Exploring Professionalism In Education

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Basic and motivational elements that contribute to the starting point of becoming a professional show the important role of experiential learning in exploring professionalism. Both personal and professional motivations feed an abiding need to develop educational professionalism within our society. Personal developments in education and professional practice are related to our vision of reality and are thus important towards an insight into the relevant aspects of its educational foundation (Dall'Alba, 2009). Within professional practice a distinction can be made between professionalism and professional identity (Sachs, 1999). Professionalism contains both a democratic as well as a managerial paradigm concentrated on wider contextual aspects (Ibid.). The inconsistency of these aspects becomes very clear when exploring the field of professionalism in education. Educators are continuously expected to operate and switch within several functional occupations and therefore play diverse and sometimes even conflicting roles within their own profession. Professional identity is formed trough crossing external requirements and subjective self- perception associated with the educational role within teaching (Brott & Kajs, 2001). These concerns of professional identity arise from professional socialization and development (McGowen & Hart, 1990). In order to continue the reflective process on exploring professionalism in education and the important role of personal identity within the educational profession personal elements of educators need to be taken into consideration (Kelchtermans et al., 2007). Concluding from aforementioned, personal life history and its position towards society seems of considerable relevance in continuing professionalism and its developments throughout our entire education system.



professional learning

Awareness and professional need

Research and reflection

contribution and development



basic elements

experiential learning

personal development

Professional identity

becoming a professional

education and motivation

figure 1.

Personal perspectives as a professional

In order to explore the reflective process of my own professional development as explained earlier I will unsurprisingly start by portraying my own personal perspectives. When I started a Special and Inclusive Educational Needs Master study at Roehampton University I had never genuinely considered looking back and reflecting on my personal aspirations and professional experiences before. As I engaged in reflective literature I became conscious of a continuing connection with personal choices involving developments in my professional being and vice versa. Additionally I became aware of my infinite and addictive need to learn. As I had learned as a child addictions were considered to be wrong. I was well aware of my odd finding. But was it odd to have an undying need to learn? I did not know!

What can we know and what can be known? Without having to cite Plato, knowledge requires a known, thus epistemology cannot be without knowing what is (Rickless, 2007). An answer to what is leads us back to the ontological issue regarding what we perceive. Perceptiveness which in my opinion could be an enormous quality in teaching is not a gift we have all received.

As a mentor, art & drama teacher and internal educational adviser at a secondary school I also help in remedial teaching and give extra guidance to several learning support departments. Looking at my profession and the experiences I have had within schools I noticed a gap in communication and understanding between management and educators (Keogh, 1990). Furthermore I found perceptive teachers and other colleagues whom I consider to be professionals being disregarded when trying to contribute to the educational development within schools. Being one of those teachers I found out educational and managerial priorities within schools generally do not cope (Onderwijsinspectie, 2009).

As a teaching professional I consider school to be an essential learning environment. Not only do I believe in making every learning experience at schools educational for students I also find schools hold enough resourceful opportunities to continue education among enthusiastic colleagues. Creating opportunities within schools requires asking permission to the management. Bureaucracy and structural policymaking has also found its way into schools and hereby requires enthusiastic educators to submit themselves to multiple formal procedures (Truijens, 2008). After an assortment of contributions such as projects, writings and internal pilot-research most teachers give up hope due to a lack of managerial support. Enthusiastic (and often young) colleagues regularly resign from schools and still nothing is done with inspirational ideas to enhance educational opportunities (SBO, 2010). According to research presented by the Dutch educational union most young teachers find their educational occupation less than rewarding (Sikkes, 2010; AOB, 2006). Possible educational and often rewarding opportunities however can be found in all places within Dutch schools (Moore Johnson, 2004). Educators willing to selflessly contribute within schools are due to lack of interest often forced to look elsewhere outside the school in order to carry out their educational aspirations (AOB, 2007). I wondered how it could be possible that national facilitated educational institutions lack the spirit to become actual educational facilitators themselves (onderwijsinspectie, 2009). Somehow trough the evident parallels I found, this strongly reminded me of a book I once read in secondary school titled Trough the looking glass and what Alice found there (Carroll, 1993). The novel tells the story of Alice, a young girl coping with social issues despite the developments and changes she endures wondering around in Wonderland. Alice is amazed by several peculiar encounters varying from rushing rabbits to repulsive royalty and still she only seeks understanding. Alice is eager to learn.

Struggling with altering rules she copes with continuous adjustments to her environment filled with strange irrational laws and authorities. Bizarre creatures such as an overstressed white rabbit represent the insane pressures we deal with in our daily society (Truijens, 2008). Schedules, appointments and accountability for every moment of our life are caused by governmental regulations that transforms multi-tasking into multi pressure (Commissie Leraren, 2007). Another similar aspect of Alice is shown in the way she constantly changes, sometimes growing enormously and yet at other moments suddenly shrinking. Not only her physical proportions change, in Wonderland she realizes even her personality and perceptions of knowledge change rapidly. Not everyone appreciates smart thinking. When the queen of hearts demands to obey nothing other than her majesty's rules Alice, in fear of losing her head proves to be wise enough to feign. Had she not been able to fit in with the regulations it would have been off with her head. In education, similar to Alice rising above the crowd and confronting authoritive managements with unforeseen ideas is also frequently unappreciated and considered unacceptable (AOB, 2007). Change every so often requires a need to adjust and not everyone will be pleased with such alterations. In the story Alice realises Wonderland is not an escape from all of our real world limitations even Wonderland is not perfect. Odd reasoning is another challenge for Alice, having to come across bizarre judgment and downright nonsense. Teachers' having to cope with inappropriate policymaking is also one of the main reasons why young Dutch educators decide to quit their teaching jobs (AOB, 2007). Exploring Wonderland Alice understands she has two options; whether to accept the orders of the reign meaning she fails to fight for her own ideological beliefs or facing her personal fears by literally fighting for freedom of expression and creating opportunities for all beings in Wonderland. Eventually she chooses to face her fears step by step mastering each challenge. In a more recent version of the book a colossal monster named the Jabberwocky represents the unification of Alice her ultimate fears. She continues towards her final battle which is slaying the Jabberwocky (Carroll, 2010). An interpretation of the word Jabberwocky defined by the Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary as meaningless nonsense represents Alice her ultimate opponent. Ironically however this fictional adventure may differ from our ontological perspectives similar parallels are clearly visible in several schools within the contemporary Dutch education system. The five foremost motivational factors for educators to leave education today involve high working pressures, low salaries, poor career opportunities, distressing educational policies and bad management (AOB, 2007).

Educators unlike Alice are nowadays expected to slay several Jabberwockies while overcoming their present day situation. Another contrast to Alice is that even woken up educative responsibilities of teachers continue and children need to be educated. This seems a highly contradictive and almost impossible situation. Educators who are passionate enough to remain teaching experience these barriers destined to be overcome and head on conquered.

Historical context

Understanding professionalism

Professionalism implicates a distinctive meaning that is not easy to classify in one single definition. The term professionalism furthermore involves various acknowledgements to several individuals. Perhaps it would be futile to restrain a literal demarcation. However, according to the Oxford English dictionary professionalism also sustains essentially acknowledged characteristics such as competence and skill expected from a professional. In educational perspective professionalism is additionally described as the skills, knowledge and values of teachers (Furlong et al., 2000) alike Hoyle & John's categories of knowledge, autonomy and responsibility (1995). In order to cope with complex and unpredictable shifting situations professionals require developing and utilizing educational knowledge which explains an additional need for autonomy (Ibid.). On the other hand education over the years has become progressively more politicized (Apple, 2000). Professionalism thus contains a diversity of dimensions that eventually like Alice came across several historical changes. In the past there have been transformations in perceptions of professionalism; paradigm shifts. The traditional meaning of professionalism within an occupational group having a valid specialized body of developing knowledge contained criteria such as constructive and intelligent appliance (Hoyle and John 1995: 46).

Source: http://www.geneaknowhow.net

Today the meaning of professionalism in teaching has not only shifted towards a newly reconstructed understanding of educational professionalism it has also experienced a rigorous expansion to more involving professionalism. Literally more involving that is (de Kok, 2008).

The productivity level of Dutch educators increases instantly. Instead of focusing on possibilities to increase the effective content and quality of education recent political debates emphasize only the workforce productivity of employees. Because of this focus-narrowing; the discussion shifts away from the primary process of education towards an even more demanding situation for educators (Dresscher, 2010). Education these days has been, first and foremost, a tool to become the subject of change, as opposed to being the object of change. Accordingly our education system has always been and still is to a great extent subjected to the economic and political changes of our time (Liasidou, 2008). According to the chairman of the Dutch teachers union AOB funding for educational purposes is often reinterpreted and wrongly submitted to reserves, unnecessary bureaucracy and excessively large salaries for management (Dresscher, 2010). The effective quality of education is considered of primary importance yet there is little attention spent contributing towards its effectiveness (Onderwijsraad, 2009). I believe this is because of the differing perspective funding authorities are having on the subject of the significance of education. Instead of an investment education is often regarded as an extremely large cost consuming component coming out of the national budget. According to the Education Council of the Netherlands our society has high expectations of the Dutch education system, yet the yield it provides does not seem able to keep pace with these expectations. As a result these unsurprising outcomes necessitate an intensification of the effectivity of education. However at this point there is no empirical evidence whatsoever available on how education can be made more effective (Ibid).

Furthermore, the Dutch Education Council has looked into several national concerns regarding education such as bureaucracy, educational quality, cost-awareness and negativity in the educational culture and has come up with a number of ways to improve the educational awareness of effectivity without using any additional resources.

These numerous so called solutions to upgrade educational effectivity are varying educational alternatives such as larger groups of pupils, taught by more teachers with varying functions; professional staffing and human resource management expected to focus on effective functioning; enhanced peer tutoring and cooperative learning; e-learning and ICT in teaching in connection with additional benchmarking (Onderwijsraad, 2009).

Merit pay; effective or productive?

The Dutch Central Planning bureau clearly agrees on this. Their prospects to improve the education system are just as striking. They find teachers and schools in the future should mainly be rewarded trough merit pay. The Central Planning bureau considers this to be the most appropriate solution towards improvement of our national education level which should eventually contribute towards a consequential increase of our welfare and well being (CPB, 2004).

On the other hand what are the advantages and disadvantages for implementing these new supposedly cost saving strategies? One of the advantages is that the introduction of merit pay could provide a new found stimulating way to improve teacher and student learning (Lambert, 2009). Research findings in the United States of America showed that merit pay produces gains in student performance on standardized tests and a more positive work environment for teachers. However, teachers did reveal dissatisfaction with the status quo and a desire to be rewarded fairly for their work (Barnett et al, 2007). Introducing merit pay could also turn out to be a constructive approach to provide educators encouragement to work harder (Lewis, n.d.). The possibility of additional earnings would induce willing teachers to work more intensely which would most expectantly translate into smarter teaching and produce better results for students (Mugerwa & Laferriere, 2010). Furthermore collaboration and support will become more efficient and concentrated trough performance-based awards (Slotnik, 2009: Lavy, 2007). A number of inquiries came across notifications that taking part in merit pay plans in the usual course of events, to some extent had an encouraging effect on faculty performance levels on the subject matters of teaching, research and assistance (Terpstra & Honoree, 2009). Rewarding results has become a important focal point within our capitalist system not only because capital improvement on itself stimulates teachers other than for the reason that it captures and maintains a significant amount of attention (Lewis, n.d.: Slotnik, 2009). In addition merit pay strategies will also help recruit teachers in times of shortages and hold on to the nations most intelligent and leading minds (Lewis, n.d.). Performance-based income compensation may also add to endorsement in favour of public education from governmental and public perspectives creating reforming possibilities towards turning around the education sector's poor reputation (Lavy, 2007:17, 90). In conclusion the relevant benefits of merit payment for teachers should thus also be taken into account towards;

a possibility to stimulate learning improvements

encouraging educators to work harder

remaining an attractive encouragement in stimulating education

creating reforming education possibilities

On the other hand the apprehensions of introducing merit pay for schools in the Netherlands in all probability might also involve a quantity of negative consequences such as a decreasing educational quality. Due to rewarding productivity educator's attention could very likely involve a shift towards expanding constructive effectiveness instead of increasing and most importantly improving enriching qualities within our total education system. Besides changing the education system by introducing merit pay there will in all probability be a social shift within schools as well. This seems rather unfair to socially challenged schools in comparison to other better-off educational facilities. Educators employed within underprivileged schools with minimal performance scores are very likely indulged to work harder in order to keep up (Rothstein, 2000). Merit pay not only seems to be causing an unfair policy as well as a rivalry between educators themselves and their educational institutions which most likely will decrease collaboration and cooperation within our entire education system. In addition the performance management system of merit pay is not a very clear system due to its inequitable competitive structure and thus troublesome to verify or measure (Lavy, 2007). How could it truly become possible to develop a generalized measurement tool that objectively indicates improvements of all educators by means of valuing test scores and other results of former and present students? If merit pay will be introduced it will transform the format of the entire educational curriculum into a priority based system as educators will consider only the tested subjects important and might very likely downgrade the other subjects. Being regarded as less significant certain courses could be restricted or even cease to exist. As a result disadvantaged students and educators will experience more difficulties in order to create opportunities to make all of their talents count. Moreover this will constrain a freedom of educational choice (Toren & Boies, 2005) and create besides disproportionate and one-sided profit based encouragements no more than quantitative performance opportunities (Viller, 2009). Stimulating educators financially through merit payments could encourage them to become quantitatively creative in order to reach certain payment quotas. This might result into jeopardizing the intrinsic educational quality. What is more, trough pressuring teachers to do better students will experience more pressure from their teachers to get improved results. If results only matter what is to say about the teaching quality? High level students will be encouraged to complete extra tests and others may perhaps be discouraged by their own educators to take tests in order to keep up the high standards (Toren & Boies, 2005).

Besides pressuring educators to provide better results the introduction of merit pay means adding even more working pressure towards all educators. Excessive working pressure experienced by educators is the main reason why teachers; especially those who are new to the job decide to leave (AOB, 2007).

A summary of aforementioned shows the other possible consequences of introducing merit pay in education which could thus also cause:

a solely expanding productivity which will result into decreasing quality of education

the creation of a socially unfair system

stimulation of a rivalry that comes along with reducing educative cooperation

difficulties to verify or measure

a quantified priority based school system

sponsoring quantity instead of quality which might encourage the use of dishonest methods

expansion of working pressure resulting in more (young) educators leaving

Political context

The proposed Performance Management system enabling teachers to be awarded by means of merit pay contains as above mentioned clear arguments to underpin a variety of perspectives. Providing financial support in favour of educational improvements through merit pay has been a questionable subject matter for all educators and especially educational professionals. This seemingly timeless issue remains a critical and arguable discussion area. For instance the difficulty whether or not we should introduce merit pay for educators at this moment has become one of our most important national and in addition international educational concerns. Due to globalization we do not only need to consider educational benefits on a national level, these days by creating resourceful opportunities we are able to gain knowledge from helpful international and professional perspectives as well. However, reflective practitioners, education professionals and national in addition to international governments could consider taking a look at similar situations in other countries of whom we are also able to learn from. This brings us back to the daily and increasingly complex challenges and dilemmas professionals all over the world are facing at the moment.

In the Netherlands a new right wing government was very recently chosen. Their main concern is our financially instable situation. There is a new need for reflexivity in education. How we go about this reflexivity is another aspect left for the educational and political professional to explore. The political perspectives regarding education before election-day in 2010 were very clear.

Seven out of eleven parties of the House of Commons had promised the educational sector more funding. The four parties that did plan to cut in the educational budget minimized the damage. Ever since 2009 there has been certain consensus regarding the need to invest and look after the quality of our education. When it became clear how large the hole in the state budget was administrative working groups were given the task to sum up all available options in order to save 20%. Regarding education a unanimous motion was accepted beforehand that expressed the ambition of The Netherlands to become one of the top five education counties in the world. In this time of recession education therefore became an exception (Dirks, 2010).

Today elections point out the probable right-wing government has made plans to invest in the future of our education. The largest chosen party has clearly expressed their focal points on education being:

the stimulation of young talent in varying approaches within schools

compulsory language tests for toddlers

broad facilitated schools with day-care and after school centres

upgrading the knowledge level on language and mathematics

responsibility for schools to keep students in school and interconnect with parents

compulsory education until reaching the age of 23

improving career opportunities for teachers through merit pay

time rewarding investments for professional development of teachers

decreasing management and bureaucracy

higher education and universities should become more ambitious

innovative and international cooperative research should be stimulated

more varying regional and national constructions, not just one school perspective

(VVD, 2010)

According to our nations leading party teachers should be given back a chance to concentrate mainly on their primary task of teaching. Educators first and foremost ought to be knowledge and culture transferors. However, along the line teachers should also be guides, coaches, trustees, designers and developers of their own lessons, trainers, organizers, contacts for parents, companies, school management, cultural partners, sport associations etc. an important, challenging, interesting, appreciated and well paid job, for which the teacher has also followed a demanding training. A reduced amount of academics actually teach in front of classes. After a few years young talented educators often trade a career in teaching for other business oriented job opportunities with more commercial minded compensation profiles. Their initiatives seem to be unlike in education visible, noticed and appreciated more by putting stimulating possibilities in perspective. The answer to this need to stimulate educators as well within their own profession according to the VVD lies in the introduction of; merit pay (AOB, 2010). The VVD states that differences between starting or experienced and promoted teachers with multiple tasks should become more clearly visible by implementing structural recognition procedures. Our current system in which the differences between start and exit levels of teacher salaries are negligible is insufficient. Earnings should be able to diverge much more (VVD, 2010). On the other hand the concept of multiple tasks does seem to contradict the focal point to give teachers back their primary task to educate. It seems impossible for educators to solely concentrate on teaching again. Having to work out several inevitable tasks in order to create any promotional chances would still mean taking up multiple other tasks instead of an enhanced focus on improving teaching itself. There does not seem to be a clear answer to issues such as the content of structural recognition procedures between teachers without having to reduce teaching in order to take up other supplementary and financially supportive tasks. The VVD has expressed a governmental requirement to concentrate on the urge and need to see to it that management layers will be reduced in proportion in favour of professionalizing teacher development positions.

The problem with teacher appraisal and its forthcoming income differentiation however, started due to the misinterpretation of schools. The VVD ignores the special character of education. Schools are often referred to as comparable to companies and therefore considered to function in a similar system. Yet skilful teachers after a few years will already teach in a competent and high-quality manner leaving very few visible improvement options. Changes should be created to financially stimulate these teachers in order to continue their professional development within teaching instead of adding several other tasks as well as remaining to earn a similar income for years. The problem again arises regarding the measurement of good teaching. Selecting measurable and objective criteria that apply to all teachers should also prevent subjective interpretations. A good way of teaching furthermore indicates students should have been educationally improved. We now return to the issue what it means to educationally improve or learn. Learning is a process and its definition was originally retrieved from coming to control of. The primary focus should therefore concentrate on the process and not specifically on results (Klasse voor Leerkrachten, 1999:49-53).

Learning can not be considered the same as knowing or gaining knowledge (Schön, 1983; Kolb, 1984). In my opinion besides gaining implicit knowledge we also need to take into consideration skilled competences (Gardner, 1996) and tacit knowledge (Polanyi, 1966). The problem is that teaching is also about quality and not solely concerns the quantity of education. How we will be able to measure this quality objectively and on a national level is not yet determined.

The relationship between the state, society and the education professions

Embodying the source of satisfactory achievements, education in the Netherlands is globally known to keep up an exceptionally high quality level. The Dutch government hopes to carry on and develop our existing and prominent place within the international education standards (OC &W, 2008). At this moment in time as mentioned before, the quality and efficiency of our national education system are both involved in very complicated circumstances. Our national government should make use of all efforts towards developing improving and professionalizing our education. Useful education necessitates professional and committed educators creating possibilities for all of their pupils in order to reach their full potential. Enquiries have shown that enhancing educational quality could be substantially beneficial in relation to these learning accomplishments (Angrist & Lavy, 2001; Rivkin et al., 2005). Educators willing to contribute to our system by developing their students' potential and stimulating their competences create a solid base for continuing their own personal development opportunities as well as their student's. All of these systematic educational developments operate as a collective within our society. For that reason it is clearly understandable why we should increase and renew our methods continually to attract innovative and skilled new teachers. We must also be alert to hang on to our present competent educators not only because in the near future The Netherlands will be drawn against a deficiency of capable educators. Also we need experienced teachers to upgrade and professionalize the complete education system (OC &W, 2008).

Educational development; professionals in continuous change

As a result to the collective need to reinforce education the Dutch government has now promised to implement 2.5 billion euros in order to stimulate and inspire potential educators again and to attract and maintain professionals in the field of education (AOB, 2010). Governing school boards receive extra funding of the ministry of education, culture and science in order to be able to grant teachers promotion and reward advanced educators, with associated functions. With the purpose to create attractive opportunities for teaching professionals recently a new developed career prospect system was introduced entitled de functiemix. Consequently more teachers should be placed in higher salary scales. This operation is referred to as the strengthening of the functiemix. This function-mix provides educators who spent at least sixty percent of their profession on teaching within primary-, secondary-, special- or senior secondary vocational education schools an opportunity to apply for a salary scale upgrade. Both per sector and at institution level aims have been agreed for the function mix in 2011. When these goals are obtained, a second stage of additional compensation becomes available. Subsequently the reimbursement will carry on up to 2014 when the developments again will be examined. If in 2011 the provisional aims have not been reached, the entire financial plan then will be restricted to no further additional financing other than the sum which they have effectively spent on the function mix (Rijksoverheid, 2010).

As an example for secondary schools this will indicate that within each separate secondary school the management, school board and participation council themselves are entitled to create their own promotion plan. Accordingly teachers will be given the opportunity to decide for themselves whether or not to participate by means of a selective process in order to fulfil the limited number of internal application possibilities towards promotion. The problem is most secondary schools require potential applicants to create a portfolio in order to collect prove of their professional enhancement. Educators who already lack the time to properly prepare their own teaching due to their numerous other compulsory tasks are also short of time to create these portfolios. As a lot of driven teachers prefer to spend their scarce time on preparation of their lessons there will hardly be any time left to even write an internal application letter let alone create a professional portfolio.

Increasingly complex challenges

How we learn from globalization

The Dutch government believes internationalization in the Dutch education structure is important. Nevertheless some policies seem rather contradictory (Knoops-Janssen, 2008).

On the one hand it seems to matter that Dutch people abroad remain Dutch, whereas on the other hand the Dutch in the Netherlands are stimulated to internationalize more.

European context

The Dutch government strives for an internalized education. The Netherlands has come to agreements with the EU partners. In the higher, university and middle profession education a number of actions has already been carried out, such as the introduction of professional qualifications within a bachelor master (BaMa) system. Efforts have also been made towards harmonisation of diplomas and certificates within the European Union. Furthermore the government agreed to insert a compulsory minimum of two strange languages in the national curriculum by 2010 for all forms of primary and secondary education. For this reason the Ministry of Education, Culture and Science asked the European platform to continue to stimulate the internalisation of education within Dutch primary and secondary schools. More and more Dutch realise the need for internationalization. The number of bilingual schools and other international educational institutions are growing steadily. The European platform stimulates and subsidises exchange programmes and bilingual education.

Still the Dutch government experiences also much refusal to go along with globalisation.

For instance there could be an uncommonly conflicting cultural and international context for professional practice in education. A certain part of the Dutch population seems frightened to lose the Dutch language and culture. Subsequently the developments in The Netherlands become far more behind compared to other European countries. Due to these actions Dutch education unnecessarily loses a lot of talent and expertise (Oonk, 2006). In harmony with this strategy the European Union pursues a distant policy in the field of education: in essence education remains a national matter. The education structures of the European countries sometimes have strong nonconforming differences. For this reason it seems important that the European Union wants to promote the cooperation between State members and help other associate countries where necessary.

Being an international professional

Integrate theoretical insights within understanding practice-based situations and dilemmas

how we define ourselves as an expert in one highly specialized area

Do I consider myself to be an international professional'?

professional learning

education and training, including workplace learning

In what ways, if any, does the concept of 'professionalism' help you make sense of what you do?

How do you see your own professionalism changing?

What do I consider to be the main opportunities, challenges and constraints of being a professional?

How do I see my professionalism changing?

Including inter-professional working

standards and development

Government and teachers clashed over meanings of professionalism.

Professionalism and the place of leadership and management

Professional uncertainty changes in educational practice its environment and the implications for the role and abilities of professionals in dealing with the moral and practical uncertainty that results from these changes.

used to explore issues of knowledge, authority, power and ethics

Social and cultural situatedness for professional ways of being, acting and knowing

Values, assumptions and emotions involved in practice

Terugblik!!!!! Conclusies…. Work should be submitted as soon as it is ready

Monday 14 June and certainly by 1700h UK time (1800h Netherlands time) on Friday 18 June by emailing the assignment and cover sheet to both Jacqueline and I.

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Lewis Carroll

(from Through the Looking-Glass and What Alice Found There, 1872)

`Twas brillig, and the slithy toves

  Did gyre and gimble in the wabe:

All mimsy were the borogoves,

  And the mome raths outgrabe.

"Beware the Jabberwock, my son!

  The jaws that bite, the claws that catch!

Beware the Jubjub bird, and shun

  The frumious Bandersnatch!"

He took his vorpal sword in hand:

  Long time the manxome foe he sought --

So rested he by the Tumtum tree,

  And stood awhile in thought.

And, as in uffish thought he stood,

  The Jabberwock, with eyes of flame,

Came whiffling through the tulgey wood,

  And burbled as it came!

One, two! One, two! And through and through

  The vorpal blade went snicker-snack!

He left it dead, and with its head

  He went galumphing back.

"And, has thou slain the Jabberwock?

  Come to my arms, my beamish boy!

O frabjous day! Callooh! Callay!'

  He chortled in his joy.

`Twas brillig, and the slithy toves

  Did gyre and gimble in the wabe;

All mimsy were the borogoves,

  And the mome raths outgrabe.

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