking water, hygienic sanitation, and health facilities. These factors are at times making it difficult for teachers to cope, because without the required facilities learning cannot take place effectively, teachers will be discourage with the teaching and start to look for somewhere else.
In a lecture delivered on Teachers' day in Lagos State Nigeria, Okebukola (2000) reported on situation of schools in Lagos that; 12% of students sit on the floor, 87% have overcrowded classrooms, 3% of the schools have no chalkboards, 38% of the classrooms have no ceiling 77% lack textbooks 36% of students have no writing materials.
Most schools in Nigeria are not sufficiently equipped with adequate facilities, making it difficult to retain teachers in the profession. (Akinbote, 2001; Ndukwe, 2002; Okpala 2006)
From the studies reviewed above, it is glaring that poor working condition play a role in teachers' decision on teaching profession and can result to teachers' attrition, because inadequate learning facilities can make instructions (teaching) stressful and boring, which can make teachers loses interest in the job and will start thinking of getting better job.
2.1.3 Leadership style
A bad leadership in a school can result to teacher dissatisfaction which can result to attrition, as indicated in the studies below.
Liza, Michelle & John (2008) conducted a qualitative study in Texas. Their result indicated that out of the eight participants interviewed, seven respondents agreed that administration was one of the biggest influential factors in not returning to the teaching profession. Participants cited disrespect from administration as one of the biggest problems. Administrators, according to the respondents, tend to put teachers down instead of motivating them and encouraging them to try harder with the students. Several of the selected participants mentioned that administrators tend to put a lot of pressure on the teachers and criticize them in front of the rest of the staff. From this, we can say that "bad school leadership can contribute to teachers leaving the job" if the leader is not diplomatic he will find it difficult to blend his teachers because of their different background.
In a similar study, Boyd, et al (2009) explored the effect of school contexts such as teachers' involvement in the school policy decision, student behavior, administrative support, facility, and safety by surveying and interviewing teachers in public schools in New York. The authors identified working conditions, specifically administrative support, as a critical factor to retain teachers. In Washington D.C, Luekens (2004) using the results of teacher follow up survey of 2000 -2001. The researcher found that nearly 40% of teachers who left teaching cited a lack of administrative support as the main reason for their departure.
Adamu (2005) conducted his study among secondary school teachers in Bauchi State, Nigeria. The researcher purposively selected 120 teachers in 10 secondary schools. Teachers were asked to indicate support from their principals among other. 42% of the respondents indicated that the support from their principal is not encouraging, 35% indicated partial support from their principal while 23% stated that the support from their principal is encouraging. The result of the study added that among those that are not encouraged and those that indicated partial support from their principals also indicated their interest of leaving the teaching profession if they should have any available opportunity. Despite the fact that the study address the issue of Principals support, one short coming of this study is that, it does not address in details why those teachers are not comfortable with their principals, it could be possible that some of the selected teacher may not be performing their duty as expected and the principals may not want to tolerate that.
Cassandra (2006) indicated that school leaders that often treat their teachers with cares are likely to have teachers' support. Some leaders are democratic in their leadership style, once a new teacher is posted to their school they tend to give him/her a due consideration, but some principals are autocratic they don't bother about the new teachers, they give responsibilities and task to them and expect results without excuses this kinds of leadership style can easily scared the new teachers and lead to their exit out of teaching profession.
Bill M. (2003) revealed that leadership style of the principal has a great effect on teachers particularly the beginning ones, this kinds of teachers according to the study need cares, they need to be concerned with about their job, the school principal should begin to work closely to them by encouraging them and advising where necessary. He also carry them along in decision making, this will help in building confidence on the teachers and instil in them a sense of belonging. This kind of leadership is seriously required, as earlier stated that opposite to cares and concern to teachers from school leaders can constitute a factor for leaving the profession.
School leadership and management style are also important factors, which can either motivate or lower teacher morale and commitment. Nwankwo (1984) discovered that teachers are excited when consulted by the school leader regarding their work or any issue concerning them. He added that some school principals are autocratic in their dealings with teachers.
Trusting and giving a sort of autonomy to teachers will facilitate and enhance the attractiveness of the profession as a career choice and will help in improving the quality of the classroom teaching practice. Teachers who work together in a meaningful and purposeful ways are found to be more likely to remain in the profession because they feel valued and supported in their work Bill M (2003).
Principals have a great role to play being leaders in the school setting, they are the custodian of the entire school, so whatever goes wrong in the school they are bound to be liable. Looking at the importance of their position, it is important for them to handle their teachers diplomatically so as to achieve the school goals and objectives.
2.1.4 Rural Posting
Rural schools experience difficulty in retaining teachers. Research on teacher retention in rural areas tends to assume that teachers will leave their positions for other districts because they feel isolated (McClure & Reeves, 2004). Specifically, attracting young teachers to rural areas is particularly difficult because of social isolation (Proffit, Sale, Alexander & Andrews, 2002). Leaving rural areas to other areas seeking for another job or leaving the teaching entirely may be attributed to so many factors. A survey of teacher mobility was conducted with 94 past and current teachers in rural British Columbia. The survey highlighted the fact that teachers leave communities because of geographic isolation, weather, distance from larger communities and family, and inadequate shopping (Murphy & Angelski, 1996/1997). This survey also revealed that those teachers who do stay in rural communities stay because of the principals' kind of administration, or spousal employment in the community.
Another reason why teachers always reject rural posting or tend to off the teaching profession is that most of the rural schools lack resources. Infact in Nigeria even the urban schools are battling with shortage of resources talk less of the rural schools. Nachtigal, 1992 added that since rural schools often have limited resources, teachers must make use of what is available, or on the alternative improvise. This is what most teachers want to avoid, their salary is not reasonable to take care of them and their family, how do you expect them to start buying teaching resources for the school.
Cross and Frankcombe (1994) stated the rural lifestyle is difficult to cope with for young beginning teachers, a reason why new teachers experience hardships is the fact that most of them have few peers with whom they can interact. In Nigeria for example, most of those recruited as teachers attended schools in the cities because most of the Institutions are cited in the cities, it will be difficult after experiencing life in the city interacting with peers and benefitting from social amenities, then of a sudden you take him to rural school to teach, you will discover that the said teacher may find it difficult to cope with the rural life and it may even result to leaving the teaching profession.
Another problem associated with rural schools is that, once employed and posted to rural schools, whether newly hired or experienced, is subject to high expectations from within the community (Balen, 1995). In addition, Howley and Howley (2005) believed that an understanding and commitment to the cultural meaning that pervades life in rural places is highly relevant to the experience a teacher will professionally and personally encounter in a rural community. Teacher education programs and professional development places little emphasis on understanding the "cultural" demands of teaching and its lifestyle, and being unfamiliar with a community's customs and beliefs may cause problems for teachers entering a new community, whether rural or urban.(Theobald & Howley, 1998). In Niger state there are morethan 15 different ethnic groups each having different cultural background (Usman 2008) So as a teacher if you are posted to a rural school where the community is having different cultural lifestyle, you then have to adjust or else you cannot leave in peace with the people in the community, as a result of that you will realised this kinds of teachers that cannot adjust will face a lot of problems.
If you are in rural school as a teacher you must be ready to teach outside your specialization, because rural schools generally have fewer specialized teachers, rural teachers must prepare and teach a greater variety of lessons. The "ideal" rural teacher is specialized in numerous subject areas, can teach a wide level and age of students, and must be prepared to spend long hours supervising extra-curricular activities, and can adjust or fit into the culture of the community. Because of these demands, teachers in rural schools tend to be less experienced, less well-trained, and have higher attrition rates than those in urban schools (De Young, 1994).
While studies revealed the factors that may attribute teachers problems as regards to rural posting. Another studies also suggested that to retain teachers in rural schools certain things need to be done. Bornfield, Hall, Hall, & Hoover, (1997) surveyed 86 special education teachers in rural states in the United States. They concluded that "staying seemed to be a matter of having roots in the community". In other words, Teachers tend to remain in rural school if they come from rural themselves. So it is important if teachers are recruited those from the rural areas should be posted to rural areas.
Gibson (1994) conducted a structured interview with newly appointed teachers in two regions of Queensland in Australia and contrasted their perception with those of major stake holders providing educational services. One of his findings was that teachers felt ill-prepared to deal effectively with rural situation and especially their role in the community as teachers.
Ciscell (1989) surveyed education majors and tenured teachers to discover influence of geographic preference on the location of preferred teaching position. Participants were asked to characterized their former high school by size and by geographic location: rural, suburban, or urban. Majority of the participants about 58% of the tenured teachers who attended rural high school stated that they preferred teaching at rural school. likewise the undergraduates from the rural high schools indicated their interest to begin their teaching career in rural schools. Only few, about 7% of the tenured teachers or education major from suburban or urban high schools expressed that they will prefer rural schools. This is a clear indication that teachers from rural setting may fit in rural posting. As supported by Aidan et al (2007) who opined that teachers should be recruited and posted based on their locations.
2.2 Factors that help in retaining teachers
Having discussed low salary as a factor for teacher attrition in the other section, in this part I am going to focus on studies that addresses on Teacher salaries in respect to Teacher retention. In other words, the review below is geared towards telling us that reasonable Teacher salaries can influence teacher's decision to remain in teaching.
2.2.1 Teacher Salaries
Teacher pay has repeatedly been cited as factor of teacher retention by many authors. Antonucci (2008) used public available statistics from federal, state and local government in the United States to study the importance of salary as it affects teachers' decision to stay in the teaching profession. He discovered that higher pay improved both teachers quality and retention rate. In another development, Snow (2005) conducted a quantitative study on 279 high school teachers in Panoma Unified school district. He subjected data collected from a six year period to a different statistical analysis including T-test, ANOVA, Cross Tabulation and Correlation. At the end of his investigation, the findings revealed the strength relationship between salary and retention compared across various contexts, including: salary to length of service within all subjects, salary to length of service by gender and subjects. At the end of his comparism, the relationship between salary and retention remained strong, the study actually pointed out that salary has great influence on teachers and can also determine their readiness to remain in the teaching profession.
Figlio (1997) Investigated on the impact of Salary in attracting and retaining quality teachers in selected schools of six metropolitan areas of; Boston, Chicago, Detroit, Los Angeles, Pittsburgh, and Portland, they discovered significant evidence that Public schools that pay higher salaries apparently attract higher quality teachers. Though his approach does not assume that teacher labor markets are national, and the results are not driven by the tendency for high-quality teachers to locate in urban areas, where salaries are also higher. Instead, he found that even within local teacher labor markets, those school districts that pay higher salaries, all else equal, also tend to employ better-qualified teachers. The results tend to hold in every metropolitan area for which he collected his sufficient data. Moreover, he discovered that metropolitan areas where teachers are paid more tend to generally have higher levels of teacher qualifications. Therefore, the evidence suggests that higher teacher salaries do indeed attract teachers with higher qualifications. This finding has implications for labor markets generally, since it indicates that the elasticity of supply of worker quality with respect to wages is positive.
Gonzales, Brown & Slates (2008) conducted a qualitative study on eight teachers in Texas. The subjects were asked about their salary, 7 out of the 8 participants indicated that their salary need to be adjusted upward, and when asked if salary increase can help in retaining them, they all agreed that if their salary is improved they will remain in teaching profession. The major short coming of this research is that, they would have involved teachers that left the teaching profession, this will improve their findings.
Steele, Murnane, and Willett (2009) studied retention effects of the Governor's Teaching Fellowship (GTF) incentive offered from 2000 to 2002 in California. The GTF was a competitive $20,000 incentive that sought to attract academically talented, novice teachers to low-performing schools and retain them at those schools for at least four years. GTF recipients who did not complete their four-year commitments would have to repay the state $5,000 for each year of unfulfilled commitment. All else being equal, GTF recipients had an incentive to stay in low-performing schools longer than non-recipients. However, after analyzing employment decisions of over 27,000 individuals who pursued teaching licenses in California from 1998 to 2003 via a descriptive discrete-time hazard model 12 the authors found no difference in the hazard probabilities of exit for GTF recipients and non-recipients. Roughly 75% of GTF recipients and the non-recipient comparison group remained teaching in a low-performing school into the fourth year. Although no difference was observed between the two groups, the authors are careful to point out that the descriptive approach they employed did not account for any unobserved differences between the GTF recipient group and the non-recipient group, thereby limiting their ability to conclude whether GTF influenced retention rates either positively or negatively.
Clotfelter et.al (2008) Conducted their study on North Carolina awarded annual bonus of $1800 to certified math, science and special education teachers working in public secondary schools with either high-poverty rates or low test scores. Using longitudinal data on teachers, they estimate hazard models that identify the impact of this differential pay by comparing turnover patterns before and after the program's implementation, across eligible and ineligible categories of teachers, and across eligible and barely-ineligible schools. Their results suggest that this bonus payment was sufficient in reducing mean turnover rates of the targeted teachers by 17%. Experienced teachers exhibited the strongest response to the program.
Two years later, Clotfelter, Ladd, and Vigdor (2010) conducted another study. They examined longitudinal data from 1995-2004 for teachers in North Carolina to investigate their responses to salary differentials that arouse as a result of annual bonuses, ranging from $1500-5000. The authors paid attention particularly to the differential responses of teachers with strong qualifications compared to those with average qualifications (defined via four proxies: average licensure test scores, competitiveness of undergraduate institution, years of teaching experience, National Board certification status). The authors examine how both salary and school demographics affect teacher' decisions to leave their current schools. They find some evidence to suggest salary differentials reduce attrition in some schools but conclude that it is less effective in retaining teachers with strong pre-service qualifications.
In United States, Kelly (2004) found that increasing teacher salary by $4000 leads to a 3.8% increase in the probability of staying in the same school for at least 10 years. He reported that, teachers with higher salaries are less likely to leave a school but only slightly so, and the effect is strongest when a teacher is new to teaching. This could be because teachers are comparing themselves with college peers who may have greater earnings, but over time they adjust to a given level of income, and their greatest concern becomes having a positive effect on their students.
Dolton and von der Klaauw (1995) examined a sample of 923 individuals in the UK, all of whom taught as a first job. Using a proportional hazard model, these researchers analyzed the teachers' career decisions and the factors that influenced them during the first six and one-half years after graduation. They considered the potential effects of both a 10% increase in monthly earnings, relative to the income the individual could earn in another profession, as well as the effects of a 25% increase in teacher pay. They found that, with an across-the-board increase of 10% in teacher salaries, there was an associated 9% reduction in the probability that teachers would exit the profession after five years.
Imazeki (2005) confirmed that salary increase can help in reducing teacher attrition. This is based on his study conducted among teachers in Wisconsin. But he was unable to establish or suggest how much wages need to be increased and how such raises might be structured to be most effective, as suggested in the work of Davidson (2007)
In Australia, Leigh (2012) Study the impact of teacher pay on attracting others to join the teaching profession. The researcher after combining two rich data sets on the test scores for students entering Universities, and on graduate salaries, he estimate the impact of salary variation across states on the aptitude of potential teachers. He discovered that the relationship between average pay and teacher aptitude is positive and significant: a 1% rise in teacher pay (relative to other occupations requiring a college degree) is associated with approximately a 0.6 point rise in the average percentile rank of potential teachers.
Komenan & Grootaert (1990) Used multivariate analysis based on monthly wage rate functions to investigate differences in pay between teachers and other occupations in Cote d'Ivoire. The researchers found that teachers receive an economic rent which is largely an expression of government pay scale, despite that, average teacher salaries are still the same with those in other profession. This system can help in reducing attrition rate, because Salary has been cited as a factor of teachers leaving the profession to another profession, in this case if the salary scale is the same across professions then teachers need not to quit to search for a job with higher pay, hence the payment is virtually the same in the country.
According the 1987-88 Teacher Follow-up Survey, 4.5% of public school teachers stated salary as a main reason for leaving the profession. In the private schools, 9.1% of private school teachers stated salary as a main reason for leaving the profession (Bobbitt et al., 1991). This is a clear indication that if the salary is very important in regard to retaining them in teaching, so improving the salary will help in reducing attrition.
In Nigeria, Fakoya (2009) Suggested that hence low salary can affect teachers and even result to their leaving the job then there is the need to increase the payment level of teachers so as to retain them in the profession. This is a good idea because reasonable Salary has been the major concern especially in Nigeria, this is due to economic status of the country particularly with the devaluation of our currency, for example one US dollar ($ 1:00) is equivalent to one hundred and sixty naira (N 155:00).
In line with the issue of salary, Paul (2004) suggested the improvement of pay structure which should be done according to subject and location. Meaning that those teachers handling sciences subjects should receive higher than their counterpart in other subjects because of their proximity to danger with chemicals in the laboratory, this kinds of teachers also can easily leave teaching because of the demand of scientist who will work in other organization. On the other categories of staff who Paul(2004) suggested that they should be pay higher because of their location, his reason is that most of the teachers posted to rural areas may not be willing to stay, so there is the need for them to be given an additional incentives in order to maintain them. In this note I argue with the writer this is because in Nigerian situation by the time additional amount is giving to them those teachers in the urban centres will also demand for advance payment which they could be right, hence life in the cities is more expensive than life in the rural areas.
Arikewuyo (2006) suggested more ways to retain teachers among this are; improved salary package and there should be adequate retirement benefits which is very crucial, many teachers in Nigeria usually entertain fear about their retirement benefits, because those that reached the retirement age are always facing difficulties in getting their benefits. It takes a long time for teachers to claim their benefits after retirement. With this many teachers will not want to end their careers in teaching, they prefer a sector, ministry or parastatal where their retirement benefit will be redeemed immediately.
In this part, I intend to look at how good leadership in a school can result to retaining teachers, but before looking at related studies that testified to that, I want to briefly discuss what leadership is. School as an organization has its aims and objectives therefore it is important to have someone who will effectively coordinate the behaviour of people in order to achieve its aims and objectives. Although the word leadership does not have a single definition because the meaning could often be affected by what it intends to cover. Taffinder (2006) gave the following as definitions of leadership: "leadership is getting people to do things they have never thought of doing, do not believe are possible or that they do not want to do". With reference to an organization, he defined leadership as "the action of committing employees to contribute their best to the purpose of the organization". While on a complex and more accurate view, he explains that you only know leadership by its consequences - from the fact that individuals or a group of people start to behave in a particular way as a result of the actions of the leader. To me, the important part of this definition is the concluding part that touches the behaviour of people in the organization. In schools for example, if the leadership cannot be able to carry all the Teachers along, then there is the likelihood that teachers may show their anger which will affect their performance and can result to their decision to leave the school to another or the teaching entirely.
Successful principals turned out to be men and women with varied professional backgrounds who worked in collaboration with their staff and showed respect for the teaching culture. They found various ways to support teachers in getting the job done. "The leadership of these principals was not superhuman; rather, it grew from a strong and simple commitment to make schools work for their students and to build teachers' determination and capacity to pursue this collective goal." (Copland, 2001)
Johnson, Berg & Donaldson (2005) reported that Principals play a crucial role in implementing successful initiatives, developing a collective mission or making on-going decisions about curriculum and instruction, schedule and staffing assignments to encourage collaboration focused on student learning, and promoting positive social interactions among teachers, giving teachers value working in concert with their colleagues, doing all these suggest that principals might increase teacher retention.
Blase and Blase (2004) analysed open-ended questionnaires completed by 800 teachers studying in three major universities in the United States. Majority of the respondents, over 50% indicated that principals' kind of administration can affect teachers' decision to teaching. In other words an acceptable kind of administration can increase retention.
Boyd et al (2010) conducted a study in New York City. The survey was completed by 4,360 teachers (just over 70% response rate) and consisted of more than 300 questions divided into the following areas: preparation experiences, characteristics of the schools in which they are teaching, teaching practices, and goals. Participation in the survey was voluntary and took approximately 25 minutes. Participants received $25 after completing the survey. They discovered that Principals' effects on school operations through motivating teachers and students, identifying and articulating vision and goals, developing high performance expectations, fostering communication, allocating resources, and developing organizational structures to support instruction and learning, can reduce attrition. They concluded that teachers' perception of the school administration has by far the greatest influence on teacher retention decisions. The major shortcoming of this study is that; the study did not investigate other school contextual factors that are likely to be important to teachers-such as teachers' opportunities for collaboration, staff development, teacher autonomy, and school neighbourhood characteristics. In addition, this study does not address the relationship between teacher retention decisions and teacher quality.
If schools are to succeed in retaining teachers, a proper infrastructure should be in place that allows teachers to focus most of their time and energy on teaching. With this mind, school principals should give new teachers less of a workload, fewer responsibilities and duties so they can concentrate on their classrooms and students (Sargent, 2003). In line with this Ingersoll (2002) added that administrators seem to influence teachers' satisfaction indirectly-by promoting a safe and orderly school, by assigning teachers to positions for which they feel qualified, by providing teachers a sense of control and influence over their work and by providing a context in which teachers can feel supported by their colleagues. .
Public Education Network, (2003) suggested that, as a principal maintaining consistent procedures and schedules is important is another way of retaining teachers. Clearly explaining changes beforehand will avoid chaos and stress on everyone, especially new teachers. So whatever changes or decision you have regarding your staff, is better you notify them at the right time so as to enable them adjust, this will make them comfortable and add trust upon the leader.
Teachers have expressed the need for support in the form of performance assessments and evaluations. Leaders should structure formal evaluations around the needs of the teachers. Rather than covering every item on an evaluation checklist, a leader can schedule observations to focus on only a few skills at a time (Colley, 2002). Spitz (2003) is with the opinion that principals can encourage teachers to choose an area of improvement and the principal should show evidence of growth in this area. Leaders can make sure they respect the learning curve for new teachers, and they can put the teacher's manual and standards documents into understandable language that is relevant to the way teachers are going to teach (Feiman-Nemser, 2003). All these are ways that the principal can arouse the interest of the teacher in the profession so as to improve retention rate. Johnson and Birkeland (2003) also report that, among 50 Novice Massachusetts teachers studied over four years, those who decided to leave their schools or the profession often described principals as neglectful. Stockard & Lehman (2004) Social support, and effective school management has influence on the satisfaction and retention decisions of school teachers.
The conditions and resources needed to support new teachers in their continuous learning, growth, and professional development include shared decision making on substantive issues, collaborative work with others to reach shared goals, and expanded teacher leadership capacity. Principals need to model high expectations for all and keep the vision of student learning alive and at the forefront of all decisions. Principals should maintain an open door and a visible presence throughout their schools and encourage and support collegiality among all teachers while providing nurturance, guidance, and leadership when needed. By fostering official or unofficial professional learning communities, principals can reduce teacher isolation; increase teacher responsibility and understanding; improve teacher satisfaction, morale, and commitment; and influence teacher retention. (Brown, & Schainker, 2008)
Eileen (1999) Pointed out that Support and encouragement from the principal play a vital role particularly to the beginning teachers when principal communicate to them what is expected of them clearly, enforce students rules of conduct and support teachers in doing so, make sure that all necessary material are available, evaluate teachers justifiable without bias and encouragement for a well done job, all these can help can help in boosting the morale of young teachers, increase their commitment in teaching and fully anticipated that they will stay in teaching.
In addition the leader should be involving the teachers in taking an important decision in the school because the more positive they view their school leadership, the more collaborative and supportive the school leadership, the more they will be involve in the activities of the school .
Studies have indicated that some teachers leave teaching because of the leadership style of their principal. Mgadla (2003) opined that to have a good school administration, principal need to receive more training so as to equip them with the required administrative skills that will enable them properly apply it in their schools so as to help in retaining teachers. The training will help a lot because the principal is always with the teachers he is expected to know their problems and help in solving it, he interact with the teachers better than the ministry, so if he lack the skills in handling the teachers the system will not run smoothly and if the system is not smooth it will be boring to new teachers which can result to their quitting.
Bill (2003) also supported that, principal's position and his kind of administration is important to the success of a school, as such a principal need to have the required skills that will enable him handle his staff effectively.
According to Little (1990) Mentors are veteran teachers who help beginners learn the philosophy, cultural values and established sets of behaviours expected by the schools where they are employed. Mentors are teachers who have been in the teaching profession for a reasonable number of years, having all the required skills and technicalities in in teaching. Mentorship programs are a common type of induction assistance, and some of their aspects are viewed positively by beginning teachers. They provide excellent opportunities for assisting beginning teachers in areas of high need such as locating instructional materials, managing instructional time, planning and organizing instruction, and using varied teaching methods (Algozzine, Gretes, Queen, & Cowan-Hathcock, 2007).
Hobson, Ashby, Malderez, & Tomlinson (2009) pointed out that since the 1980s many countries have seen a massive increase in the number of formal programmes of school-based mentoring for beginning teachers. In Australia, for example Devos (2010) stated that under the Victorian 'Induction and Mentoring of Beginning Teachers' policy, new graduates are provisionally registered for a period of 12 months during which time (if employed in a school) they are required to participate in the Provisionally Registered Teachers (PRT) Program. In this program, the new teacher is mentored by a more experienced teacher in their school. In order to seek full registration as a teacher (and stay in employment) PRTs are required to present evidence of their competence against eight Standards of Professional Practice at the conclusion of the 12 month period. The Standards are grouped under three headings Professional Knowledge, Professional Practice and Professional Engagement.
Williams & Prestage, (2002) explained the new induction arrangements put in place in England in 1999, these arrangements according to them have as a key feature individual mentoring of the new teacher by a more experienced teacher for a 12-month period during their first year of teaching. They note this in effect re-reinstated the probationary year abolished during the early 1990s.
In some parts of Southern Nigeria, the case is similar A Teacher when employed will undergo an induction training from experienced Teacher (mentor) so as to learn all the required skill in the Teaching profession, though it varies among Schools, in some Schools the teacher will be under a mentor for a term which is about three to four months while some will receive the training for about six months respectively. This practice is as a result of the facts that, the Southerners are Educationally advance States unlike their counterpart the Northern states who are less Educationally advance, so the practice of Mentoring is not common in Northern Nigeria, Niger state inclusive.
A number of studies have found that well-designed mentoring programs raise retention rates for new teachers by improving their attitudes, feelings of efficacy, and instructional skills (Darling-Hammond, 1997). In line with this Veenman, (1984) pointed a reason of teacher mentoring in education as to encourage the retention of newly and recently qualified teachers in the profession, notably through attempting to mitigate the well-documented phenomenon of 'reality shock' experienced by many beginning teachers.
In Ontario Canada, Cheng and Brown (1992) conducted their studies on two groups of teachers. Beginning teachers who entered teaching newly and participated in a one-on-one mentoring programme, and Teachers with significantly more teaching experience. The authors reported, nonetheless, that teachers receiving some form of induction support were more likely to choose teaching as a career a second time, while teachers in the second group were more than twenty per cent less likely to do so.
If the beginning teachers are properly mentored they will have sense of belonging and confidence to face whatever challenges in their teaching job, this will improve their teaching skills and the ability to put in their best. McIntyre & Hagger (1996) added that a wide range of benefits of mentoring for beginning teachers, including reduced feelings of isolation, increased confidence and self-esteem, professional growth, and improved self-reflection and problem solving capacities. The benefits of mentoring programs are substantial for both novice and mentor teachers. Creating a structure that allows experienced teachers to work with novice teachers will ultimately benefit the students of both novices and mentors, and the overall organization will be stronger as a result of the increased capacity of teachers and mentors (Huling, 2001).
For example, in Chicago Public Schools, novice elementary school teachers who received strong mentoring were 25 % more likely to plan to remain in the same school, according to a 2007 report by the Consortium of Chicago School Research at the University of Chicago ((Maciejewski, 2007). Such districts as Rochester, New York, and Cincinnati, Columbus, and Toledo, Ohio have reduced attrition rates of beginning teachers by more than two-thirds (often from levels exceeding 30% to rates of under 5 %) by providing expert mentors with release time to coach beginners in their first year on the job (NCTAF, 1996). These young teachers not only stay in the profession at higher rates, but also become competent more quickly than those who must learn by trial and error (Darling-Hammond, 1997). Assigning experienced teachers to guide and support novice teachers provide valuable professional development for both new and veteran teachers. Danielson (1999) found that mentoring helps novice teachers face their new challenges; through reflective activities and professional conversations, they improve their teaching practices as they assume full responsibility for a clas