Obstacles to adoption of ICT by teachers in secondary schools identified in the literature included teachers: Demographics, Attitude towards ICT, Motivation and technical support (Cox et al, 1999; Cuban, 1999; Grainger & Tolhurst, 2005; Chigona, 2010; Van Belle, 2006; Tella, 2008; Kyrsa, 1998; Al-Zaidiyeen, 2010; Yucel, 2010; Makhanu, 2010; Jamieson-Proctor & Finger, 2006).
Jamieson-Proctor & Finger (2006) showed that gender is significantly related to confidence in using ICT, by teachers for teaching. Jamieson-Proctor & Finger ( 2006) reached this result by using the Pearson Chi-squares test of Significance to compare gender and their confidence to use ICT with their learners for teaching and learning from the survey of 929 practising primary and secondary teachers and (2) 285 pre-service from Queensland state schools. The survey obtained demographic data on the teacher respondents (gender, school type, years of teaching experience, confidence to use ICT with learners for teaching and learning, year levels and curriculum areas currently taught). Redmann & Kotrlik (2009) revealed that age is significantly correlated to technology adoption, while the years of experience is not significantly correlated to technology adoption.
Attitude and Motivation
Yucel et al (2010) results revealed that there is no relationship between teacher's negative attitude and teachers' knowledge on ICT. Yecul et al (2010) reached these results by carrying out correlation analysis between dependent and independent variables. Yucel et al (2010) further indicate that "effort trying to improve teachers' attitudes is not likely to have a direct impact unless their feeling of self adequacy is improved". Yecul et al (2010) results contradict with Al-Zaidiyeen et al (2010) results. Researchers globally believe that the use of ICT intervention for educational purposes depends upon the attitudes of teachers toward the technology (Summers, 1990; Al-Zaidiyeen et al, 2010). Al-Zaidiyeen et al (2010) reached the results by surveying randomly selected 650 teachers in Jordan, in the use of ICT, and the level of attitude of teachers towards the use of ICT. Al-Zaidiyeen et al (2010) results are consistence with previous studies which found teachers' attitude toward computers as a key factor in predicting the increased use of computer in education(Lau & Sim, 2008; Tella et al, 2005; Makhanu, 2010).
Kyrsa (1998) conducted an interview with four elementary school teachers in an urban school district in Saskatchewan in March, 1998 to determine factors affecting the adoption and use of computer technology in schools. The responses to their interviews indicated that issue of motivation was one of the serious factors affecting adoption of ICT in schools, by teachers, respondents further revealed that even though they have the opportunities to increase their level of knowledge and familiarity with the technology, some of them have little interest and motivation to do so. This is inline with the conclusion by Sang et al (2010) that the role of teachers ICT motivation should be recognized.
Previous studies on teacher use of ICT have identified technical support as one of the key barrier to the further adoption of ICT in schools (Cox et al, 1999; Cuban, 1999; Grainger & Tolhurst, 2005; Chigona, 2010; Van Belle, 2006). Tella et al (2008) rerported on the assessment of secondary school teacher's use of ICT's. A sample of 700 teachers from twenty five purposefully selected private secondary schools in Ibadan, Oyo state, Nigeria have been surveyed to examine Nigeria secondary school teachers' uses of ICTs and its implications for further development of ICTs use in Nigerian secondary schools. The study comprised of 430 males and 270 females. The results of the study showed that lack of technical support is one of the prominent factors hindering teacher's adoption of ICT in teaching. This is consistent with the findings of a study Lau & Sim (2008) which reported lack of technical support as the barrier in the adoption of ICT in teaching.
There is number of valuable studies on ICT adoption by teachers (Cox et al, 1999; Cuban, 1999; Grainger & Tolhurst, 2005; Chigona, 2010; Van Belle, 2006; Tella, 2008; Kyrsa, 1998; Al-Zaidiyeen, 2010; Yucel, 2010; Jamieson-Proctor & Finger, 2006), all of which present evidence on a number of factors affecting adoption and integration of ICT in teaching and learning. However most of these studies are theory based not much has been done in terms of intervention models on the factors identified as being barriers of ICT adoption in teaching. Secondly limited theories exist on the adoption of ICT for the teaching of Science in poorly resourced schools. It remains a matter of serious concern that there is not much of research-based model designed as the intervention model for the improvement of ICT adoption for the teaching of MST considering the impact that MST has on society. This research will not only analyse the factors affecting adoption of ICT, but the intervention model will be designed for the improvement of ICT adoption for the teaching of MST in under-resourced schools.