Factors Of National Philosophy Of Education Education Essay


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What is National Philosophy of Education. National Philosophy of Education stands for Education in Malaysia is an ongoing effort towards further developing the potential of individuals in a holistic and integrated manner, in order to produce individuals who are intellectually, spiritually, emotionally and physically, balanced and harmoniously, based on a firm belief in and devotion to God. Such an effort is designed to produce Malaysian citizens who are knowledgeable and competent, who possess high moral standards and who are responsible and capable of achieving a high level of personal well being to contribute to the betterment of the nation, family and society. The NPE has been build by Ministry of Education since the year of 1988. The experts of education had tried their best to put in all the NPE into their curriculum taught in every subject in school.

1.1- Elements in National Philosophy of Education (NPE)

There are also elements in the implementation of NPE. First and foremost, element in NPE is education as an ongoing effort. Education is the process of transferring and acquiring of knowledge, skills and noble values. Education usually implemented for children since they at an early age which is 1 to 6 years old. Then, it will be continued by the school to enhance knowledge, skills and character. For instance, if a student just finished his SPM examination, he will seek for an extra class such as computer class. The new knowledge that he receives will assist him to adapt to many types of changes. Next, development of individual's potential also one of the elements in the NPE. As we know, everyone is born with hidden talent and abilities but they do not realize it on their own. However, the hidden talent and abilities can be detected through social interaction. For example, if a student discuss his work with a partner to make an essay, he probably can point out brilliant idea that can give high marks to the essay. Other than that, the element in NPE is belief and devotion to God. Every person must admit the existence of God and belief in Him as the creator of the universe. In fact, everyone also has to produce good deeds and actions. For instance, Muslim people believe in 'syurga' which is the place to stay afterlife. In order to enter the 'syurga', they have to make good things and deeds while they are alive.

1.2- Factors of National Philosophy of Education

Other than element, NPE also has it's own reason why it is implemented in the education system. First and foremost, the factor that determines NPE is religious factor. This factor can be seen through quotation "Produce individuals who are intellectually, spiritually, emotionally and physically balanced and harmonious, based on a firm belief and devotion to God". As we know, Malaysia is a multiracial and multi religion country but Islam has to be the official religion. However, other religion such as Christian, Buddhist and Hindu is free to embrace. Another factor that determines NPE is the social factor which can be seen through quotation "to produce Malaysian citizen that are capable of achieving a high level of personal well being to contribute to the betterment of the nation, family and society". Malaysia is a peaceful country which have a variety of races live here. Cooperation and tolerance from various citizens are very important in order to live in harmony and prosperity in Malaysia. Therefore, through the correct practice, we are able to reach the stability of society. Lastly, economic factor also is one of the reasons in determining NPE. Malaysians nowadays are trained with special skill in many kinds of field to upgrading their productivity. Such an aim can be accomplished with the production of individuals who are knowledgeable and competent, responsible and capable to contribute towards the betterment of the nation, family and society. The target of Malaysia to be economically strong country becomes the major factor in the national education on the NPE.

2.0- National Curriculum

In addition, national curriculum also changing to achieve NPE's objectives. National curriculum is "An educational program that includes curriculum and co-curricular activities which encompasses all the knowledge, skills norms, values, cultural elements and beliefs to help develop an individual fully with respect to the physical, spiritual, mental and emotional as well as to inculcate and develop desirable moral values ​​and to transmit knowledge".


Education in Malaysia started before the Malaysia gain independence in 1957. Informal education usually takes place as a medium for Malay people get knowledge because lack of teachers to teach them. In order to improve the education in Malaysia, education act and several systems of education has been built by the government to produce knowledgeable citizens. Education in Malaysia was started from Education Act in the year of 1961. According to Shidota (2010), "The education act is the forming from the Rahman Talib Report 1960". Sekolah Kebangsaan is open for every race while Sekolah Jenis Kebangsaan is only provided for Indian and Chinese people. Then, Old Curriculum for Primary Schools (KLSR) was built as a system of education in Malaysia. Old Curriculum for Primary Schools (KLSR) implemented since the country gained independence. In 1960, a Subjects Review Committee has been established to be known as the Rahman Talib Report.

The Rahman Talib Report has suggested some aspects of education. The Rahman Talib report is then tabled in Parliament and passed which was then implemented in the Education Act 1961. According to Rahman Talib Report, all students must pass in Bahasa Melayu public examination, in which the written examination papers. By using the Malay language, it aims to foster unity among the various ethnic groups. In KLSR, the education is old-oriented and stress on memorizing learning.

In addition, organization in class is arranged using the traditional classroom arrangement. Traditional classroom is a place for a group of students' lessons delivered by teachers using the old-oriented teaching. In traditional classroom, the students are very passive and receive anything teacher teach. In 1982, New Primary School Curriculum (KBSR) was implemented as a new education system that replaced KLSR. KBSR implementation follows the changes made by the Report of the Cabinet Committee on Implementation of Education Policy issued in 1979.

KBSR is aimed to complete all learners with basic skills and knowledge of the subjects. In KBSR, co-curriculum activity and Primary School Assessment Test (UPSR) are compulsory. In 1993, New Primary School Curriculum changed to the name of the new Integrated Primary School Curriculum. However, only the name changes have occurred. The curriculum content is still the same as before. KBSR plan also emphasizes the mastery of basic skills 3M of reading, writing and arithmetic. In 2010, Standard Primary School Curriculum (KSSR) replaced Integrated Primary School Curriculum as a new system of education in Malaysia.

KSSR divides subject into 3 modules which are Core Basic Module, Basic Module Themes and Elective Basic Module. For level 1 which is year 1-2, teaching focuses on writing, reading, counting and menakul (4M). While, for level 2 which are year 3-6, teaching stress on the application of 4M. One of the objectives of KSSR is to create innovative individuals. Until now, KSSR is still ongoing as the system of education in Malaysia. It is more towards practical and less stressful for teachers and students.

3.0- Strategies For The Realization Of NPE

3.1- School's role:

The school should play a big role to achieve the National Philosophy of Education's objectives. Firstly, the most important aspect is the aspect of school acculturation. Some call the school climate. School culture must include the five elements found in the National Education Philosophy which is spiritual, intellectual, emotional, physical and social. The spiritual element is by understanding the importance of religion without religion against another. An example is to create a school culture that practices reading the Quran every morning and obligatory prayers in congregation. All students also must cover themselves. It will enlighten students of its responsibilities in keeping religion and self respect. Indirectly will produce pupils with competent, honorable, responsible and capable of achieving well-being.

From a physical element also is to provide school facilities that are comfortable, warm and conducive environment that promotes teaching and learning. It will stimulate students' interest in pursuing knowledge. It is in line with the Philosophy of Education which is to produce students who flourish in harmony and complete in terms of spiritual, physical, emotional, intellectual and social

Further, in the intellectual element, schools must encourage acculturation knowledge among students and teachers. The school can organize academic programs such as NILAM program. It will promote a culture of reading among students. Spirit children to read is also increasing with the award as NILAM award. Through reading, students' minds are more developed and pupils are able to think creatively and critically. It is in line with the Philosophy of Education to produce Malaysian citizens who are knowledgeable.

3.2- Teachers' role:

Other than school, teachers also should play their role to develop NPE's objectives in students. First and foremost, teachers as educators should have even more committed to the implementation of activities to achieve the aspirations contained in NPE. Next, teach the student with the availability of new knowledge that teachers have prepared to implement new teaching and learning strategies in order to create a harmonious and balanced human intellectually, spiritually, emotionally and physically.

3.3- Student's role:

The objective of NPE can also be developed by the effort from students. In every learning session, students should show active learning and participation. They also can develop independence, self-discipline and solve problems. Besides, students may start applying critical thinking skills and make an action. Critical thinking is very important in Mathematics subject. Therefore, students have to develop it on their own to make a betterment thinking in their action.

4.0- School Activity

This NPE has been used in every school in Malaysia to develop the students cognitive, affective and psychomotor (physical) with other potentials (JERIS) in students. Usually, the school will carry out activities to succeed the objectives of NPE. In order to get more specific about activities that had been done with school and teachers, I had interviewed a Headmaster, Senior Assistant and a school teacher at Sekolah Kebangsaan Bukit Jana. After I interview all of them, I had found that many interesting activities that has been organized by the school and teacher. Before doing any activities in school, the headmaster makes a committee which is organized earlier before school starts and led by her. Each committee has 4 manager which are headmaster, student affairs assistant, administrative assistant and curriculum assistant.

4.1- Sport's Day

The first activity held in the school is Sport's Day. Sport's Day usually held in the month of March. There are many activities in Sport's Day that will be contested such as 800m run and javelin throw. This activity is aimed to produce students that are talented and active. Every student in the school will be taking part in each activity in Sport's Day. Their participation will contribute points to their contribute point for respective group. From this Sport's Day, students will become more brave to try participating in any activities that held anytime.

4.2- Interaction Day

Secondly, Interaction Day is held in school to apply the NPE objective. In the Interaction Day, parents will come to school to take their child's report card and it has to be taken from the classroom teacher. When the parents receive the report card, they can look at the result and ask any question regarding their child in class. During the interaction, parents can know the truth behavior of their child at school. In fact, they also will know whether their child fully attend his class or not. Through this activity, students will become more hardworking in their study. They will work hard to get lying colors in examination and make their parents proud of themselves.

4.3- Parents and Teacher Association

Next activity held in school is Parents and Teacher Association. This activity is conducted by the headmaster and helped by the Teacher Assistants in the school. Parents will come to the meeting to discuss important things regarding the school or students. This activity aims for improvement the school's weaknesses. For example, if the school is not stress on discipline, parents can complain about it. The school also can get suggestion from parents on the betterment of the transformation in the school. Furthermore, the activity also gives a chance for school to ask help from parents to make an extra class for students. This is due to the lack of teacher to attend an extra class at school. At the end of this session, management of the school will become better in the future. In fact, the school also can do any motivational camping that requires payment to the organizer because the school will receive some funding from the parents. Therefore, students can receive more new ideas about their studies from the motivational camping.

4.4- Excellence Award Day

Other than that, there is also an Excellence Award Day which will be held at the end of the year. This activity is held to increase the students' spirit to study hard. When students see an excellent student walk on a stage and receive a scroll of certificate, they will feel challenged and start to work hard. In this activity, the school will choose the top 15 students in every class to take a certificate on the stage. Through this activity, students will compete fairly without hurting anyone. They will study to achieve the best mark in the examination. They also will start to think positively because they know they can success in the examination and beat the person who already walk on the stage.

4.5- Collaborative Activity

Lastly, to achieve NPE objectives, the school also held a collaborative activity. During the collaborative activity, teachers will involve along with the students. This activity is aimed for cooperation between students and people around. Besides that, it also to tighten the relationship between students and teachers. Apart from that, this activity also aims to bring awareness to students about the importance of hygiene. At the end of the activity, the school will be able to produce school can produce students with a cleaner and diligent help. Students will learn the meaning of respect with each other. For example, young students will honor students older than him. Students are also more concerned about hygiene while studying.

5.0- Classroom Activity

5.1- Storytelling

In class, the teacher also makes some activities for students to develop NPE objectives. One of the activities that the teacher does in the classroom is story telling. In the story telling activity, the teacher will pick 3 students to tell their story in front of the class. Time given to each student is about 3 minutes. The reason why this activity held in class is to further develop students' talents in storytelling. Storytelling competition can also provide opportunities for students to share knowledge and learn correct vocabulary. Hopefully, this activity will produce students who are not shy to try something new. In addition, the use of proper grammar can also be nurtured. Through the use of proper grammar, students are able to answer exam questions successfully.

5.2- Group Discussion

Next, other activity in class that the teacher has been carried out is group discussion. Before group discussion starts, the teacher will divide all students in a group and each group contains about 5 students. This activity is to let the students discuss the answer on their own. It also conducted to give students exposure to a lot of ideas. They can also discuss and give opinions on the answer to be determined. At the end of this activity, students will be more comfortable to socialize with other classmates. They would not feel left out because of the interaction between classmates were running. In addition, this activity also gives the impression of someone who rarely communicate in the classroom. For example, if a student is introverted in a class, the other students will say that he was an arrogant student. However, after this activity going on, they will know that the students are not arrogant but he is very friendly.

5.3- Spelling Bee

Apart from that, teachers also carry out the Spelling Bee activity. This activity involves all students in the class. An Activity of the Spelling Bee is intended to correct spelling has always been a problem in school. It is also to avoid any confusion in the spelling of a word. This activity will produce students who are able to spell the word correctly. This is so because, many students are confused to differentiate spelling Malay and English. For example, students will be entered for spelling televisyen to television. In addition, students' vocabulary can also be corrected during the activity period.

5.4- Mind Mapping and Brainstorming

Besides that, teachers also conduct Mind Mapping and Brainstorming activity in class. This activity must be participated by all students in the class. The aim of this activity is to get an idea in completing student's homework. For example, if a student wants to do his essay, he cannot write it correctly because he does not have ideas to complete it. Sometimes, the main point also is not related to the question. This activity was hoped that students can have mature thinking of making a good essay. It also will produce students who are creative. Other than that, mind mapping and brainstorming also can help students in solving problem.

5.5- Quizes

Lastly, the teacher held a Quiz session to achieve NPE's objectives. As usual, this activity requires all students to participate in it. This is due to the students who do not like to complete his homework. As a replacement, the teacher will make a short quiz before she starts a new lesson. At the end of the activity, students will be more prepare to read earlier to pass the quiz. Furthermore, this activity also will build students' confidence level in order to complete the quiz before time is up. It also can be revision for students before the examination week.

6.0- Conclusion

In conclusion, the school has conducted many interesting activities such as Sport's Day, Interaction Day, Parents and Teachers Association, Excellence Award Day and Collaboration Activity. While, the teacher has made a movement by making activities in the classroom. The activities are Spelling Bee, Storytelling, Group Discussion, Mind Mapping and Brainstorming and Quizes. All the activities that had been done are appropriate to develop NPE's objectives in student. The activities also received encouraging response from the students.

7.0- Appendix

Interview Form




Interviewed by: Siti Nur Syaima binti Badrul Azam

"Education in Malaysia is an on going effort towards further developing the potential of individuals in a holistic and integrated manner, in order to produce individuals who are intellectually, spiritually, emotionally and physically, balanced and harmoniously, based on a firm belief in and devotion to God. Such an effort is designed to produce Malaysian citizens who are knowledgeable and competent, who possess high moral standards and who are responsible and capable of achieving a high level of personal well being to contribute to the betterment of the nation, family and society."

The national curriculum of the school reflects the objectives of national Philosophy of education (NPE). By implementing the curriculum effectively in schools, it can develop the students cognitive, affective and psychomotor (physical) with other potentials (JERIS) in students. By this, the institutions can produce 'insan model' as for the future generations. What 5 activities that school carried out to visualize/insist the objective of NPE?

1- _________________________________________


Does the activity must be carried out by all students?

What are the products at the end?

2- ________________________________________


Did parents give support in this activity? For example fund.

How can it be applied in students' daily routine?



Does this activity involve students in the school or outsider?

How this activity help in developing the students psychomotor?

4- ________________________________________


Do students respond well in the activity?

In the future, does this activity will change a little bit so that it will become more happening?

5- _______________________________________


Does teachers' role is important in the activity?

What is product did the activity reflect to the students?

Interview Form

Teacher's name:

School's name:

Interviewed by: Siti Nur Syaima binti Badrul Azam

The national curriculum is an educational program that includes curriculum and co-curricular activities which encompasses all the knowledge, skills norms, values, cultural elements and beliefs to help develop an individual fully with respect to the physical, spiritual, mental and emotional as well as to inculcate and develop desirable moral values ​​and to transmit knowledge. From the definition above, it is clear that the national curriculum reflects the objectives of national philosophy of education (NPE).

As a teacher, what are the teaching activities that being focused/carried out in classroom to actualize the National curriculum in the progress of molding the student's behavior and believes.







Did students cooperate together in this activity?

How much time is given to the students to complete the activity?



Did students always getting bored with this activity?

What are the end products of the activity?



How many students participate?

What is the students' reaction towards this activity?



How many frequent this activity held in class?

What is the product at the end of the session?

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